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International Law

and

Diplomacy

of the

Spanish-American War

THE ALBERT SHAW LECTURES

ON DIPLOMATIC HISTORY

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By the liberality of Albert Shaw, Ph.D., of New York City, the Johns Hopkins University has been enabled to provide for an annual series of lectures on Diplomatic History. This course was given in connection with the regular work of the Department of History and is published under the direction of Professor John Martin Vincent.

DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, 1907

International Law and Diplomacy

Spanish-American War

BY ELBERT J. BENTON, PH.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Western Reserve University

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Copyright, 1908
The Johns Hopkins Press
Reprinted, 1968 by Permission of

The Johns Hopkins Press

CONTENTS

PAGE.

CHAPTER I. Cuba and National Policy..... 13

CHAPTER II. American Neutrality, 1895–1897.. 21

Causes of insurrection. Relation of American citi-

zens to the war. The system of concentration. The
struggle for the recognition of belligerency. Insur-
gency. American property and commercial rights in
Cuba. Filibustering. Principles of law of neutrality

established by the decisions of American courts.

CHAPTER III. Abandonment of Non-Intervention

Policy, October, 1897, to March, 1898. ..... 65

The cabinet revolution in Spain. The November

decrees. The rejection of autonomy. The January
riots in Havana. Consular reports. Financial assist-
ance from the United States. The De Lôme inci-
dent. The Maine explosion. Reports of expert com-
missions. Responsibility for neutral ships in bellig-

erent ports. The proposal for arbitration.

CHAPTER IV. Intervention...

The final diplomatic struggle. Spanish concessions.

Mediation of the Pope. Overtures of great powers.
Congress and the ultimatum. Breach of diplomatic

relations. The juridical aspects of intervention.

CHAPTER V. Transition from Neutrality to Bel-

ligerency

109

Belligerent acts before declaration of war. A retro-

active declaration of war. The care of interests of
belligerents in enemy territory. The local semi-
diplomatic rupture in Cuba, April 11. The joint pro-
tection of Spanish interests by France and Austria-
Hungary. Effect of war on treaties. The Spanish

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