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less a fault to teach the subject as if writing were nev thing more than a means of reporting sales or securing orders for goods. It seems to them that a proper balance character of the student's work in an elementary course maintained best only when the two kinds of writing, which is an artistic end in itself, and that which serves t] poses of everyday life, - are considered side by side. Th out the book, therefore, they have observed the division writing into æsthetic and instrumental, and have sought t the student how the two very different purposes implied in terms make necessary two standards of effectiveness. second opinion is concerning argumentation. They thought it absolutely essential to treat this subject as if i in truth mainly a form of composition, and not oral There seems to be little more reason for attempting, in a on writing, to restrict the whole field of argument to its on rigid and all in all least usable form, than for dealing with sition as if it were used solely as a means of making exe sermons. They have endeavored, too, to give informal arg at least a part of the consideration it deserves.

Any intention of trying to write either a series of pl essays for vacation reading or a body of condensed dire for ready reference is hereby disclaimed. The authors ar to admit that they have tried to make the treatment of thei ject fresh and simple enough to enable the layman to rea book with a degree of ease and with profit. They have, ho written primarily for the classroom; and they have assume the teacher would in many instances desire to illustrat amplify according to the needs of individual students. Alt the text may possibly have some value as it stands alon authors wish to insist that its real significance becomes er only when it accompanies regular practice in composition a criticism. They are firm believers in Carlyle's “ Properly hast no other knowledge but what thou hast got by work The following chapters aim only to give fundamental sugge: about “working”; their function is not to serve as a syst arbitrary guideposts, but rather as a vantage point from

: to teach the subject as if writing were never any

than a means of reporting sales or securing larger
oods. It seems to them that a proper balance in the
f the student's work in an elementary course can be

best only when the two kinds of writing, – that
i artistic end in itself, and that which serves the pur-
eryday life, -- are considered side by side. Through-
bk, therefore, they have observed the division of all
i æsthetic and instrumental, and have sought to show

how the two very different purposes implied in these
e necessary two standards of effectiveness. The
inion is concerning argumentation. They have
absolutely essential to treat this subject as if it were
ainly a form of composition, and not oral debate.
is to be little more reason for attempting, in a book
to restrict the whole field of argument to its one most
ll in all least usable form, than for dealing with expo-
it were used solely as a means of making exegetical
They have endeavored, too, to give informal argument

the student can choose his own way intelligently. It scarcely need be said that the book presupposes

the

very necessary drill in elementary details.

Thanks are gratefully extended to Professor J. S. Kenyon, of Butler College ; Professor C. W. Park, of the University of Cincinnati; Professor Roderick Scott, of Earlham College ; Professor P. D. Sherman, of Oberlin College; and Mr. Meredith Nicholson, for reading parts of the manuscript; to Mr. H. W. O'Connor, Mrs. Mabel Bonnell Barnes, and Mr. D. L. Clark, for valuable suggestions and substantial assistance of many kinds; to several of the authors' students for illustrative matter, especially to Mr. Phil Clugston for the brief and the parts of the completed argument used in Chapter VIII; and to a half hundred professional writers for the information they cheerfully contributed about their methods of work. All other conscious obligations are acknowledged in the text or the footnotes.

The selections from T. B. Aldrich, Arlo Bates, John Burroughs, S, M. Crothers, R. W. Emerson, B. Harte, G. L. Kittredge, J. R. Lowell, B. Matthews, G. H. Palmer, Bliss Perry, E. A. Ross, and H. B. Stowe are used by permission of, and by special arrangement with, Houghton Mifflin Company. Grateful acknowledgment is made to The Century Company; Doubleday, Page, and Company; Harper and Brothers; Henry Holt and Company; John Lane Company; J. B. Lippincott Company; Longmans, Green, and Company; Macmillan Company; and Charles Scribner's Sons for permission to use copyrighted material; and to the publishers of The Nation and The Outlook for the use of extracts.

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R. W. B.
N. W. B.

vart of the consideration it deserves. ention of trying to write either a series of pleasant vacation reading or a body of condensed directions eference is hereby disclaimed. The authors are glad at they have tried to make the treatment of their suband simple enough to enable the layman to read the a degree of ease and with profit. They have, however, marily for the classroom; and they have assumed that er would in many instances desire to illustrate and cording to the needs of individual students. Although iay possibly have some value as it stands alone, the sh to insist that its real significance becomes evident it accompanies regular practice in composition and in

They are firm believers in Carlyle's Properly thou her knowledge but what thou hast got by working." ring chapters aim only to give fundamental suggestions orking"; their function is not to serve as a system of yuideposts, but rather as a vantage point from which

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II. THE NEED OF IMPROVING THE VOCABULARY

III. AIMS IN IMPROVING THE VOCABULARY

.

IV. MEANS OF IMPROVING THE VOCABULARY

A. Systematic study .

1. The perusal of the dictionary

2. The translation of foreign languages

3. The study of Old and Middle English texts

4. The study of standard writers and speakers

B. Practice

1. The characterization of familiar objects

2. The defining of familiar terms

3. Adapting the same subject-matter to different audi-

ences

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