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ent race of Indians. Were it necessary, numerous other facts might be adduced to prove that the mounds are no other than the tombs of their great men.

"Mammoth bones are said to have been found on the banks of the Osage, but their precise locality is not known. It is however certain that they have been found both on the Merrimac and near the waters of the Osage. Mr. Bradbury observes, 'General Clark showed me a tooth brought from the interior; it was a grinder, and belonged to the animal mentioned by Cuvier, and called by him mastadonte, avec dents carrés.””—[Dr. Beck's Gazetteer.]

Osage, a town on the Osage river, near the centre of Benton county.

Owens' Station, a settlement in St. Louis county, near St. Ferdinand, and on one of the roads from St. Louis to St. Charles beyond it westwardly. This was formerly the location of a stockade fort for defence against the Indians.

Palmyra, the seat of justice for Marion county, and the place where the land-office of the northeast district of Missouri is kept.

Salt fork of Lamine river runs through Saline county, and empties into Black Water, one of the principal branches of Lamine, a little above its junction with Lamine, and a few miles below Jonesborough. Salt fork is an excellent mill-stream. There are several salt-springs along its banks, and, when this stream is low, the water is strongly impregnated with salt.

Pine Fork (Big and Little), branches of the Gasconade, emptying in on the right side.

Pinckney, a post-town of Warren county, situate on an alluvial bottom of the Missouri, near this river. This town is about fifty-five miles above St. Charles.

Plattin Creek empties into the Mississippi seven or eight miles below Herculaneum, Jefferson county.

Portage des Sioux, a village of St. Charles county, settled, and still inhabited principally, by the French. It is situate on the Mississippi, about five miles below the confluence of Illinois with this river. Portage des Sioux derived its name from the



following circumstance :-the Sioux and a tribe of the Missouris being at war, a party of the former descended the Mississippi on a pillaging expedition. The Missouris were apprized of their approach, and ambushed themselves at the mouth of the Missouri in considerable numbers, intending to take their enemies by surprise. The Sioux, being more cunning, instead of descending to the mouth of Missouri, landed at the portage, took their canoes on their backs, and crossed over to the Missouri several miles above. By this means they accomplished the object of their expedition, and returned with their spoil undiscovered; during all which time the Missouris were anxiously waiting for them at the mouth of Missouri."-[Dr. Beck.]

Potosi, a post-town, and seat of justice of Washington county, is situated on a beautiful branch of Big river. With Mine à Breton, which was an old settlement in the immediate vicinity, it may consist of eighty buildings, including a courthouse, a jail, and an academy. When the county of Washington was separated from Ste. Genevieve, a tract of land of forty acres was laid off for the county-seat, to which the above name was given. This lies on a handsome eminence, a little north of the principal rivers. It is pleasantly situated in the centre of the mining districts, and surrounded by several bodies of good farming-land. Here are several stores, distilleries, and flourmills, a saw-mill, and several lead-furnaces."-[Schoolcraft.]

This description was written many years ago, when Potosi was in its infancy. The town has been improving steadily since. The railroad will give it additional consequence, and greatly extend its business operations. Potosi is in latitude 37° 55′ north, sixty-five miles southwest of St. Louis, and forty-five west of Ste. Genevieve.

Richwood Settlement is made in a large tract of first-rate land, in the northern part of Washington county, near the line of Jefferson county.

“Rivière des Pères (River of the Fathers), a small stream of St. Louis county, runs a southeasterly course, and empties into the Mississippi below the village of Carondelet. Its banks are generally timbered and very fertile; in some places level, in others

gently undulating. The settlements on this stream were commenced at an early period by the Jesuits, from which circumstance it received its name. Six miles west of St. Louis, a sulphur-spring makes its appearance in the bed of this stream, opposite to a high bank, which probably contains iron ore. The water has the taste and smell of sulphurated hydrogen. It is slightly cathartic, and powerfully sudorific. It frequently de termines to the skin in such a manner as to produce an eruption over the whole body. To certain valetudinarians it may be serviceable, particularly those affected with complaints of the liver. A year or two since, a Roman coin of a very rare kind was found on the banks of the Rivière des Pères by an Indian, and presented to Governor Clark. Whether this circumstance throws any light upon the ancient history of this country, is extremely doubtful. It is, however, in itself a curiosity, worthy of a detailed description."-[Beck's Gazetteer.]

An Indian of the Shawnee nation, who had been encamped on Rivière des Pères, and who could speak imperfectly the English language, and who was exhibiting, in presence of the compiler, some mineral specimens at St. Louis, made a simple remark that should be remembered. There were several gentlemen of character present, and among the number a political aspirant, who was enacting the agreeable on all occasions. The politician observed to the Indian, that he "had written his great Father to persuade him to have the mineral lands of the Shawnees preserved for them." The Indian stared, as if he either comprehended the remark imperfectly, or he was incredulous. The candidate for popular favour reiterated the intelligence in clearer language. George, understand me ! I have written down a talk, and sent a runner with it to our great Father, the president; I have told him we must save the mineral lands of the Shawnees for you; the earth where you dig lead to make your bullets-we must save these lands for you, George! do you understand me ?" The red man nodded his head equivocally. "Yes, me guess, maybe you shave him for yourself! kill some deer-Indian too! heap!"

Roche Percée Creek, a considerable mill-stream of Boone


county. It derives its name from a rock near its mouth, called by the French Roche Percée-perforated, or split rock.

Round Bend Creeks, two small streams meandering through the southwestern part of Chariton county, and emptying into the Missouri on the left side, near each other, about five miles below the mouth of Grand river. "Between them is a prairie, in which once stood the ancient village of the Missouris. Of this village there remains no vestige, nor is there any thing to recall this great and numerous nation, except a feeble remnant of about thirty families. They were driven from their original seats by the invasion of the Sacs and other Indians of the Mississippi, who destroyed at this village 200 of them, and they sought refuge near the Little Osage, on the other side of the river. The encroachment of the same enemies forced, about thirty years since, both these nations from the banks of the Missouri. A few retired with the Osages, and the remainder found an asylum on the river Platte, among the Ottoes, who are themselves declining. Opposite the plain there was an island and a French fort; but there is now no appearance of either, the successive inundations having probably washed them away; as the Willow Island, which is in the situation described by Du Pratz, is small, and of recent formation."

Saline Creek, a small stream that empties into the Mississippi near the southeast corner of Ste. Genevieve county. A branch of this stream rises in Perry county. Salt-springs are numerous on its banks, and salt has been made there.

Petit Saline, a stream in Cooper county, running almost parallel with the Missouri, five miles south of Booneville. There are several grist and saw mills on this stream.

Salt river (Rivière au Sel, French-Oa-haha, Indian), a large stream that rises beyond the northern boundary of Missouri, and runs through Shelby, Monroe, Ralls, and Pike, and empties into the Mississippi in the latter county.

Saverton, the town where the landing and shipment are done for Ralls county. The site is high and healthy.

South river, a small stream of Ralls county, generally called South Two Rivers.


Spring river rises in the mountains which traverse the southern part of the state, runs an easterly course, and falls into the Big Black river. According to Schoolcraft, large quantities of black oxyde of manganese are found between this stream and Eleven Point, another branch of Black river.

St. Andrew's Creek, a small stream of St. Louis county. It falls into the Missouri above Bonhomme Creek.

St. Charles, a peculiarly flourishing town, on the left bank of Missouri, about twenty miles from its confluence with the Mississippi, and the same distance from St. Louis.

St. Ferdinand Creek runs through the settlement of that name in St. Louis county.

"St. François river rises with Big river and Fourche à Courtois in the broken lands in the south part of Washington and St. François counties, and joins the Mississippi 500 miles below, about seventy-five miles above the mouth of White river. Its navigation is much obstructed with rafts, and the banks are in many places subject to inundation. At the head of this river is the most extensive body of iron ore in the western country. The La Motte mines are also on its tributaries. It affords in its course a proportion of excellent land, mixed with some that is rocky, and is bordered near its mouth with some that is swampy, low, and overflown; which, however, produces an immense quantity of cane."-[Schoolcraft.] In Breckenridge's views of Louisiana we find these appropriate remarks; as far as they extend, they are just.

"The St. François is a beautiful and limpid stream, passing through a charming country; but afterward, though increased in size by its junction with several other rivers, it flows with a slow and lazy current. It communicates with a number of lakes which lie between it and the Mississippi, formed by the streams which flow from the upland country, and lose themselves in the low grounds commencing at Cape Girardeau. This river receives several considerable streams, which rise between it and the Mississippi. The Pemisco has its source near the Big Prairie, eight or ten miles northwest of New Madrid. Generally, the St. François, in high water, overflows its banks on that side to a

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