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CH. VII.]

VARIOUS SETTLEMENTS EFFECTED. 73

rooting out of heretical pravity, a spe

cies of work which they were con

stantly called upon to undertake, but which, however well done, seemed very frequently to require to be done over again. One beneficial effect resulted certainly from the stringent regulations in Massachusetts, and that was the causing emigrations in different directions. Roger Williams, as before related, had laid the foundation of Rhode Island, and Davenport, in 1638, desirous of enjoying a separate community, which should be for ever free from the innovations of error and licentiousness, established the colony of New Haven. Wheelwright, banished for his participation in the heresies of Mrs. Hutchinson, went forth and planted Exeter. Captain Underhill, involved in the same quarrel, and charged moreover with a license in re

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gard to creature comforts quite unbe

coming in austere Massachusetts, was expelled, notwithstanding his services in the field; upon which he retired to Dover. Others also departed as occasion demanded, and thus separate congregations and settlements were sprinkled over the face of the country. Among these, was that of Rowley, in Massachusetts, formed by a company of Yorkshire clothiers, under the pastoral care of Ezekiel Rogers. In the spring of 1637, a proclamation was issued in England to put a stop to the emigration of Puritans; and a year afterwards, when a squadron of eight ships, which were in the Thames, was preparing to embark for New England, the privy council interfered

to prevent its sailing. It has been VoI. I—12.

asserted that Hampden and Cromwell were on board this fleet; but there seems no good ground for the assertion, neither of them being likely to take such a step in the then position of af. fairs at home. The ships were delayed only a few days, when the king removed the restraint, and the vessels arrived in safety in Massachusetts Bay. The coast of Maine had also, here and there, a few settlements, but their progress was for some time extremely slow. Sir Ferdinando Gorges, who, during thirty years had persevered in his efforts at colonization, and had sunk in these efforts nearly $100,000, obtained a royal charter for his American provinces, in 1639. On the receipt of this charter, Gorges drew up an elabo

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Wyatt governor of Virginia — Yeardley — West — Letter to the king — Harvey governor — Revisal of the laws —Various regulations — Division into counties — Jealousy of Maryland — Complaints against Harvey — Goes to England — Returns to Virginia — Harvey's administration—Wyatt's administration — Sir William Berkeley — His character — Second revisal of laws — Parliamentary commissioners’ efforts — Colony firm in loyalty — War with the Indians — Independence of Virginia — Authority of Parliament enforced — Bennet, Diggs, Matthews, governors — Sir William Berkeley reëlected — Desire for restoration of monarchy — Principles of REVISAs, OF THE VIRGINIA. CODE. 75

popular liberty.

ON the accession of Charles I., in 1625, although Sir Francis Wyatt's commission as governor of Virginia, was renewed in the same terms as under James, he soon after returned to England, and Yeardley was appointed his successor. Yeardley died the next year, much lamented by the colonists, and the Council elected Francis West governor pro tempore. From a letter addressed to the king by West and the Council, we learn that the industry and energy of the colony were hardly equal to what might have been expected. War against the Indians was still existing;

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there was but little enterprise and capital; and, in fact, the staple product was that “nauseous, unpalatable weed, tobacco, neither of necessity nor ornament to human life.” Notwithstanding, however, these and similar disadvantages to which Virginia was subjected, the population continued to increase with rapidity, and in 1628, more than a thousand emigrants arrived from Europe. Dr. John Potts was elected by the Council, in 1629, in place of West, which office he held for a short time, until the arrival of John Harvey, who had recently been appointed to the

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CH. VIII.]

government of the colony. Potts fell into trouble under charge of no very creditable character, viz., that of cattle-stealing; but nothing of moment grew out of it. Harvey built a new fort at Point Comfort, at the entrance of James River, and a fee, in powder and ball, was demanded of every ship that passed. Salt-works were also established on the eastern shore of Chesapeake Bay. In 1632, a revisal of the laws took place, by which they were consolidated into a single statute, a process which it was found expedient to repeat on several subsequent occasions. The regulations in regard to religion and morals were numerous, and evince the care and concern of the authorities to promote godliness among the people. These regulations covered such points as the publishing bans of marriage, catechizing children, the number of times the ministers should preach, during the year, and administer the communion, the tithes for the support of religion, punishments for drunkenness, profane swearing, adultery, slander, etc. Attempts were made to limit the amount of tobacco produced, and thus increase its price in the English market. The price had fallen to sixpence per pound, and very serious competition had arisen from the English planters in the Island of Barbadoes, and other settlers in the Leeward Isles. The colonists were required to cultivate a certain portion of the soil in corn, and to plant and rear vines. Military exercises were to be kept up; no parley was to be held with Indians; no emigration to New England was to

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take place without leave of the governor. This revised code was read at the beginning of every monthly court, and a manuscript copy was furnished, Open to public inspection. Two years subsequently, in 1634, the colony was divided into eight counties, the governor appointing the lieutenants for each county, and the people choosing the sheriff;-so that after many trials, and many obstacles in the way of its growth, Virginia at that date may be regarded as having taken deep and abiding root in the soil of the new empire fast rising into importance in the western hemisphere. The new colony of Maryland was not looked on with much favor by the Virginians, and they generally felt that it was an encroachment on their just rights. Harvey had rendered himself very unpopular by the adoption of measures obnoxious to the feelings of a large party in Virginia; the consequence of which was, that he was suspended by the Council. An assembly was called to receive complaints against Harvey, and he took his departure for England, to answer there any charges which might be preferred against him. The charges were not even heard, and the deposed Harvey returned, in 1636, with a new commission, and with a spirit not improved in kindliness towards the colonists. He remained several years in office, and, according to some writers, exercised his powers with much severity, and even tyranny, until at length he was superseded by Sir Francis Wyatt, in 1639. It is but justice, however, to state that

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