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name of Virginia, to her distinguished son, for the services he had rendered to his country. Washington rose to reply; blushed — stammered — trembled—could not utter a word. “Sit down, Mr. Washington,” said the speaker, with a courteous smile, “your modesty equals your valor; and that surpasses the power of any language I possess.” Great was the exultation of the colonies at this successful termination of the struggle with the French. New York was especially pleased, since its northern and western limits had been so long in dispute; and now it might lay claim to large increase of its territory. “By the sudden death of Delancey, in July, 1760, the administration of New York had devolved on Cadwallader Colden, who was presently appointed lieutenant-governor. Though now upwards of seventy years of age, Colden continued in that office for sixteen years; and, in consequence of the frequent absence of the governors, was repeatedly at the head of affairs.” New England had equal reason with

New York, to rejoice, because its fron

tiers were now freed from the dreadful incursions of the Indians, whose power for further mischief was almost entirely destroyed. Indeed the hostile tribes were nearly annihilated. At the South, the war with the Cherokees still kept

* We are indebted to Dr. Francis, for the interesting fact that “Dr. Colden was the first American expositor of the Linnaean system in the New World. This he taught on the banks of the Hudson, almost immediately after its announcement by the illustrious Swede.” Colden, in addition to his “History of the Five Nations,” was also the author of various literary and scientific productions.

the frontiers of Carolina in alarm. This formidable tribe, after the reduction of Fort Duquesne, where they had aided Forbes, had become involved in a serious quarrel with the back settlers of Virginia and the Carolinas. The origin of the quarrel is obscure. It is said that the Cherokees seized upon some horses which they found running wild through the woods, but which in reality belonged to Virginian owners, and that the latter, supposing it to be a theft, killed twelve or fourteen of them; an outrage deeply resented by the Indians, who, inflamed by French influence, were led to believe that the English meditated

their entire extermination. Gov

ernor Littleton refused to listen to a proposal for arranging the dispute, and in October, 1759, marched into the Cherokee territories with fifteen hundred men; but he was glad to retire as soon as possible. Sickness and insubordination speedily put an end to the expedition. Fresh disputes soon after broke out, and the Cherokees prepared to do battle in their defence. An express was sent to General Amherst, who detached twelve hundred men under Colonel Montgomery, to the relief of the Carolinas. Strengthened by their militia, he marched into the Cherokee country, relieved Fort Prince George, at the head of the Savannah, which they had blockaded, and ravaged all the Indian settlements on his way. Finding the Cherokees rather in

flamed than intimidated by these

proceedings, he advanced to Etchoe, their capital, not far from whence

| they had posted themselves to oppose

his further progress. (June 27th.) In doing so he had to pass through a hollow valley covered with brushwood, through which ran a muddy river with clay banks. To scour this dangerous pass, Colonel Morrison advanced with a company of Rangers, when the Indians, suddenly springing from their ambush, killed him at the first shot, with several of his men. The light infantry being now moved forward, a warm fire was kept up on both sides, but the Indians still maintained the post without flinching, till, threatened in the flank by a movement of the agile Highlanders, they slowly fell back and reluctantly yielded the pass, posting themselves upon a hill, to watch the movements of their invaders. Supposing that Montgomery was advancing towards Etchoe, they ran to give the alarm to their wives and children, and prepare for a still more desperate resistance. But the English commander, deeming it not prudent to attempt anything further, retired to Charleston and prepared to leave for the north, in obedience to orders. The Upper Cherokees now beleaguered Fort Loudon, the garrison of which, almost in a starving condition, under promise of safe conduct had surrendered, early in August. But the promise was not kept. A few miles from the fort they were surrounded by a body of Indians, who opened a heavy fire upon them, which killed Captain Demeré, the commandant, and nearly thirty others, and carried off the remainder into captivity. The Cherokees, who could now muster three thousand warriors, continued to

ravage the frontiers, and inspired such

fear, that Amherst was earnestly solicited to send back the troops he had withdrawn. The conquest of Canada being now achieved, the Highland regiment commanded by Colonel Grant returned to Carolina; reinforced by the colonial militia and scouts dressed in Indian costume, Grant advanced, with two thousand six hundred men, to the spot where Montgomery had been repulsed, (June 10th.) The Cherokees bravely maintained the struggle for several hours, but were at length entirely defeated; their towns and magazines destroyed, their cornfields ravaged, and they themselves forced to retreat into the desolate recesses of their mountains. Their resources being thus cut off, they were compelled to sue for peace. In order to obtain it, they were at first required to deliver four warriors to be shot at the head of the army, or to furnish four green Indian scalps within twenty days; a degrading and brutal condition, from which they were relieved by the personal application of one of their aged chiefs to Governor Bull. Notwithstanding the exulting feeling prevalent, everywhere, on account of the triumph of English arms in America, there was no lack of evidence how jealously the colonists regarded any invasion, real or supposed, of their rights and privileges. The question respecting “writs of assistance,” is a significant illustration of this fact. . Pownall, early in August, 1760, had been succeeded as Governor of Massachusetts by Francis Bernard. This latter held high notions of the authority of the mother country over the

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colonies. His zealous efforts to promote the objects of the ministry at home, were warmly seconded by Thomas Hutchinson, who had lately been appointed lieutenant-governor, and also chief justice, to the disappointment of Otis, who had been promised a seat on the bench by Pownall. It was at this juncture that, owing to a trade opened by the colonists with the French islands, by which they obtained supplies, orders had been given by the English ministry for the stricter enforcement of the acts of trade, already so odious to the mercantile interest and the people at large. To prevent evasion of the law, orders were sent to apply to the judicature for “writs of assistance,” that is, for permits to break into and search any suspected place. It was not long before the custom-house officers applied for the issue of the writs, to which the merchants determined to offer the most strenuous opposition, and retained Thatcher and James Otis, son of the speaker, to plead on their behalf. Otis, as advocate of the Admiralty, was bound to argue in favor of the writs, but urged by patriotic zeal, he resigned his office, and accepted the retainer of the merchants. On the day appointed for the trial, the council-chamber of the old town-house in Boston, was crowded with the officers of government and the principal inhabitants of the city. The case was opened by the advocate for the crown, who founded his long and elaborate argument on the principle, that the parliament of Great Britain is Supreme legislator of the British em

pire. Thatcher, who was one of the VoI. I.-34

first lawyers of the city, replied in an ingenious and able speech, resting his arguments upon considerations purely legal and technical. But Otis, who followed him, was not to be restrained within these narrow and inconvenient limits. He assailed the acts of trade as oppressive and even unconstitutional, and with a fire and vehemence which carried everything before them, he roused the Bostonians and the public at large, to a consideration of questions soon to assume a position of the gravest importance. “Otis was a flame of fire,” says John Adams, in his sketch of the scene. “With a promptitude of classical allusion, a depth of research, a rapid summary of historical events and dates, a profusion of legal authorities, a prophetic glance into futurity, and a rapid torrent of impetuous eloquence, he hurried away all before him. The seeds of patriots and heroes were then and there sown. Every man of an immensely crowded audience appeared to me, to go away, as I did, ready to take arms against ‘writs of assistance.” Then and there was the first scene of the first act of opposition to the arbitrary claims of Great Britain. Then and there, the child Independence was born. In fifteen years, that is, in 1776, he grew up to manhood, and declared himself free.” The influence of Otis's fervid eloquence was widely felt in the approaching dispute with the mother country. He himself was elected a representative from Boston, and became a leading member of the House. The “writs of assistance,” although granted, were too unpopular to be used, except in rare cases.

Canada having been conquered, the British arms were next directed against the French West India Islands, General Monckton, in November, 1761, sailed from New York, with two line-of-battle ships, a hundred transports and twelve thousand regular and colonial troops. Among his officers were Gates and Montgomery, afterwards celebrated in the Revolutionary War. The expedition was completely successful, and all the islands then in possession of the French, were wrested from them. A family compact between the different branches of the house of Bourbon, had engaged Spain to side with France, and declare war against Great Britain. To humble this new enemy was the next object of her arms, and an expedition was shortly afterwards sent out, which, in August, 1762, wrested Havana from Spain. The arms of England were every where triumphant, her cruisers swept the seas, and her rivals were obliged to consent to a humiliating peace. On the 3d of November, 1762, the preliminaries of peace were signed at Fontainebleau, by which the whole of North America, from the Mississippi to the Atlantic, was ceded to Great Britain. The island and city of New Orleans were eded to Spain, with all Louisiana west

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“The present contest for territorial and commercial supremacy had extended even to the East Indies, thus, as it were, encircling the globe. A twenty years’ struggle in Hindostan, between the French and English East India Companies, had ended in the complete triumph of the English, securing to them the dominion of the Carnatic and Bengal; the begonning of that career of territorial aggrandizement in India, since so remarkably carried out.”—Hildreth's “JHistory of the United States,” vol. ii., p. 501.

of the Mississippi, then almost in a state of nature. Havana was also restored to her in lieu of Florida, which, divided into East and West Florida, now became provinces of the British empire in America. On the 10th of February, 1763, the peace of Paris was publicly ratified, between the contending powers. It was in this same year that a wide spread combination among the Indians, led to fearful ravages on their part. The Delawares and Shawanese, now occupying the banks of the Muskingum, Sciota, and Miami, provoked by being crowded rudely by the settlers fast pouring across the Alleganies, and perhaps incited by the artful representation of French fur traders, made a simultaneous attack, in June, along the whole frontier of Pennsylvania and Virginia. The noted Pontiac, a man. of superior ability, was the moving spirit of this confederation, and it tasked to the utmost, the powerful influence of Sir William Johnson, to keep the Six Nations from joining Pontiac. against the white men.” The English traders were plundered and slain, and the posts between the Ohio and Lake Erie, were surprised and taken. Only Niagara, Detroit, and Fort Pitt held out, the two latter being closely blockaded; and the troops which Amherst sent to relieve them did not reach their destination without severe encounters. This onslaught provoked a bloody

1763

* As our limits do not admit of details, we must refer the reader to Mr. Parkman's admirably written volume, “JHistory of the Conspiracy of Pontiac, and the War of the North American Tribes against the JEnglish Colonies, after the Conquest of Canada.”

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retaliation on the part of a body of Scotch and Irish settlers in Paxton township, Pennsylvania. They attacked a friendly and harmless tribe, living under the guidance of some Moravian missionaries, murdered men, women, and children indiscriminately, forced their way into Lancaster workhouse, where some of the fugitives had taken refuge, and killed them, and then marched down to Philadelphia, in January, 1764, to exterminate a body of Indians who had fled to that city. It was with much difficulty that Franklin succeeded in forming a body of militia, to defend the city, and in compelling the

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Progress of settlements — Advances in wealth, learning, and art — Recuperative energies of the colonies—The flame

of liberty – How the collision was hastened on — Causes which led to the contest — M. Guizot's philosophical remarks – Policy of the English government in having ten thousand troops in America — Authority of parliament over the colonies — Not quite clear what it was — Walpole's view as to taxation — George Grenville's plan – How the news was received in America—Resolution of the General Court in Massachusetts — Instructions to the Agent in England — Otis's bold pamphlet — Action in the other colonies — Reasons for Grenville's delay in not pressing the passage of the stamp act — View of the colonists on this point — Excitement in regard to it; but urged forward — Ignorance in England of America's true condition — Taxation and Representation inseparable — Townshend's inquiry—Colonel Barré's eloquent rejoinder — The bill passed — Franklin's letter to Thompson — The “Quartering Act”—Patrick Henry and the Virginia Assembly — Resolutions — Violent debate—Henry's speech — Colos IAL CoNGREss recommended— Popular outbreaks in various places against the stamp tax — Assembling of the Colonial Congress in New York–Its acts — No stamps allowed to be used — Riot in New York — The stamp act treated with general contempt – “Sons of Liberty” —Change in the English ministry – Parliament of 1766 — Pitt's great speech — Grenville's speech — Pitt's eloquent reply — Franklin's evidence before the House of Commons— Repeal of the stamp act proposed and carried — Saving clause in regard to its repeal — Camden's views — The king's assent — General joy in England at this result. APPENDIX To CHAPTER X. — I. Franklin's Letter to W. Alexander, Esq. — II. The Stamp Act.

THE subjugation of Canada and the Indian tribes in the north-east, gave a fresh and vigorous impulse to the settlements in Maine, which although among

the oldest in North America, had been very seriously retarded by successive wars with the Indians. New settlers began to occupy the Lower Kennebec,

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