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Alaska has a territorial delegate in the House of Representatives at Washington. The delegate is the political tie which binds the Territory to the federal government. The territorial delegate is elected every two years by popular vote. He has a right to a seat in the House of Representatives and receives the same salary as other members of Congress. He serves on committees and may speak on all questions pertaining to his Territory, but he has no vote.
III. Indian Reservations and National Parks. In the management of the territory that has been under its control the National government has from time to time marked off and reserved certain lands for the use of the Indians. Scattered over the country there are in all about 150 of these Indian reservations. Some of them have a very large area. The Navajo reservation in Arizona has an area considerably larger than the State of Maryland. An Indian reservation is a kind of Dependency of the United States. The tribes living on a reservation are under the control of Congress. The National government protects the Indians on the reservation against injustice at the hands of the white man, gives them food supplies, and supports schools among them. The interests of the Indians on the reservations are looked after by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, one of the bureaus in the Department of the Interior.
In the management of its public domain the National government has also set off several large tracts of land to be used as parks. These national parks are in some instances of vast extent. The Yellowstone National Park has an area nearly half as great as that of Massachusetts.
IV. The Panama Canal Strip. This consists of a zone of land of the width of ten miles, extending to the distance of five miles on each side of the central line of the route of the Panama Canal. The region has been placed under the control of a governor who is appointed by the President. The canal itself is absolutely neutral, being free and open to the vessels of commerce and war of all nations. The toll rates on the canal are the same for the vessels of all nations and the vessels of no nation, not even those of the United States, are exempted from the payment of tolls. It is provided by treaties that the canal shall never be blockaded and that no act of hostility shall ever be committed in it. Warships must pass through the canal with the least possible delay and no belligerent vessel while in the canal may embark or disembark troops or munitions of war.
The Insular Territories and Dependencies are: Hawaii, annexed by a joint resolution of Congress in 1898 (July 7); Porto Rico, occupied July 25, 1898, by military forces of the United States under General Miles; the Philippine Islands, occupied August 13, 1898, by military forces under Admiral Dewey; Guam, seized by the United States navy during the war with Spain in 1898; the Virgin Islands acquired from Denmark in 1917.
I. Hawaii. The Hawaiian Islands are governed under the name of "The Territory of Hawaii” by an act of Congress passed in 1900. This act provides that the Territory shall have a properly elected legislature of two houses. The powers of the territorial legislature are similar to those of a State legislature. A law of the territorial legislature can be annulled by Congress. The executive power of the Territory is vested in a governor appointed by the President of the United States for a term of four years. The powers and duties of the Governor correspond very closely to those of a governor of a State. Other executive officers provided for are a secretary of the Territory, an attorney-general, a treasurer, a commissioner of public works, a superintendent of public instruction, a surveyor and an auditor. These are appointed by the governor of the Territory and confirmed by the territorial senate. The judicial power of the territory is vested in a supreme court and in circuit courts. The judges of both the supreme court and of the circuit courts are appointed by the President of the United States. The legislature is empowered to provide for Hawaii a system of local government consisting of counties, towns and municipalities. Hawaii, like Alaska, has a Delegate in the House of Representatives. The inhabitants of Hawaii are citizens of the United States.
II. Porto Rico. The organic act establishing the present government of the island was passed by Congress in 1917. The act contains a bill of rights which accords to the citizens of Porto Rico civil rights similar to those enjoyed by citizens of the United States. Legislative power in the island is vested in a legislature consisting of a senate and a house of representatives. Both senators and representatives are elected by the voters. A law passed by the legislature may be vetoed by the governor but the veto may be overruled, and if it is overruled the law is sent to the President for approval or disapproval. The executive power in the island is vested in a governor appointed by the President. The President also appoints an attorney general and a commissioner of education. A treasurer, a commissioner of the interior, a commissioner of agriculture and labor and a commissioner of health are appointed by the governor.
The judicial system of the island consists of a Supreme Court composed of judges appointed for life or good behavior by the President; of district courts presided over by judges appointed by the governor; and of municipal courts whose judges are elected by the people.
The organic act for Porto Rico provides that the voters of the island every two years shall elect a commissioner, who shall be entitled to official recognition as such by all the departments at Washington. This commissioner in the intention of the law is plainly not a delegate, yet by the grace of the House of Representatives he has been accorded the right to speak in that body and to serve on its committees. For all practical purposes, therefore, he is in reality a territorial Delegate, although Porto Rico can hardly be said to be a Territory, for it is not a part of the United States. Under the act of 1917 inhabitants of Porto Rico not citizens of a foreign country were declared to be citizens of the United States.
III. The Philippine Islands. Congress has given to the Filipinos the form of government which has seemed best suited to their needs, changing the form from time to time as conditions on the islands have changed. At present (1918) the legislative power in the Philippines is vested in the Philippine Legislature, which consists of two houses, a senate and a house of representatives. Both senators and representatives are elected by the qualified voters. The members of both houses of the Legislature must be residents of the islands. Any law enacted by the Legislature must be affirmed by the Governor General, who may veto a law, but whose veto may be overruled by the Legislature. A law passed over the head of the Governor General is sent to the President for approval or disapproval. If the President approves it becomes a law; if not, it does not become a law. The executive power in the island is vested in the Governor General of the Philippine Islands, an officer appointed by the President.
The Philippine Islands have no delegate in Congress, yet they are permitted to send to Washington two commissioners who appear before the committees of Congress and represent the interests of the Islands.
The judicial system of the Islands includes a supreme court, consisting of a chief justice and six associate justices, courts of general trial for the provinces, and justices' courts for the municipalities. The judges of the supreme court are appointed by the President of the United States, but the judges of the provincial courts and the justices of the peace are