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All Debts contracted and Engagements en125 tered into, before the Adoption of this con
stitution, shall be as valid against the United States under this Constitution, as under the Confederation.
This Constitution, and the Laws of the 126 United States which shall be made in Pur
suance thereof; and all Treaties made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United States, shall be the supreme Law
of the Land; and the Judges in every State 127 shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the
Constitution or Laws of any State to the
The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and
of the several States, shall be bound by Oath 128 or Affirmation, to support this Constitution;
but no religious Test shall ever be required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under the United States.
129 The Ratification of the Conventions of
nine States, shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution between the States so ratifying the same.
Done in Convention by the Unanimous Consent of the States present the Seventeenth Day of September in the Year of our Lord thousand seven hundred and Eighty seven and of the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth. In 130 Witness whereof We have hereunto subscribed our Names,
and deputy from Virginia
CHARLES COTESWORTH PINCKNEY South Carolina
ADDITION TO, AND AMENDMENT OF
CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES
PROPOSED BY CONGRESS AND RATIFIED BY THE LEGISLATURES OF THE SEVERAL STATES, PURSUANT TO THE
FIFTH ARTICLE OF THE CONSTITUTION
Congress shall make no law respecting an 131 establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the free- 132 dom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to 133 petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
A well regulated militia, being necessary 134 to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
135 No soldier shall, in time of peace be quar
tered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
136 The right of the people to be secure in their
persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
No person should be held to answer for a 137 capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless
on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in the time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any Criminal Case to be a witness against himself, nor be