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comprising within the limits of the tract taken in at one view about four townships of first-rate land. There may be in this tract of country some deficiency of timber, but the soil is exceedingly rich. There are only a few sections of land within Van Buren that are subject to entry, or that have been surveyed. The country was pronounced by the surveyors unfit for cultivation, and thus the settlers have no titles, metes, or bounds, except such as they may fix by common consent, or trace out with the exterior fences of their beautiful prairie-fields. There is likewise a good settlement around the residence of Colonel Arnet, the clerk of the circuit and county courts, and commandant of the militia of the county, who is located nearer the western boundary of the county and state, and on the waters of Middle Grand river.
Opposite this settlement, and beyond the boundary of the county and state, and on the waters of Middle Grand river, several tribes of emigrant Indians are located. These are the Peoras, Weas, and Piankashaws. The supplies of provisions and merchandise which these Indians require ensure to Van Buren county a profitable trade. Colonel Arnet's farm is about thirty-five miles south of Independence, the county-seat of Jackson. About two thirds of Van Buren is prairie. The timber of the county consists of oak, hickory, elm, linn, hackberry, walnut, and some sugar-tree. On Big Creek there is a singular grove of timber clustered together, consisting of post oak, black oak, black walnut, and black locust. This last is rarely found a native production anywhere in Missouri ; but experience has tested the feasibility of making plantations of this valuable timber anywhere in the prairies. The poorest prairie ridges are best suited to the chestnut, and it will be found a profitable pursuit to plant this timber in those prairies which are so extensive as to be considered desolate places. One of these prairies lies in the northern part of Van Buren, much of the soil of which is, however, very rich. Good springs abound in this county. Limestone and freestone are found in Van Buren, and there is likewise some indication of the existence of lead mineral and iron ore. The farming products of this county consist of corn, with occasional
patches of wheat. This is a good stock county, and cattle and hogs are now raised to a sufficient amount for domestic use. The population of the county is sparsely settled over territory sufficient for the occupation of a great number of emigrants, who may find in Van Buren the hospitality and civility universal in all new settlements. There are many valuable mill-sites in this county, all unoccupied. The territory south of Van Buren, and attached, has the constitutional limits prescribed, and will be erected into the county of Bates. Within the limits of Bates are the Marie des Cignes, the North Branch, Little Osage, Marmeta, and Cusha, which, after their junction, form the Osage river. On these several streams are many good mill-sites. On the Osage, within Bates, Gero's store and trading-house are located, about four miles below the Harmony mission. The Osage mission was established A. D. 1821, for the purpose of instructing the Osage Indians in Christianity, literature, and agriculture. Some advantage is already derived from the labours of the missionaries; and when a band of the Osages are met, almost always one of these mission pupils is found with them, who can speak the English and Osage languages, and thus enable the white and red man to communicate the ideas. This will often prevent collision, the consequence of misunderstanding. The mission school is to be removed into the Osage nation.
There is a good grindstone quarry in the vicinity of Harmony mission. [Query_Will there ever exist a class of men who will employ the material of this quarry to "grind the face of the poor ?"]
WARREN COUNTY was formed out of the surplus territory of Montgomery, in the year 1833. It is bounded on the south by the Missouri river, which separates it from Franklin county; on the east by St. Charles and Lincoln counties; on the north by Lincoln and Montgomery.counties, and on the west by Montgomery county.
Its extent on the Missouri river is about twenty-six miles, along which stretches a rich, heavily-timbered bottom, varying from one to five miles in width. On this bottom considerable settlements have been already made. Parallel with this alluvial tract is a range of rugged river-bluffs, filled with valuable stone, and covered with timber. These hills are supposed to contain a variety of minerals. In the northern part of the county are several handsome and fertile prairies, well settled, and through these the great Booneslick road passes. The upper branches of Cuivre and Peruque water the northern part of Warren. The principal part of Loutre Island is in this county, on and near which some of the largest tobacco-plantations are located. The western townships of the county are watered by Bear Creek and Massie's Creek, running into the Missouri, and on which are good tracts of land well settled. Farther east Smith's Creek, Charette and Tuque Creeks, drain a tract of fertile country. There is still much public land in Warren, and many good entries might be made at the minimum price of one dollar and à quarter per acre. There is in the county a large quantity of valuable freestone and limestone suitable for building, and timber sufficient for farming purposes. Some specimens of iron ore have been found in the bed of the Charette, and that metal is supposed to exist in large bodies in several situations within the county.
PINCKNEY is a small village on the Missouri river, opposite Griswold, and built on an alluvial bottom. A new town called BOSTON was laid out on Charette Creek for the seat of justice, and another site has since been selected for the same purpose on the Booneslick road; but it has not been finally settled where the public buildings of the county shall be located. The streams of Warren afford a number of situations for water-mills. The population consists principally of emigrants from the States of Kentucky and Virginia. In the eastern part of the county considerable settlements of intelligent, industrious Germans have been made within the last few years. These people are making the lands that had been considered steril very productive, by diligent attention to the proper mode of cultivation.
WASHINGTON COUNTY boundaries begin in the middle of Grand or Big river, opposite the mouth of Mineral Fork; thence in a northwestwardly direction to the northeast corner of Washington county, as established by the surveyors of the counties of Washington and Franklin; thence due west to the middle of the Merrimac river, and up the same to a point where the line between townships thirty-nine and forty crosses said river; thence due south to a point where the line between townships thirty-three and thirty-four north extended would intersect the same ; thence due east to the meridian line; thence due north three miles ; thence east to the middle of township thirty-four, in range three east; thence in a direct line to the southeast corner of township thirty-five north, range three east; thence north to the southwest corner of township thirty-six, range four east; thence east with the line between townships thirty-five and thirty-six to the southwest corner of section thirty-four, township thirty-six, range four west; thence north through the middle of range four east to the southwest corner of section fifteen, township thirty-eight, range four; thence to the middle of the main channel of Grand or Big river, at its nearest point; thence down said river, in the middle of the main channel thereof, to the beginning.
The resources of this county are so justly described in the annexed communications from Doctor James H. Relfe and John S. Brickey, Esq., that these are given entire, as descriptive of Washington county. The vast mineral resources of Washing. ton, as detailed by these gentlemen, may seem marvellously incredible ; but it is only necessary to be as well acquainted with them as the compiler is, to know that their integrity is of that ele. vated character which forbids the suspicion of misrepresentation, or even the semblance of hyperbole.
“ The valley of Bellevue, to which public attention has recently been attracted by the proceedings of the Internal Improve. ment Convention held at St. Louis in April, must be considered as the centre of the iron region of Missouri, affording productions of that mineral far surpassing, in quality and in quantity, any other portion of the globe now known. It is much to be regretted, that the few mineralogists who have visited our section of the state have examined it so superficially, and been content to report our productions of lead, and noticed only the iron to be found at one of the sources of the St. François river, generally called the Iron Mountain. That, to be sure, is a prodigy, and
always strikes the observer with astonishment. It is literally a mountain of magnetic iron, so pure in its quality as to yield from seventy to eighty per centum, under the ordinary process for converting ore into malleable iron. The elevation of this mountain
may be about three hundred and fifty feet above the surrounding plain, and the distance across its summit one and a half miles. It is situated in the niidst of the elevated region in which the St. François, Black, and one of the principal tributaries of the Merrimao river have their sources. For many miles in every direction from this mountain large quantities of iron ore are to be met with, and frequently plumbago, and what I think to be the sulphurate of zinc; but greater quantities, and of a more pure quality, are found in a southern and western direction. There is much variety in the iron ore of this region, from almost native iron to the red ochre. Occasionally masses are found in which a considerable portion of copper is blended, and, I should think, frequently so rich with copper as to justify a process for separation. Five miles south of the mountain is a magnificent pyramid of the micaceous oxyde of iron. It rises abruptly, at the head of the valley, to an elevation of between two hundred and fifty and three hundred feet ; its base is a mile and a half in circumference. This differs from any other of its species that I have ever seen. But little of it is to be found in plates or strata : it is in huge masses of many thousand tons weight. It has never been worked in our furnaces or forges ; but competent judges say it will yield eighty per cent. It is certainly the most beautiful specimen of ore I have seen. There is another quality of iron, which I believe is peculiar to this country, which may be called volcanie. It is found in consider. able quantities, and is more free from combination with other metals than any other ore we have. All these masses of rich iron which cover, perhaps, three townships of land, appear to have been bedded upon crystallized quartz, and, at some distant period, to have been forced from their original position, deep in the bowels of the earth. The original formations appear to have been broken up by some violent convulsion of nature. In this iron region nothing appears regular ; the primitive rocks are