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had been any faith in men's vows and protestations) the wars were undertaken. Merciful God! did the right of this miserable conquest remain then in his majefty; and didst thou suffer him to be destroyed, with more barbarity than if he had been conquered even by Savages and Canibals? Was it for king and parliament that we fought ; and has it fared with them just as with the army which we fought against, the one part being sain, and the other fed ? It appears therefore plainly, that Cromwell was not a conqueror, but a thief and robber of the rights of the king and parliament, and an vfurper upon those of the people. I do not here deny conquest to be sometimes (though it be very rarely) a true title; but I deny this to be a true conqueft. Sure I am, that the race of our princes came not in by such a one. One nation may conquer another sometimes juftly; and if it be unjustly, yet still it is a true conquest, and they are to answer for the injustice only to God Almighty (having nothing else in authority above them) and not as particular rebels to their country, which is, and ought always to be, their superior and their lord. If perhaps we find usurpation instead of conqueft in the original titles of some royal families abroad (as no doubt there have been many usurpers before ours, though none in so impudent and execrable a manner) all I can say for them is, that their title was very weak, till, by length of time, and the death of all juster pretenders, it became to be the true, because it was the only one.
Your third defence of his highness (as your highness pleases to call him) enters in most seasonably after his pretence of conqneft ; for then a man may say any thing. The government was broken; who broke it? It was dissolved; who dissolved it? It was extinguished; who was it, but Cromwell, who not only put out the light, but cast away even the very snuff of it? As if a man should murder a whole family, and then poffefs himself of the house, because it is better that he, than that only rats should live there. Jesus God! (said I, and at that word I perceived my pretended angel to give a start and trembled, but I took no notice of it, and went on this were a wicked pretension, even though the whole family were destroyed; but the heirs (blessed be God!) are yet surviving, and likely to out-live all heirs of their dispoffeffors, besides their infamy. “ Rode, caper, vitem, &c.” There will be yet wine enough left for the sacrifice of those wild beasts, that have made so much spoil in the vineyard. But did Cromwell think, like Nero, to set the city on fire, only that he might have the honour of being founder of a new and more beautiful one? He could not have such a shadow of virtue in his wickedness; he meant only to rob more securely and more richly in midst of the combustion ; he little thought then that he should ever have been able to make himfelf master of the palace, as well as plunder the goods of the commonwealth. He was glad to see the public vessel (the sovereign of the seas) in as desperate a condition as his own little canoe, and thought only, with some scattered planks of that great shipwreck, to make a beiter fitherboat for himself. But when he saw that, by the drowning of the master, (whom he himself treacherously knocked on the head, as he was swimming for his life) by the flight and dispersion of others, and cowardly patience of the remaining company, that all was abandoned to his pleasure; with the old hulk, and new milhapen and disagreeing pieces of his own, he made up, with much ado, that piratical vessel which we have seen him command, and which, how tight indeed it was, may best be judged by its perpetual leaking.
First, then (much more wicked than those foolish daughters in the fable, who cut their old father into pieces, in hope by charms and witchcraft to make him young and lufly again) this man endeavoured to deltroy the building, before he could imagine in what manner, with what materials, by what workmen, or what architect, it was to be rebuilt. Secondly, if he had dreamt himself to be able to revive that body which he had killed, yet it had been but the insupportable insolence of an ignorant mountebank; and ihirdly, (which concerns us nearett) that very new thing, which he made out of the ruins of the old, is no more like the original, either for beauty, use, or duration, than an artificial plant, raised by the fire of a chemift, is comparable to the true and natural one which he firft burnt, that out of the ashes of it he might produce an imperfect fimilitude of his own making.
Your last argument is such (when reduced to syllogism) that the major proposition of it would make strange work in the world, if it were received for truth ; to wit, that he who has the best parts in a nation, has the right of being king over it. We had enough to do here of old with thecontention between two branches of the same family : what would become of us, when every man in England ihould lay his claim to the government ? And truly, if Cromwell should have commenced his plea, when he seems to have begun his ambition, there were few persons belides, that might not at the same time have put in theirs too. But his deserts
, I suppose, you will date from the same term that I do his great demerits, that is, from the beginning of our late calamities (for, as for his private faults before, I can only wish, and that with as much charity to him as to the public, that he had continued in them till his death, rather than changed them for those of his latter days); and therefore we mult begin the confideration of his greatness from the unlucky æra of our own misfortunes; which puts me in mind of what was said less truly of Pompey the Great, “ Noftra miseriâ magnus es.” But, because the general ground of your argumentation confifts in this, that all men who are effecters of extraordinary mutations in the world, mult needs have extraordinary forces of nature, by which they are enabled to turn about, as they please, so great a wheel; I shall speak firit a few words upon this universal propofition, which seems so reasonable, and is so popular, before I defcend to the particular examination of the eminences of that person which is in question.
I have often observed (with all fubmiflion and resignation of spirit to the inscrutable mysteries of Eternal Providence) that when the fulness and maturity of time is come, that produces the great confusions and changes in the world, it usually pleases God to make it appear, by the manner of them, that they are not the efiects of human force or policy, but of the divine justice and predestination; and, though we fee a man, like that which we call Jack of the Clock-house, striking, as it were, the hour of that fulness of time, yet our reason must needs be convinced, that the hand is moved by some secret, and, to us who stand without, invisible direction. And the itream of the current is then so violent, that the strongest men in the world cannot draw up against it; and none are so weak, but they may fail down with it. Thefe are the spring-tides of public affairs, which we fee often happen, but feek in vain to discover any certain causes :
In mare, nunc lapides adtsos,
Cum fera diluvies quietos
Hor. 3 Carm. xxix. And one man then, by maliciously opening all the lluices that he can come at, can never be the sole author of all this (though he may be as guilty as if really he were, by intending and imagining to be fo); but it is God that breaks up the flood-gates of so general a deluge, and all the art then and induítry of mankind is not sufficient to raise up dikes and ramparts againlt it. In such a time it was as this, that not all the wifdom and power of the Roman fenate, nor the wit and eloquence of Cicero, nor the courage and virtue of Brutus, was able to defend their country, or themselves, against the unexperienced ralhnefs of a beardless boy, and the loose rage of a voluptuous madman. The valour and prudent counsels on the one lide are made fruitless, and the errors and cowardice on the other harmless, by unexpected accidents. The one general saves his life
, and gains the whole world, by a very dream ; and the other lofes both at once, by a little mistake of the shortness of his fight. And though this be not always so, for we see that, in the translation of the great monarchies from one to another, it pleased God to make choice of the most eminent men in nature, as Cyrus, Alexander, Scipio and his contemporaries
, for his chief inftrument and actors in só admirable a work (ibe VOL. II.
end of this being, not only to destroy or punish one nation, which may be done by the worit of mankini, but to exalt and bless another, which is only be effected by great and virtuous persons); yet, when God only intends the temporary challisement of a people, he does not raise up his servant Cyrus (as he himself is pleased to call him) or an Alexander (who had as many virtues to do good, as vices to do harm) but he nakes the Maffaniellos, and the Johns of Leyden, the inftruments of his vengeance, that the power of the Almighty might be more evident by the weakuels of the means which he chooses to demonitrate it. He did not allen ble the ferpents and the montters of Afric, to correct the pride of the Egyptians; but cailed for his armies of locuits out of thiopia, and formed new ones of vermin out of the very duft; and becaule you see a widole country destroyed by these, will you argue from thence they must needs have had both the craft of foxes, and the courage of lions ?
It is easy to apply this general observation to the particular case of our troubles in England : and that they seem only to be meant for a temporary challisument of our lins, and not for a total abolislıment of the old, and introduction of a new government, appears probable to ine from these considerations, as far as we may be bold to make a judgment of the will of God in future events. First, because he has suffered nothing to settle or take root in the place of that, which hath been so unwisely and unjustly, removed, that none of these untempered mortars can hold out against the next Llalt of wind, nor any stone stick to a stone, till that which these foolis builders have refused be made again the head of the corner. For, when the indisposed and long-tormented commonwealth has wearied and spent itself almost to nothing, with the chargeable, various, and dangerous experiments of several mountebanks, it is to be fuppoled, it will have the wit at lait to fend for a true physician, especially when it fees (which is the fecond confideration) moit evidently (as it now begins to do, and will do every day more and more, and might have done perfectly long tinct) that no usurpation (under what name or pretext fuever) can be kept up without open force, nor force without the continuance of those oppressions upon the prople, which will at last tire out their pät ence, though it be great even to ti upidity. They cannot be fo dull (when poverty and huuger begins to whet their understanding) as not to find out this no extraordinary myfiti, ihat it is madness in a nation to pay :hree millions a year for the maintaining of their fervitude under tyrants, when they might live free for nothing under their princez. This, I say, will not always lie lid, even to the lowest capacities; and the next truth they will discover afterwards is, that a whole people can never have the will, without having at the same time the power, to redeem themselves. Thirdly, it docs not look (methinks) as if God had forsaken the family of that man, from whom he has railed up five children, of as eminent virive, and all other commendable qualities, as ever lived perhaps (for so many together, and so young) in any other family in the whole world. Etpecially, if we add hereto this confideration, that by protecting and preserving fonie of them already through as great dangers as ever were part with fafety, either by prince or private perfon, he has given them already (as we may reasonably hope it to be meant), a promife and earnest of his future favours. And laftly (to return closely to the discourse from which I have a little digresled) because I see nothing of those excellent parts of nature, and mixture of nierit with their vices, in the late dirlurbers of our peace and happiness, that uses to be found in the persons of those who are born for the erection of new empires.
And, I confess, I find nothing of that kind, no not any shadow (taking away the false light of some prosperity) in the man whom you extol for the firit example of it. And certainly, all virtues being rightly divided into moral and intellectual, I know not how we can better judge of the former, than by men's actions; or of the latter, than by their writings or speeches. As for thefe latter (which are least in merit, or rather which are only the instruments of mischief, where the other are wanting) I think you can hardly pick out the name of a man who ever was called great, besides him we are now speaking of, who never left the memory behind him of one wise or witty apophthegm even amongst his domestic servants or greatest flatterers. That little in prints
which remains upon a fad record for him, is such, as a satire against him would not have made him say, for fear of tranfgrefing too much the rules of probability. I know not what you can produce for the juititication of his parts in this kind, but his having been able to deceive so many particular perions, and so many whole parties ; which if you please to take notice of for the advantage of his- intellectuals, I detire you to allow me the liberty to do so too when I am to speak of his morals. The truth of the thing is this, that if craft be wisdon, and diflimulation wit (alliited both and improved with hypocrifies and perjuries) I mult not deny him to have been ingular in both; but so gross was the manner in which he made use of them, that, as wise men ought not to have believed him at first, so no man was fool enough to believe him at lait: neither did any man seem to do it, but those who thought they gained as much by that dissembling, as he did by his. His very actings of godliness grew at last as ridiculous, as if a player, by putting on a gown, should think he repreiented excellently a woman, though his beard at the same time were seen by all the spectators. If you ak me, why they did not hiss, and explode him of the Itage; I can only answer, that they durst not do so, because the actors and the door-keepers were too strong for the company. I must confess that by these arts (how grossly foever managed, as by hypocritical praying and filly preaching, by unmanly tears and whinings, by falsehoods and perjuries even diabolical) he had at first the good-fortune (as men call it, that is, the illfortune) to attain his ends; but it was because his ends were so unreasonable, that no human reason could foresee them; which made them, who had to do with him, believe, that he was rather a well-meaning and deluded bigot, than a crafty malicious impoftor: that these arts were helped by an indefatigable industry (as you term it) I am so far from doubting, that I intended to object that diligence, as the worlt of his crimes. It makes me almoft mad, when I hear a man commended for his diligence in wickedness. If I were his son, I thould wish to God he had been a more lazy person, and that we might have found him sleeping at the hours when other men are ordinarily waking, rather than waking for those ends of his when other men were ordinarily alleep. How diligent the wicked are, the Scripture often tells us, “ Their fcet run to evil, and they "make haite to shed innocent blood,” Ifai. lix. 7. “ He travels with iniquity,” Pfal.
“ He deviseth mischief upon his bed,” Pfal. xxxiv. 4. “ They search out iniquity, they accomplih a diligent search," Pfal. Ixiv. 6. and in a multitude of other places . And would it not seem
ridiculous, to praise a wolf for his watchfulness, and for his indefatigable industry in ranging all night about the country, whilst the sheep, and perhaps the thepherd, and perhaps the very dogs too, are all asleep?
The Chartreux wants the warning of a bell
Th' adulterer and the thief his larum has within. And, if the diligence of wicked persons be so much to be blamed, as that it is only an emphasis and exaggeration of their wickedness, I see not how their courage can avoid the same censure. If the undertaking bold, and valt, and unreasonable detigns can deferve that honourable name, I am fure, Faux and his fellow gunpowder friends, will have cause to pretend, though not an equal, yet at least the next place of honour'; neither can I doubt but, if they too had succeeded, they would have found their applanders and admirers. It was bold unquestionably for a man in defiance of all human and divine laws (and with so little probability of a long impunity) fo publicly and so outrageously to murder his matter; it was bold with so much infolence and affront to expel and disperse all the chief partners of his guilt, and creators of his power; it wag bold to violate so openly and so scornfully all acts and constitutions of a narion, and afterwards even of his own making; it was bold to assume the authority of calling, and bolder yet 'of breaking, so many parliaments; it' was hold to trample upon the patience of his own, and provoke that of all neighbouring countries; it was bold, I say, above all boldnesses, to ufurp this tyranny to himself; and impudent above all impudences,
to endeavour to transmit it to his posterity. But all this boldness is so far from being a sign of manly courage (which dares not trangress the rules of any other virtue) that it is only a demonftration of brutish madness or diabolical poffeffion. In both which laft cases there use frequent examples to appear of such extraordinary force as may justly secm more wonderful and astonishing than the actions of Cromwell ; neither is it stranger to believe that a whole nation should not be able
govern him and a mad army, than that five or fix men should not be trong enongh to bind a diitracted girl. There is no man ever succeeds in one wickedness, but it gives him the boldness to at. tempt a greater. It was boldly done of Nero to kill his mother, and all the chief nobility of the empire ; it was boldly done, to set the metropolis of the whole world on fire, and undaunitedly play upon his harp whilft he saw it burning; I could reckon up five bundred boldnelles of that great person (for why should not he, too, be called fo?) who wanted, when he was to die, that courage which could hardly have failed any woman in the like neceility.
It would look (1 must confess) like envy, or too much partiality, if I should say that personal kind of courage had been deficient in the man we speak of; I am confident it was not: and yet I may venture, I think, to affirm, that no man ever bore the honour of so many victories, at the rate of fewer wounds and dangers of his own body; and though his valour might perhaps have given him a just pretension to one of the first charges in an army, it could not certainly be a sufficient ground for a title to the command of three nations.
What then shall we fay? that he did all this by witchcraft ? He did so, indeed, in a great measure, hy a sin that is called like it in the Scriptures. But, truly and unpasfionately reflecting upon the advantages of his person, which might be thought to have produced those of his fortune, I can efpy no other bat extraordinary diligence and infinite disfimulation; and believe he was exalted above his nation, partly by his own faults, but chiefly for ours.
We have brought him thus briefly (not through all his labyrinths) to the fupreme usurped authority; and because you say it was great pity he did not live to command more kingdoms, be pleased to let me represent to you in a few words, how well I conceive he governed these. And we will divide the confideration into that of his foreign and domestic actions. The firit of his foreign, was a peace with our brethren of Holland (who were the first of our neighbours that God chastised for having so great a hand in the encouraging and abetting our troubles at home): who would not imagine at first glimpse that this had been the moit virtuous and laudable deed, that his whole life could have made any parade of? but no man can look upon all the circumstances without perceiving, that it was purely the sale and facrificing of the greatest advantages that this country could ever hope, and was ready to reap, from a foreign war, to the private interests of his covetouinels and ambition, and the security of his new and unsettled ufurpation. No sooner is that danger,past, but this Beatus Pacificus is kindling a fire in the northern world, and carrying a war two thousand miles off westwards. Two millions a year (besides all the vales of his protectorship) is as little capable to fuffice now either his avarice or prodigality, as the two hundred pounds were, that he was born to. He must have his prey of the whole Indies both by sea and land, this great alligator. To fatisfy our Anti-Solomon (who has made filver almost as rare as gold, and gold as precious stones in his new Jerusalem) we must go, ten thoufand of his laves, to fetch him riches from his fantatiical Ophir. And, because his fla:terers brag of him as the mot fortunate prince (the Fauftus, as well as Sylla, of our nation, whom God never forfook in any of his undertakings), I desire them to contider, ho, since the Englih vam
ame was ever heard of, it never received so great and fo infainous a blow as under the imprudent conduct of this unlucky Faustus; and herein Fet me aj. mire the juilice of God in this circumstance, that they who had enslaved their count:y (though a great army, which I wish may be observed by ours with trembling), soul he fo thamefully defeated by the hands of forty llaves. It was very ridiculous to ke how prettily they endeavoured to hide this ignominy, under the great uame of the con