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And from his mantle's fide there shone afar,
A fix'd, and, I believe, a real star.
In his fair hand (what need was there of more?)
No arms, but th' English bloody cross, he bore,
Which when he tow'rd; th' aifrighted tyrant bent,
And some few words pronounc'd (but what they ineant,
Or were, could not, alas! by me be known,
Only, I well perceiv'd, Jesus was one)
He trembled, and he roar'd, and fied away
Mlad to quit thus his more than hop'd-for prey.

inflames the wolf's wild heart and eyes
(Robb’d, as he thinks unjustly, of his prize)
Whom unawares the shepherd spies, and draws
The bleating lamb from out his ravenous jaws :
The shepherd fain himself would he assail,
But fear above his hunger does prevail,
He knows luis foe too ftroug, and must be gone;
He grins, as he looks back, and howls, as he goes on.

Such rage

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'THE

HE liberty of a people consists in being governed by laws which they have made

themselves, under whatsoever form it be of government: the liberty of a private man, in being master of his own time and actions, as far as may consist with the laws of God and of his countrey. Of this latter only we are here to discourse, and to enquire what estate of life does best feat us in the possession of it. This liberty of our own actions, is such a fundamental privilege of human nature, that God himself, notwith1tanding all his infinite power and right over us, permits us to enjoy it, and that too after a forfeiture made by the rebellion of Adam. He takes so much care for the intire preservation of it to us, that he suffers neither his providence nor eternal decree to break or infringe it. Now for our time, the fame God, to whom we are but tenantsat-will for the whole, requires but the seventh part to be paid to him, as a small quitrent, in acknowledgement of his title. It is man only that has the impudence to de mand our whole time, though he never gave it, nor can restore it, nor is able to pay any considerable value for the least part of it. This birth-right of mankind above all other creatures, some are forced by hunger to sell, like Efau, for bread and broth: but

be

nary

the greatest part of men make such a bargain for the delivery up of themselves, as Thamar did with Judah ; instead of a kid, the necessary provisions for human life, they are contented to do it for rings and bracelets. The great dealers in this world may divided into the ambitious, the covetous, and the voluptuous ; and that all these inen fell themselves to be flaves though to the vulgar it may seem a Stoical paradox, will appear to the wise fo plain and obvious, that they will scarce think it deserves the labour of arrumentation.

Let us first consider the ambitious; and those, both in their progress to greatness, and after the attaining of it. There is nothing truer than what Sallult * {ays, “Do“minationis in alios fervitium fuum mercedem dant;" they are content to pay so great

price as their own servitude, to purchase the domination over others. The first thing they must resolve to facrifice, is their whole time; they must never fiop, nor ever turn a.de

, whilst they are in the race of glory, no not like Atalanta fur golden apples. Neither indeed can a man stop himself if he would, when he is in this career :

Fertur equis auriga, neque audit currus habenas t. Pray, let us but consider a little, what mean, servile things men do for this imagi

food. We cannot fetch a greater example of it, than from the chief men of that dation which boasted most liberty. To what pitiful bafeness did the nobleit Romans submit themselves, for the obtaining of a prætorship, or the consular dignity! They put on the habit of suppliants, and ran about on foot, and in dirt, through all the tribes, to beg voices ; they flattered the poorest artisans; and carried a nomenclator with thein, lo whisper in their ear every man's name, left they should mistake it in their falutations ; they thook the hand, and kissed the check, of every popular tradesman ; they stood all day at every market in the public places, to thew and ingratiate themselves to the rout; they employed all their friends to folicit for them; they kept open tables in every street; they distributed wine, and bread, and money, even to the viiest of the people. Romanes

rerum dominos !!” Behold the mallers of the world begging from door to coor ! This particular humble way of greatness is now out of falnion; but yet every ambitious person is still in fome sort a Roman candidate. He must feast and bribe, and attend and flatter, and adore many beasts, though not the beast with many heads. Catiline, who was so proud that he could not content himself with a less power than Silla's, was yet to humble, for the attaining of it, as to make himself the most contemptible of all servants; to be a public bawd, to provide whores, and something worse, for all the young gentlemen of Rome, whose hot lusts and courage, and heads, he thongit he might make use of. And, since I happen here to propose Catiline for my ivitarice (though there be thousand of examples for the same thing), give me leave to transerile the character which Cicero 5 gives of this noble flave, because it is a general defcription of all ambitizus men, and which Machiavel perhaps would say ought to be the rule of their life and actions :

" This man (says he, as most of you may well remember) fiad niany artificial touches aad Rrokes, that looked like the beauty of great virtucs; his intimate conversation was with the worst of men, and yet he seemed to be an admirer and lover of the best ; he was furnished with all the nets of lust and luxury, and yet wanted not the arms of labour and industry: neither do I believe that there was ever any monster of nature, composed out of so many different and disagreeing parts. Who more acceptable, sometimes, to the most honourable persons ; who more a favourite to the most infamous ? who, fonetimes

, appeared a braver champion ; who, at other times, a bolder enemy to his countrey? who more diffolute in his pleafures; who more patient in his toils ? who

rapacious in robbing ; who more profule in giving ? Above all things, this was remarkable and admirable in him, the arts he had to acquire the good opinion and kindness of all sorts of niei, to retain it with great complaisance, to communicate all

6 En

more

"Fragm. ed. Maittair: p 116.

Virg. Ceorg. i. 514. Virg. En. i. 282.

Orat. pro MT.

Calio.

things to them, to watch and serve all the occasions of their fortune, both with his monty, and his interest, and his industry; and, if need were, not by sticking at any wickedness whatsoever that might be useful to them, to bend and turn about his own nature and laveer with every wind; to live feverely with the melancholy, merrily with the pleasant, gravely with the aged, wantonly with the young, desperately with the bold, and debauchedly with the luxurious: with this variety and multiplicity of his natureas he made a collection of friendships with all the moft wicked and restless of all nations; fo, by the artificial fimulation of fome virtues, he made a shift to ensnare some honest and eminent perfons into his familiarity. Neither could so vast a design as the deitruction of this empire have been undertaken by him, if the immanity of so many vices had not been covered and disguised by the appearances of some excellent qualities.”

I sec, methinks, the character of an Anti-Paul, “ who became all things to

ail men,” that he might deitruy all; who only wanted the assistance of fortune, to have been as great as his friend Cæsar was a little after him. And the ways of Cæfar to compaís the same ends (I mean till the civil war, which was but 300lher manner of setting his countrey on fire) were not unlike these, though he used afterward bis unjust dominion with more moderation than I think the other would have done. Sallust therefore, who was well acquainted with them both, and with many such like gentlemen of his time, says *, “ that it is the nature of ambition, to make men lyars and cheaters; to hide the truth in their breasts, and flew, like jugglers, another thing in their mouths: to cut all friendships and enmities to the measure of their own interest; and to make a good countenance without the help of a good will.” And can there be freedom with this perpetual contraint? what is it but a kind of rack, that forces men to say what they have no mind to :

I have wondered at the extravagant and barbarous stratagem of Zopirus, and more at the praises which I find of fo deformed an action ; who, though he was one of the seven grandees of Persia, and the son of Megabilcs, who had freed before his countrey from an ignoble servitude, fit his own nose and lips, cut off his own ears, scourged and wounded his whole body, that he might, under pretence of having been mangled so inhumanly by Darius, be received into Babylon (then besieged by the Perlians), and get into the command of it by the recommendation of so cruel a sufferance, and their hopes of his endeavouring to revenge it. It is great pity the Babylonians fufpected not his falschool, that they might have cut off his hands too, and whipt him back again. But the design succeeded; he betrayed the city, and was made governor of it. What brutish master ever punished his offending Slave with so little mercy, as ambition did this Zopirus? and yet how many are there, in all nations, who imitate him, in some degree, for a less reward ; who, though they endure not so much corporal pain for a small preferment or fome honour (as they call it), yet stick not to commit actions, by which they are more shamefully and more lastingly ftigmatized ! But you may fay, though these be the most ordinary and open ways to greainels, ret there are narrow, thorny, and little-trodden paths too, through which fome men find a paffage by virtuons industry. I grant, sometimes they may; but then, that induttry muli be such, as cannot conlilt with liberty, though it may with honetty.

Thou art careful, frugal, paintul; we commend a fervant so, but not a friend,

Well then, we mult acknowledge the toil and drudgery wirich we are forced to endure in this ascent ; but we are epicures and lords when once we are gotten up into the high places. This is but a short apprenticeship, after which we are made frec of a roy! company. If we fall in love with any bcauteous woman, we must be content that they should be our mistrefie's whilst we woo thein; as soon as we are wedded and enjoy, it is we shall be the mailers.

I am willing to flick to this similitude in the case of greatness : we enter into the bords of it, like those of matrimony; we are bewitched with the outward and painted beauty, and take it for better or worse, before we know its true nature and interior inconveniencies. A great fortune (says Seneca) is a great fervitude; but many are of

• De Bell. Catil. c, I.

that opinion which Brutus imputes (I hope, untruly *) even to that patron of liberty, his friend Cicero: “ We fear (says he to Atticus) death, and banishment, and poverty, a great

deal too much. Cicero, I am afraid, thinks these to be the worst of evils; and, if he have but some persons, from whom he can obtain what he has a mind to, and others who will flatter and worship him, seems to be well enough contented with an honourable servitude, if any thing indeed ought to be called hon urable in so base and contumelious a condition.' This was spoken as became the bravest man who was ever born in the bravest commonwealth. But with us generally, no condition passes for servitude, that is accompanied with great riches, with honours, and with service of

many inferiors

. This is but a deception of the fight through a falfe medium; for if a groom serve a gentleman in his chamber, that gentleman a lord, and that lord a prince; the groom, the gentleman, and the lord, are as much fervants one as the other ; the circumitantial difference of the one's getting only his bread and wages, the second a plentiful, and the third a superfiuous eitate, is no more intrinfical to this matter, than the difference between a plain, a rich, and gaudy livery. I do not say, that he who sells his whole time and his own will for one hundred thousand, is not a wiser merchant than be who does it for one hundred pounds; but I will swear, they are both merchants, and that he is happier than both, who can live contentedly without selling that estate to which he was born. But this dependance upon superiors is but one chain of the lovers of power:

Amatorem trccentæ Pirithonm cohibent catenæ t. Let us begin with him by break of day: for by that time he is besieged hy two or three liundred suitors; and the hall and antichambers (all the out-works) possessed by the enemy: as soon as his chamber opens, they are ready to break into that, or to corrupt the guards, for entrance. This is so essential a part of greatness, that whosoever is without it, looks like a fallen favourite, like a person disgraced, and condemned to do what he pleases all the morning. There are some who, rather than want this, are contented to have their rooms filled up every day with murmuring and curfing creditors, and to charge bravely through a body of them to get to their coach. Now I would fain know which is the worst duty, that of any one particular person who waits to speak with the great mao, or the great man’s, who waits every day to speak with all company.

Aliena negotia centum Per caput, & circa faliunt latus a hundred bulineffes of other men (many unjust, and most impertinent) fly continually about his head and ears, and itrike him in the face like Dorres. Let us contemplate him a little at another special scene of glory, and that is his table. Here he seems to be the lord of all nature : the earth affords him her belt metals for his dishes, her beit vegetables and animals for his food; the air and sea supply him with their choiceit birds and fishes ; and a great many men, who look like masters, attend upon him; and yet, when all this is done, even all this is but table d'holle ; it is crowded with people for whom he cares 10t, with many parasites and some spies, with the most burdensome sort of guells, the endeavourers to be witty.

But every body pays him great respect ; every body comriends his meat, that is, his money ; every body admires the exquisite dressing and ordering of it, that is, his clerk of the kitchen, or his cook: every body loves his hospitality, that is, his vanity. But I desire to know why the honest inn-keeper, who provides a public table for his profit, should be of a mean profellion; and he, who does it for his honour, a munificent prinec. You will say, because one fells, and the other gives: nay, both fell, though for different things ; the one for plain money, the other for I know not what jewels, whose value * This parenthefis does honour to the writer's fenfe, as well as candour. H:ID.

Hor. 3 00 iv. 79. # Hor. 2 Sai. vi. 34.

is in custom and in fancy. If then his table be made “ a snare” (as the Scripture* speaks) “to his liberty," where can he hope for freedom? There is always, and every where, some restraint upon him. He is guarded with crowds, and shackled with formalities. The half hat, the whole hat, the half smile, the whole smile, the nod, the embrace, the positive parting with a little bow, the comparative at the middle of the room, the fuperlative at the door; and, if the person be pan huper sebafus, there is a hyperfuperlative ceremony then of conducting him to the bottom of the stairs, or to the very gate: as if there were such rules set to these Leviathans, as are to the sea, “ Hitherto thalt thou go, and no furthert."

Perditur hæc inter misero lux I, Thus wretchedly the precious day was lost.

How many impertinent letters and visits must he receive, and sometimes answer both too as impertinently! He never sets his foot beyond his threshold, unless, like a funeral, he have a train to follow him ; as if, like the dead corpse, he could not stir, till the bearers were all ready. “ My life (lays Horace, speaking to one of these magnificos) is a great deal more easy and commodious than thine, in that I can go into the market, and cheapen what I please, without being wondered at; and take my horse and ride as far as Tarentum, without being missed.” It is an unpleasant constraint to be always under the fight and observation, and censure, of others; as there may be vanity in it, fomethinks there should be vexation, too, of spirit: and I wonder how princes can endure to have two or three hundred men stand gazing upon them whilst they are at dinner, and taking notice of every bit they eat. Nothing seems greater and more lordly than the multitade of domestic servants; but even this too, if weighed seriously, is a piece of fervitude; unless you will be a firvant to them (as many men are), the trouble and care of yours in the government of them all, is much more than that of every one of them in their observanct of

you. I take the profession of a school-master to be one of the most useful, and which ought to be of the most honourable in a common.wealth ; yet certainiy all his fasces and tyrannical authority over so many boys takes away his own liberty more than theirs.

I do bui llightly touch upon all these particulars of the slavery of greatness: I shake but a few of their outward chains; their anger, hatred, jealousy, fear, envy, grief, and all the et cætera of their passions, which are the secret, but constant, tyrants and torturers of their life, I onit here, because, though they be symptoms molt frequent and violent in this difcase, yet iliey are common too in some degree to the epidemical disease of life is self.

But the ambitious man, though he be so many ways a Nave (o toties fervus !) yet he bears it bravely and heroically ; he struts and looks big upon the stage; he thinks himfelf a real prince in his masing-habit, and deceives too all the foolith part of his spectators : he is a llave in futurnalibus. The covetous man is a downright fervant, a draughthorse without bells or feathers : ad metalla damnatus, a man condemned to work in mines, which is the lowest and hardest condition of servitude; and, to increase his misery, a worker there for he knows not whom: “ He heapeth up riclics, and knows not who “ fall enjoy them ý;" it is only sure, that he himself neither snall nor can enjoy them. He is an indigent, needy flave; he will hardly allow himself cloaths and board. wages :

Unciatim vix de demenso suo, Suum defraudans genium, comparfit mifer || ; He defrauds not only other men, but his own genius; he cheats himself for money. Lut the fervile and miserable condition of this wretch is so apparent, that I leave it as evident to every man's fight, as well as judgment.

It seems a more difficult work to prove that the voluptuous man too is but a servant : what can be more the life of a freeman, or, as we say ordinarily, of a gentleman,

* Pf. Jaiz. 22. † Job xxxviii. II. | Hor. 2 Sat. vi. 59. S Pf. xxxix. 6. || Phorm. ANI. Sc. i. ver. 43,

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