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pected from New York. The ruin of the whole enterprise is clearly attributable to this want of co-operation. Immediately after the victory of Saratoga, Gates, whose duty it was to communicate his success to the commanderin chief, neglected this evident propriety, and dispatched his aid-de-camp, Wilkinson, to carry the good news direct to Congress. On being introduced into the Hall, he said: “The whole British army has laid down arms at Saratoga; our own, full of vigor and courage, expect your orders: it is for your wisdom to decide where the country may still have need of their services.” Congress passed a vote of thanks to General Gates and to his army, and Wilkinson was appointed brigadier-general by brevet. They decreed that Gates should be presented with a medal of gold, to be struck expressly in commemoration of so glorious a victory: on one side of it was the bust of the general, with these words around: “HoRATIO GATES, Ducó strenuo; and in the middle, Comiția Americana. On the reverse, Burgoyne was represented in the attitude of delivering his sword; and in the back-ground, on the one side, and on the other, were seen the two armies of England and of America. At the top were these words: Salus regionum Septentrion. ; and at the foot, Hoste ad ASaratogam in deditione accepto. Die xVII Oct. MDCCLXXVII. The kindness and consideration of the Americans towards their vanquished foes deserve great praise. The sick and the wounded were carefully attended to, and in every way the British officers and troops were made to feel

that their conquerors were as generous as they were brave. General Schuyler was particularly magnanimous. The Baroness Reidesel, in her Narrative, makes mention, in the warmest terms, of his courtesy and politeness to herself and others. “Some days after this,” are her words, “we arrived at Albany, where we so often wished ourselves; but we did not enter it as we expected we should—victors | We were received by the good General Schuyler, his wife, and daughters, not as enemies, but kind friends, and they treated us with the most marked attention and politeness, as they did General Burgoyne, who had caused General Schuyler's beautifully finished house to be burned. In fact, they behaved like persons of exalted minds, who determined to bury all recollection of their own injuries in the contemplation of our misfortunes. General Burgoyne was struck with General Schuyler's generosity, and said to him, ‘You show me great kindness, though I have done you much injury.’ ‘That was the fate of war,’ replied the brave man; ‘let us say no more about it.’” Burgoyne proceeded to Boston, and was well treated; but it was not long before difficulties arose. Congress was not at all satisfied with the prospect of the British soldiers sailing for England, to relieve others who would be dispatched immediately to America; and taking advantage of several pretexts, more or less urgent, they finally refused to allow the embarkation of the troops at all.” “We shall not under

* See Marshall’s “Life of Washington,” vol. i. pp. 230–32. An English writer, speaking of this matter, uses the following language : “The troops were long detained in Massachusetts; they were afterwards sent to the back parts of Virginia, and none of them were released but by exchange. It was obviously the aim of Congress to keep five thousand men out of the field; but the means which they employed for the accomplishment of their purpose were dishonorable, and they lost more in character than they gained in strength. Honesty is the best policy for

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nations, as well as for individuals; but the conduct of the Americans in the matter under consideration, had more of the trick and artifice of low traffickers, than of the fearless integrity becoming the rulers of a powerful people. Some of the allegations by which they attempted to justify themselves were false, and some frivolous. They affected to distrust British faith and honor; but it is easy for a man at any time to accuse his neighbor of bad intentions, if that were to be sustained as a valid plea for his own dishonesty.”

APPENDIX TO

CIHAPTER III.

I.—BURGOYNE'S PROCLAMATION.

By John BURGoyNE, Esq., lieutenant-general of his majesty’s armies in America, colonel of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, governor of Fort William, in Worth Britain, one of the representatives of the Commons of Great Britain, and commanding an army and fleet employed on an easpedition from Canada, etc., etc.

The forces entrusted to my command, are designed to act in concert, and upon a common principle, with the numerous armies and fleets which already display in every quarter of America, the power, the justice, and, when properly sought, the mercy of the king.

The cause in which the British arms is thus exerted, applies to the most affecting interests of the human heart ; and the military servants of the crown, at first called forth for the sole purpose of restoring the rights of the Constitution, now combine with love of their country, and duty

to their sovereign, the other extensive incitements, which form a due sense of the general privileges of mankind. To the eyes and ears of the temperate part of the public, and the breasts of suf. fering thousands, in the provinces, be the melancholy appeal, whether the present unnatural rebellion has not been made a foundation for the completest system of tyranny that ever God, in his displeasure, suffered for a time to be exercised over a froward and stubborn generation. Arbitrary imprisonment, confiscation of property, persecution, and torture, unprecedented in the inquisition of the Romish church, are among the palpable enormities that verify the affirmative. These are inflicted, by assemblies and committees, who dare to profess themselves friends to liberty, upon the most quiet subjects, without distinction of age or sex, for the sole crime, often for the sole suspicion, of having adhered in principle to the government under which they were born, and to which, by every tie, divine and human,

they owe allegiance. To consummate these shocking proceedings, the profanation of religion is added to the most profligate prostitution of common reason ; the consciences of men are set at naught ; and multitudes are compelled not only to bear arms, but also to swear subjection to an usurpation they abhor. Animated by these considerations; at the head of troops in the full powers of health, discipline, and valor; determined to strike where necessary, and anxious to spare where possible, I, by these presents, invite and exhort all persons, in all places where the progress of this army may point, —and by the blessing of God, I will extend it far —to maintain such a conduct as may justify me in protecting their lands, habitations, and families. The intention of this address is to hold forth security, not depredation to the country. To those whom spirit and principle may induce to partake the glorious task of redeeming their countrymen from dungeons, and re-establishing the blessings of legal government, I offer encouragement and employment ; and, upon the first intelligence of their association, I will find means to assist their undertakings. The domestic, the industrious, the infirm, and even the timid inhabitants, I am desirous to protect, provided they remain quietly at their houses ; that they do not suffer their cattle to be removed, nor their corn or forage to be secreted or destroyed; that they do not break up their bridges or roads; nor by any other act, directly or indirectly, endeavor to obstruct the operations of the king's troops, or supply or assist those of the enemy. Every species of provision, brought to my camp, will be paid for at an equitable rate, and in solid coin. In consciousness of Christianity, my royal master's clemency, and the honor of soldiership, I have dwelt upon this invitation, and wished for more persuasive terms to give it impression. And let not people be led to disregard it, by considering their distance from the immediate situation of my camp. I have but to give stretch to the Indian forces under my direction—and they amount to thousands—to overtake the hardened enemies of Great Britain and America. I consider them the same, wherever they may lurk. If, notwithstanding these endeavors, and sincere inclinations to effect them, the frenzy of hostility should remain, I trust I shall stand ac

quitted in the eyes of God and men, in denouncing and executing the vengeance of the state against the wilful outcasts. The messengers of justice and of wrath await them in the field : and devastation, famine, and every concomitant horror, that a reluctant, but indispensable prosecution of military duty must occasion, will bar the way to their

return. JOHN BURGOYNE,

Camp, at Ticonderoga, July 2, 1777.
By order of his Excellency, the lieut.-general.
RoBERT KINGSTON, Secretary.

To JoHN BURGoyNE, Esq., lieutenant-general of his majesty's armies, in America, colonel of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, governor of Fort William, in North Britain, one of the representatives of the Commons of Great Britain, and commanding an army and fleet employed on an easpedition from Canada, etc., etc.

Most high, most mighty, most puissant, and sublime general /

When the forces under your command arrived at Quebec, in order to act in concert, and upon a common principle with the numerous fleets and armies which already display in every quarter of America, the justice and mercy of your king, we, the reptiles of America, were struck with unusual trepidation and astonishment. But what words can express the plenitude of our horror, when the colonel of the queen's regiment of light dragoons advanced towards Ticonderoga. The mountains shook before thee, and the trees of the forest bowed their lofty heads ; the vast lakes of the north were chilled at thy presence, and the mighty cataracts stopped their tremendous career, and were suspended in awe at thy approach. Judge, then, Oh ineffable governor of Fort William, in North Britain, what must have been the terror, dismay, and despair that overspread this paltry continent of America, and us, its wretched inhabitants. Dark and dreary, indeed, was the prospect before us, till, like the sun in the horizon, your most gracious, Sublime, and irresistible proclamation, opened the doors of mercy, and snatched us, as it were, from the jaws of annihila. tion. - - -

We foolishly thought, blind as we were, that your gracious master's fleets and armies were come to destroy us and our liberties; but we are

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happy in hearing from you (and who can doubt what you assert 2) that they were called forth for the sole purpose of restoring the rights of the Constitution, to a froward and stubborn generation. And is it for this, O ! sublime lieutenant-general, that you have given yourself the trouble to cross the wide Atlantic, and with incredible fatigue, traverse uncultivated wilds 7 And we ungratefully refuse the proffered blessing 7 To restore the rights of the Constitution, you have called together an amiable host of Savages, and turned them loose to scalp our women and children, and lay our country waste ; this they have performed with their usual skill and clemency ; and yet we remain insensible of the benefit, and unthankful for so much goodness. Our Congress have declared independence, and our Assemblies, as your highness justly observes, have most wickedly imprisoned the avowed friends of that power with which they are at war, and most profanely compelled those, whose consciences will not permit them to fight, to pay some small part towards the expenses their country is at, in supporting what is called a necessary defensive war. If we go on thus in our obstinacy and ingratitude, what can we expect, but that you should, in your anger, give a stretch to the Indian forces under your direction, amounting to thousands, to overtake and destroy us? or, which is ten times worse, that you should withdraw your fleets and armies, and leave us to our own misery, without completing the benevolent task you have begun, of restoring to us the rights of the Constitution ? We submit—we submit—most puissant colonel of the queen's regiment of light dragoons, and governor of Fort William, in North Britain. We offer our heads to the scalping-knife, and our bellies to the bayonet. Who can resist the force of your eloquence 7 Who can withstand the terror of your arms ? The invitation you have made, in the consciousness of Christianity, your royal master's clemency, and the honor of soldiership, we thankfully accept. The blood of the slain, the cries of injured virgins and innocent children, and the never ceasing sighs and groans of starving Wretches, now languishing in the jails and prisonships of New York, call on us in vain; whilst your Sublime proclamation is sounded in our ears. Forgive us, O our country ! Forgive us, dear posterity. Forgive us, all ye foreign powers, who

are anxiously watching our conduct in this important struggle, if we yield implicitly to the perSuasive tongue of the most elegant colonel of her Majesty's regiment of light dragoons.

Forbear, then, thou magnanimous lieutenantgeneral l Forbear to denounce vengeance against us; forbear to give a stretch to those restorers of constitutional rights, the Indian forces under your direction. Let not the messengers of justice and wrath await us in the field, and devastation, and every concomitant horror, bar our return to the allegiance of a prince, who, by his royal will, would deprive us of every blessing of life, with all possible clemency.

We are domestic, we are industrious, we are infirm and timid : we shall remain quietly at home, and not remove our cattle, our corn, or forage, in hopes that you will come, at the head of troops, in the full powers of health, discipline, and valor, and take charge of them for yourselves. Behold our wives and daughters, our flocks and herds, our goods and chattels, are they not at the mercy of our lord the king, and of his lieutenantgeneral, member of the House of Commons, and governor of Fort William, in North Britain 7

A. B. C. D. E. F., etc., etc., etc. Saratoga, July 10, 1777.

POETIC VERSION OF THE PROCLAMATION.
[ATTRIBUTED To FRANCIS HOPKINSON.]
By John Burgoyne, and Burgoyne, John, Esq.,
And grac'd with titles still more higher,
For I’m Lieutenant-general, too,
Of George's troops both red and blue,
On this extensive continent ;
And of Queen Charlotte's regiment
Of light dragoons the Colonel ;
And Governor eke of Castle Wil—
And furthermore, when I am there,
In House of Commons I appear,
[Hoping ere long to be a Peer, j
Being a member of that virtuous band
Who always vote at North's command;
Directing, too, the fleet and troops
From Canada, as thick as hops;
And all my titles to display,
I’ll end with thrice et cetera.
The troops consign'd to my command,

Like Hercules to purge the land, Intend to act in combination With th' other forces of the nation, . Displaying wide thro’ every quarter What Britain's justice would be after. It is not difficult to show it, And every mother's son must know it, That what she meant at first to gain By requisitions and chicane, She's now determin'd to acquire By kingly reason ; Sword and fire. I can appeal to all your senses, Your judgments, feelings, tastes and fancies; Your ears and eyes have heard and seen, How causeless this revolt has been ; And what a dust your leaders kick up ; In this rebellious civil hickup, And how, upon this curs'd foundation, Was rear'd the system of vexation Over a stubborn generation. But now inspired with patriot love I come, th' oppression to remove ; To free you from the heavy clog Of every tyrant demagogue, Who for the most romantic story, Claps into limbo loyal Tory, All hurly burly, hot and hasty, Without a writ to hold him fast by ; Nor suffers any living creature, [Led by the dictates of his nature, To fight in green for Britain's cause, Or aid us to restore her laws ; In short, the vilest generation Which in vindictive indignation, Almighty vengeance ever hurl’d From this to the infernal world. A Tory cannot move his tongue, But whip, in prison he is flung, His goods and chattels made a prey, By those vile mushrooms of a day, He's tortured, too, and scratch'd and bit, And plung'd into a dreary pit ; Where he must suffer sharper doom, Than e'er was hatched by Church of Rome. These things are done by rogues, who dare Profess to breathe in Freedom's air. To petticoats alike and breeches Their cruel domination stretches, For the sole crime, or sole suspicion [What worse is done by th' inquisition ?] Of still adhering to the crown,

Their tyrants striving to kick down,
Who, by perverting law and reason,
Allegiance construe into treason.
Religion, too, is often made
A stalking horse to drive the trade,
And warring churches dare implore,
Protection from th' Almighty power ;
They fast and pray : in Providence
Profess to place their confidence ;
And vainly think the Lord of all
Regards our squabbles on this ball ;
Which would appear as droll in Britain
As any whim that one could hit on ;
Men's consciences are set at naught,
Nor reason valued at a groat;
And they that will not swear and fight,

Must sell their all, and say good night.

By such important views there pres’t to,
I issue this my manifesto.
I, the great knight of de la Mancha,
Without "Squire Carleton, my Sancho,
Will tear you limb from limb asunder,
With cannon, blunderbuss and thunder ;
And spoil your feathering and your tarring ;
And cagg you up for pickled herring.
In front of troops as spruce as beaux,
And ready to lay on their blows,
I’ll spread destruction far and near ;
And where I cannot kill, I'll spare,
Inviting, by these presents, all,
Both young and old, and great and small,
And rich and poor, and Whig and Tory,
In cellar deep, or lofty story;
Where'er my troops, at my command
Shall swarm like locusts o'er the land.
(And they shall march from the North Pole
As far, at least, as Pensacole,)
So break off their communications,
That I can save their habitations ;
For finding that Sir William's plunders,
Prove in the event apparent blunders,
It is my full determination,
To check all kinds of depredation ;
But when I’ve got you in my pow'r,
Favor'd is he, I last devour.

From him who loves a quiet life,
And keeps at home to kiss his wife,
And drinks success to king Pigmalion,
And calls all Congresses Rabscallion,
With neutral stomach eats his supper,
Nor deems the contest worth a copper;

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