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tion was exhausted; and as Webb gave no relief, Monro was compelled to surrender. The garrison was to be allowed to march out with the honors of war, and they and their baggage to be protected as far as Fort Edward. The Indian allies with Montcalm were greatly displeased at these terms, and greedy of the plunder, they fell upon the unarmed and retreating troops. It must always remain doubtful how far Montcalm was able or willing to restrain the savages in their detestable act of treachery, when hundreds fell victims to the fury of the red men. “The fort,” says Israel Putnam, in speaking of this dreadful scene, “was entirely demolished, the barracks, and Outhouses, and buildings, were a heap of ruins; the cannon, stores, boats, and vessels, were all carried away. The fires were still burning; the smoke and stench offensive and suffocating. Innu

merable fragments, human skulls, and

bones, and carcasses, half consumed, were still frying and broiling in the decaying fires. Dead bodies, mangled with scalping knives and tomahawks, in all the wantonness of Indian fierceness and barbarity, were everywhere to be seen. More than one hundred women, butchered, and shockingly mangled, lay upon the ground, still weltering in their gore. Devastation, barbarity, and horror, everywhere appeared, and the spectacle presented was too diabolical and awful either to be endured or described.” The fall of Fort William Henry caused great alarm in the colonies. Twenty thousand militia were ordered out in Massachusetts; but Montcalm,

satisfied with his present success, retired to Canada without further trial of strength with his enemies. Thus, after three campaigns, and large efforts on the part of the colonists, the French were still masters. Louisburg, Crown Point, Ticonderoga,” Frontenac, and Niagara, and the chain of posts thence to the Ohio, were still in their hands. They had destroyed the forts at Oswego, and, compelling the Six Nations to neutrality, were able to keep up a devastating warfare all along the frontiers. No wonder that discontent prevailed everywhere; no wonder that it was deemed high time for new counsels, and more vigorous measures to be adopted. It was at this time that William Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham, was called, more through popular urgency, than from any liking of George II., to the entire control of foreign and colonial affairs. Conscious that he, if any man, was able to save the country, his measures were characterized with a vigor commensurate with the necessity, while the agents appointed to carry them into execution were selected with wise discrimination. His plans for the conquest of Canada infused new life into the colonists, and as they were besides to be repaid for the expense of their levies, large forces of provincials were very soon collected, while, by the arrival of fresh reinforce

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* Ticonderoga is a corruption of Cheonderoga, an Iroquois word, signifying 8ounding waters,. and was applied by the Indians to the rushing waters of the outlet of Lake George at the falls. The French built a fort here in 1756, which they named Fort Caril

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ments from England, Abercrombie, who remained commander-in-chief, soon found himself at the head of a force of fifty thousand men, a number greater than the whole male population of New France. Louisburg, Ticonderoga, and Fort Duquesne, were all to be attacked at once. The first blow was struck at Louisburg. Early in June, Boscawen made his appearance before that fortress with a fleet of thirty-eight ships of war, and an army of fourteen thousand men under General Amherst. The garrison at Louisburg was three thousand in number, and eleven ships of war were in the harbor. The works were considerably out of repair, and were not in a condition to stand a regular siege ; so that after a vigorous approach on the part of the English, and severe loss on the side of the French, the garrison was compelled, on the 27th of July, to capitulate. Wolfe, who was destined to accomplish so great things not long after, was promiment in conducting this expedition to its successful issue. Thus Louisburg, with all its artillery, provisions, and military stores, as also St. John's Island (now Prince Edward's), and their dependencies, were placed in the hands of the English, who, without farther dif. ficulty, took possession of the island of Cape Breton. The conquerors found two hundred and twenty-one pieces of cannon, and eighteen mortars, with a very large quantity of stores and ammunition. The inhabitants of Cape Breton were sent to France in English ships; but the garrison, sea officers, sailors, and marines, amounting collec


tively to nearly six thousand men, were carried prisoners to England. Amherst sailed back to Boston with his troops, and thence marched to the western frontier. Some weeks before the fall of Louisburg, General Abercrombie, with about sixteen thousand men, embarked at Fort William Henry, and passed down Lake George, to commence operations against Ticonderoga. Israel Putnam, afterwards famous in the Revolution, held the rank of major at the time, and commanded a company of well-known and very effective rangers. After debarking at the landing place in a cove on the west side of the lake, the troops were formed into four columns, the British in the centre, and the provincials on the flanks. In this order they marched toward the advanced guard of the French, which, consisting of one battalion only, posted in a logged camp, destroyed what was in their power, and made a precipitate retreat. While Abercrombie was continuing his march in the woods towards Ticonderoga, the columns were thrown into confusion, and in some degree entangled with each other. At this juncture, Lord Howe, at the head of the right centre column, fell in with a part of the advanced guard of the enemy, which had been lost in the wood in retreating from Lake George. Accompanying Putnam, who tried to dissuade him, Howe dashed through the woods, attacked and dispersed the French, killing a considerable number, and taking one hundred and forty-eight prisoners. In this skirmish the gallant Howe received a musket shot in the

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breast, and fell dead upon the field.” Ticonderoga was held by some two thousand Frenchmen. Having learned that reinforcements were expected to arrive soon, Abercrombie resolved on an assault without waiting for his artillery. The troops having received orders to advance briskly, to rush upon the enemy's fire, and reserve their own till they had passed the breastwork, marched to the assault with great intrepidity. Unlooked-for impediments, however, occurred. In front of the breastwork, to a considerable distance, trees had been felled with their branches outward, many of which were sharpened to a point, by means of which the assailants were not only retarded in their advance, but becoming entangled among the boughs, were exposed to a very galling and destructive fire. Finding it impossible to pass the breastwork, which was nine feet high, and much stronger than had been represented, Abercrombie, after a contest of four hours, abandoned the attack, and the next day made a hasty retreat to Fort William Henry. His conduct was regarded with so little favor, that he was superseded, and Amherst was appointed commander-in


* No one of the royal officers was so popular and so universally admired as Lord Howe, and his death was regarded as a public calamity. It is in regard to him that the story is told of the noted Stark, the hero of Bennington, who knew him, and loved him well. Stark is said to have declared his apprehension that, had Howe lived, he could not have been a true whig in the Revolution –so great an influence was exercised by this accomplished and brave young nobleman. Massachusetts erected a fitting monument, in Westminster Abbey, to testify their unfeigned sorrow in losing him.

VoI. I.-33

No further attempt was made on Ticonderoga, at the present. As some compensation, however, for this defeat, Colonel Bradstreet, with three thousand men, marched to Oswego, and embarking in vessels already provided, ascended the lake, and landed, August 25th, at Fort Frontenac, (now Kingston). The place was feebly garrisoned, and as the attack was entirely unexpected, its success was speedy and certain. Nine armed vessels were taken, and the fort, with a large store of provisions, was destroyed. Bradstreet lost but few men in the attack, but sickness carried off some five hundred of his troops. On the return, the soldiers aided in building Fort Stanwix, on the site where the village of Rome is now situate.

The expedition against Fort Duquesne, was put under the command of General Forbes. His force consisted of seven thousand men, including the Pennsylvania and Virginia troops, and the Royal Americans from South Carolina. Great delay occurred in consequence of General Forbes not following the advice of Washington, to advance by the road already opened by Braddock, and ordering a new one to be cut from Raystown, on the Juniata. The vanguard to whom this work was committed, had been nearly cut off, like Braddock's, by a sudden surprise, having lost two hundred men, when Forbes, on November 8th, came up with the remainder of the forces. With fifty miles of road to open across the forests, the winter rapidly approaching, and the disheartened troops beginning to desert, it was contemplated to retrace


their steps, and abandon the enterprise, when, by the accidental capture of some prisoners, they learned the weakness and distress of the French garrison. Nerved by this intelligence, they determined on making a vigorous effort to gain possession of Fort Duquesne before it could be reinforced. Leaving their artillery behind, and pushing into the trackless forest, through which with their utmost efforts they were not able to advance more than a few miles a day, they had advanced within a few hours' march of the place, (November 24th,) when the French garrison, reduced to less than five hundred men, having set fire to the works, retreated down the Ohio. The abandoned fort now received an English garrison, and its name was changed from Duquesne to Pitt: the rest of the army retraced their steps, and the harassed frontiers of Virginia, Maryland, and Pennsylvania were now freed from the incursions of the Indians. On the eastern frontier, Fort Pownall was built on the Penobscot, to hold the Indians in check, and cut off their communication with Canada. The campaign of 1758, proving thus successful, Pitt found parliament both ready and eager to further his wishes in carrying on the war against Canada. The colonial Assemblies acted promptly and with energy, for nearly a million of dollars had been reimbursed to them on account of the year's expenses. Twenty thousand colonial troops were ready for service in the spring of 1759, and high hopes were entertained of brilliant success. The plan now adopted was substan

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tially the same as that which Phipps and Warren had successively failed to execute. Amherst was to advance by way of Lake Champlain, with twelve thousand regulars and provincials; and General Prideaux was to proceed to the reduction of Niagara. Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Niagara being disposed of, Amherst and Prideaux with their forces were to co-operate with Wolfe against Quebec. This heroic officer” had sailed early in the spring from England, and had made his appearance in the St. Lawrence, in June, with an army of eight thousand regular troops, in three brigades, under Monckton, Townshend, and Murray. Various delays occurred to hinder the progress of General Amherst; and it was the latter part of July, when he appeared before Ticonderoga. As the naval superiority of Great Britain had prevented France from sending out reinforcements, none of the posts in this quarter were able to withstand so great

* James Wolfe, the second son of a colonel who had served under Marlborough, was born at the vicarage of Westerham, in Kent, on the 2d of January, 1727. When first he entered the army in his father's company, he was a lad of fourteen, and so delicate that he was obliged to be landed at Portsmouth. On his recovery, he joined the troops, was engaged at Dettingen and Fontenoy, and at the engagement of La Feldt was publicly thanked by the Duke of Cumberland on the battle-field. His remarkable merit soon attracted the eye of Pitt, who, overleaping the ordinary rules of the service, made him a brigadier-general, and associated him with Amherst in the expedition against Louisburg. His natural character displayed a union of qualities but seldom united ; delicate in frame, excitable in temperament, refined in tastes, and with a love of domestic enjoyments, he was no less daring, energetic, and desirous of obtaining distinction in the service of his country.

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a force as that under Amherst. Ticon-
deroga was immediately abandoned;
the example was followed at Crown
Point; and the only way in which the
French seemed to think of preserving
their province was by retarding the
English army with shows of resistance
till the season of operation should be
past, or till, by the gradual concentra-
tion of their forces, they should become
numerous enough to make an effectual
stand. A succession of storms upon
the lake, and the want of vessels, ren-
dered it impossible for Amherst to
carry out the portion of the plan de-
pendent on him, and instead of joining
Wolfe or advancing upon Montreal, he
was compelled to go into winter quar-
ters at Crown Point. The New Hamp-
shire Rangers, under Major Rogers, in
September and October, made a suc-
cessful foray against the Indian village
of St. Francis, which they destroyed
completely, and thus relieved the New
England frontier of the dreaded attacks
from that noted spot.
General Prideaux, early in July,
reached Niagara with a considerable
force. While directing the operations
of the siege, he was killed by the burst-
ing of agun, and the command devolved
on Sir William Johnson. That general,
prosecuting with judgment and vigor
the plan of his predecessor, pushed the
attack of Niagara with an intrepidity
that soon brought the besiegers within
a hundred yards of the covered way.
Meanwhile, the French, alarmed at the
danger of losing a post which was a
key to their interior empire in America,
had collected a large body of regular

troops from the neighboring garrisons

of Detroit, Venango, and Presqu’ile, with which, and a party of Indians, they resolved, if possible, to raise the siege. But they were totally routed, and a large part taken prisoners. The fort surrendered the next day, and six hundred men with it; these were carried to New York. According to the plan marked out, Johnson ought now to have advanced to co-operate with Amherst and Wolfe on the St. Lawrence; but the want of proper shipping and scarcity of provisions, put this quite out of his power. Thus, as it happened, Wolfe was left to carry on the siege and reduction of Quebec single handed.

As we have stated above, Wolfe, on the 26th of June, arrived off the Isle of Orleans. Quebec, that Gibraltar of America as it has been termed, was defended by the Marquis de Montcalm, with a force of two thousand regulars and several thousand militia and Indians. The attack having been long foreseen, as Murray relates, in his History of British America,” full time was allowed Montcalm to entrench and strengthen his position, but the supply of provisions was very limited. An attempt was first made to destroy the British fleet by fire-ships; but these were caught with grappling irons, towed aside, and allowed to burn out without doing any injury. Brigadiergeneral Monckton then occupied Point Levi, opposite Quebec, which was thence bombarded with vigor; but, though a number of houses were destroyed, the defences remained almost uninjured. The place therefore could

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* Vol. i., p. 175—178.

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