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rie ploughs of approved construction in use; but the one most esteemed is the wheel-plough, to which six yokes of oxen are attached. This plough turns over a furrow of two feet diameter. The beam of the plough is passed through a mortise in the axle, and thus kept in place, without the hand of a ploughman, whose labour is saved. A single hand, a driver, is sufficient to finish two acres per day. The sod is neatly turned over in this man. ner, and not a blade of grass appears on the surface of the prai. rie after this agricultural CHARIOT has passed over the field. But, for the successful application of this plough, a fair surface should be sought, else it is liable to be justled out of place by the inequalities raised in the mining operations of the gopher, a mole of mammoth proportions. The farmers of Rives promise themselves, and with apparent reason, great facilities, when the Osage river is navigated to the extent of its boating capacity. The Gravois bar, believed to be the shoalest point between the town of Osage and the mouth of the Osage river, has had, during the months of March, April, May, and June, 1836, five feet water
The timber of this county, the oak and walnut, consists of trees of great altitude, growing to the extent of fifty and sixty feet, clear of limbs or other defects.
There are three good mill-streams in this county, viz., Grand river, Big Creek, and Thibaut (pronounced Tebo), upon each of which there are several sites for mills. In that portion of the unorganized territory attached to Rives, which it is in contemplation to erect into a county, with the respectable name of St. Clan to designate it, there is the Sac river, and the Cedar, a branch of it, both tributaries of Osage river, and excellent large mill-streams. On Sac river there is a good mill in operation, and materials are in preparation for another on Cedar. This last stream has many good sites, with flat rock in the bottom of the river. Clear Creek, another tributary, direct of the Osage, runs into it in St. Clair district; and this, too, is a good mill-stream. There is a mercantile house at the confluence of the Osage and the Sac rivers, and another within the district. The rich lands, the good timber, and the clear and valuable streams, invite emigrants to settle on the unoccupied tracts of land, an infinite number of which remain in St. Clair.
St. CHARLES County is situated in the point formed by the confluence of the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. It is bounded south by the Missouri ; east and northeast by the Mississippi ; north by Cuivre and Big Creek, which separate it from Lincoln ; and west by the fifth principal meridian, which separates it from Warren county.
St. Charles county formerly comprehended all the country between the Missouri and Mississippi, stretching to an indefinite extent to the north and west; but, by the formation of new counties, has been reduced to its present moderate limits. The shape of the county is that of an irregular wedge, being broad at the west, and gradually diminishing in breadth, until it terminates in a point at the confluence of the rivers. The county is about fifty miles long, and its greatest breadth is about twenty. The long point or tongue of land, for twenty miles above the mouth of the Missouri, is entirely alluvial, and from two to ten miles wide. The highlands terminate at a point three miles below the town of St. Charles, in a most beautiful and romantic pile of naked bluffs, called the “ Mamelles.". Here the line of bluffs on the Mississippi meets the line of bluffs on the Missouri, and it is ev. ident that at this point these two mighty rivers once united their waters; but by the long-continued deposites of alluvial soil, a rich peninsula has been formed, and each river has been driven to the opposite bluff; the Missouri to the Charbonnier bluff in St. Louis county, and the Mississippi to the base of the lofty bluffs in Illinois ; and one of the richest portions of bottom-lands that exists has been formed between them. This peninsula is partly prairie and partly heavily timbered, and through the centre of it runs the former bed of the two rivers, now forming a long crooked lake, called the Marais Croche. From the “ Mamelles" a line of rugged bluffs extends up the Missouri through the county, sometimes approaching close to the river, but generally leaving a very fertile, heavily-timbered bottom of from one to four miles in width. A similar range of bluffs extends up the Mississippi, leaving a wide rich bottom, principally prairie, parts of
which are overflown at high water. The central part of the county lies between these ranges of bluffs, and is alternately hilly, rolling, and level, having about equal portions of timbered land and prairie, intersected with creeks, and containing a large number of very fine springs. The Cuivre, Big Creek, M.Coy's Creek, Dardenne, and Femme Osage Creek, all pass through this county for a considerable distance, and furnish abundance of water for stock, and a number of mill-sites. The land is in many places first rate, in others second rate, and in many places poor ridges are to be found extending for some distance. Owing to the fact, that the leading roads through the county pass along these ridges, many persons have come to the very erroneous conclusion that St. Charles is a poor county. The soil in the point and upon the river-bottoms is of the richest possible description, and the uplands are of good quality, embracing a large quantity of soil admirably adapted to the cultivation of wheat, corn, hemp, and tobacco, and most other crops that will grow in this climate. The county may be said to enjoy as good health as other parts of the western country, and its diseases are those common to other parts of Missouri.
St. Charles county is generally based on a limestone formation. Limestone for building purposes abounds in all parts of the county ; 'and near the town of St. Charles, and at various other places in the county, sandstone, suitable for cutting, has been found in large quantities, and advantageously worked. Excellent specimens of heavy iron ore have been found in several different parts of the county, but it is not known to what extent it exists. Those who have the best opportunities of knowing believe that iron, and perhaps other minerals, will be found abundantly in the bluffs in this county. Good stone coal is found in large quantities, and has been used to a considerable extent in and about the town of St. Charles. In digging wells in the town, the workmen have in some places passed through valuable strata of coal. Mines of coal have also been worked at different places, from one to three miles west and southwest from the town, and no doubt exists but that there are inexhaustible quantities of that useful article in the vicinity. Large quantities of it are also found in the Charbonnier bluffs, on the St. Louis side of the river, three miles below the town of St. Charles, and also in the Illinois bluffs, opposite to the Mississippi bottoms, in this county. In the Charbonnier bluffs is also found a quantity of iron ore, which will probably be very valuable in future. Potters' clay has been found of good quality in the county, and is worked to a limited extent. It is said that there are quarries of marble in some parts of the county ; but as they have never been worked, no account can be given of the quantity or the quality thereof. Considerable quantities of good Spanish brown have formerly been prepared in the county. There are a number of tolerably good mill-sites on various creeks of the county, and there are now about five water-mills in St. Charles county. There is a very extensive steam Aouring-mill in St. Charles; also a steam saw-mill. . A steam saw-mill has also been built in the point opposite to Alton. A number of other steam saw-mills might be advantageously erected. The horsemills in the county are beginning to get into disuse. Several distilleries are still in operation in St. Charles. There are also a number of tanneries. Some tobacco is manufactured ; and large quantities of excellent cheese are made for market. Corn, wheat, tobacco, bacon, and live stock are the principal productions of the county. There are many fine orchards, and much good cider is made annually.
The county is divided into five civil townships, named Portage des Sioux, St. Charles, Cuivre, Dardenne, and Femme Osage. There have been several towns laid out, but most of them have not yet commenced growing. The principal are St. Charles, the county-seat, and Portage des Sioux, on the Mississippi. There have been four towns laid off on the Missouri, named Missouritown, Eaton, Mount Pleasant, and Dortmund.
ST. CHARLES is, perhaps, the second town in the state in size and population. Its situation is high, handsome, healthy, and eligible for commercial purposes. It is upon the first point of firm land on the Missouri above its mouth, and has a beautiful rocky shore. The alluvial land commences at the lower end of the town. The town is laid off in five streets, parallel with the a direct line to the southeast corner of section twenty-three, in range six, township thirty-eight; thence on a direct line to the southeast corner of township thirty-nine, range five; thence on a direct line to the southwest corner of section fifteen, in
range four, township thirty-eight; thence in a direct line to the southwest corner of section thirty-four, in range four, township thirtysix; thence to the southwest corner of township thirty-six, range four ; thence due south to the southeast corner of township thirty-five north, range three east; thence south fortyfive degrees west to the middle of township thirty-four; thence west fifteen miles to the fifth principal meridian ; thence south to the line between townships thirty-three and thirty-four ; thence east with said line to the line between ranges three and four; thence north three miles to the northwest corner of Madison county; thence due east with the north boundary-line of Madison county to the southwest corner of section fifteen, in range eight, township thirty-four; thence in a direct line to the beginning."
A considerable part of that wonder in the mineral wealth of Missouri, the Iron Mountain, lies in this county. St. François county contains much beautiful and very fertile farming land, and it is situated near enough to the Mississippi for shipment of its farming produce. The distance from Farmington to the river is about thirty miles, and to St. Louis it is seventy miles. The water-power within this county is greater in proportion to the extent of territory than that of almost any other section of the state. Big river, which rises in Washington, and makes a deep turn in St. François, has on it mills and mill-sites. On the Terre Beau, a branch of Big river, there is a saw-mill in the midst of a pine forest. On Flat river, another considerable branch of Big river, several good mill-sites have been discovered. The sources of St. François river are in this county, and the waters of Establishment river, emptying into the Mississippi in the upper end of Ste. Genevieve county, likewise rise in St. François. The farmers of this county raise a surplus of wheat and corn; and they likewise produce stock for market to a considerable amount. Their domestic market, created by mining operations, renders it unnecessary to seek foreign purchasers of