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An unstable rule in the Philippines or one Precisely what has resulted in Mexico from of weakness offers tremendous opportunities the withdrawal of American moral and for the lawless; demagogues springing up physical influence following the fall of the would offer rewards to those who would fol

Huerta government. low them.

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(See illustrations in Alcogravure Section) 'M getting more out of this art criticism his employer for some supposed neglect in

than I got out of my two years of his task of wrapping up sugar and four.

work in art schools in New York and Perhaps he had packed up flour instead of Chicago."

sugar, or undercharged a customer, or sent a The speaker was a young Western woman wrong total to the bookkeeper ; at any rate, who was preparing for a career as a sculptor. when he was thus reprimanded for possibly She spoke at the conclusion of the afternoon the first mistake in his thirteen years of faithsession of a summer school of pictorial pho- ful service, he wisely realized that the psychotography. So far as the writer knows, there logical moment had come for getting out is only one such school, and it is conducted forever from the grocery business and for by Clarence H. White at East Canaan, taking up his real foreordained work, pictureConnecticut.

making by photography. Pictorial photography? Is there any other The afternoon session of the school at which kind? There certainly is, and lots of it, the Western girl gave her tribute to Mr. in the opinion of the pictorialists. They try White was prepared for on this wise : Every to get away as far as possible from what they one of the score or more of pupils had gone call “commercial ” photography, from the out the previous day with his or her camera “snap-shots" that merely make a record of a to work out a “problem.” One was to conventional scene, and from the scientific pho- make a study of a figure under a tree ; antography that makes strictly accurate, optically other was to photograph a head, simply perfect negatives with anastigmatic lenses. lighted ; another, to make a child's portrait;

They want "atmosphere" in their photo- still another, a picture of a doorway or an graphs just as much as any painter wants it; ornamental window; while another worker they want beauty of tone and line; they was to make, perhaps, a study of "joyous want harmony, feeling, and pleasing compo- youth” or of a girl in a garden. The class sition; in a word, they want pictures, not had enthusiastically set forth to work out photographs. And they believe that pho- their problems. The exposed plates were tography is a means for making real pictures, developed late in the afternoon, or, by the just as much as is pencil or brush.

specially earnest workers, at night. In the Foremost among the pictorial photogra- morning the negatives, dry by this time, were phers who have preached this gospel is the “proofed,” and given to the instructor for head of the above-named school. And he examination. Then, before the assembled has inculcated his lesson so successfully, in class, gathered under a fine old tree for shade spite of some opposition on the part of peo- and coolness, the proofs were shown, critiple who begrudge photography a place in cised, praised and blamed. The teacher is the sun as a means of artistic expression, certainly remarkably keen and just in his that at least one great university has sanc- criticisms. “ There should be something of tioned his teaching of pictorial photography interest in every part of your print;" “ That within its walls, and another great popular obtrusive high light takes something away educational institution has now for several from what you are really photographing, and years announced him on its faculty of lec- should be sunned down ;" “ That is very turers. The summer school of pictorial nice; the interest follows pleasantly from the photography at East Canaan, Connecticut, arm to the head, then to the overhanging is the outgrowth of the ideas of this man. bough, and that leads us back again ;" “ The

White is a genius in his way, and was irre- foreground is mushy; you must learn to sistibly called to his work, like most indi- focus ;' “ That is very good indeed; there vidualistic men. He was for thirteen years is in it a nice quality of light and shade;" a clerk in a grocery store, but all his spare “The figure would be better if placed a little time was spent in doing experimental work higher on the plate;"> “Now you need an in photography and getting gold medals for accent of light here ; watch me put in a highit, and finally the thing got such a hold on light”—and the lecturer puts a small piece him that one day he was “called down" by of white paper on the proof, to its manifest improvement; “That is so good that I would there were problems of photographic plates like to see it done over again." These are and papers, “gum prints,” “ bromoils,” and samples of remembered criticisms. They other interesting mediums for advanced were indeed illuminative, and they were workers. There was, indeed, a judicious gently phrased. No one is ever offended by mixture of art and science in the course of this genial teacher. He is so manifestly instruction—the art side, as well as much anxious for the improvement of the learner practical advice, being furnished in endless that the victim of his severest criticism gets variety by Mr. White, and the science ably some consolation out of it and resolves at contributed in daily lectures by his assistant, once to try it again, and this time make a himself a well-known pictorialist, Mr. Paul L. picture worth while.

Anderson. And the school is in a place where there A summer school, to be of any use to is plenty of opportunity for picture-making. pupils who are occupying their vacations Its home is on a large farm in the Litchfield with a more useful form of activity than that Hills, and there are plenty of agricultural pic- furnished by the usual summer hotel or ture-making possibilities--haymakers, dairy boarding place, must have its play hour as workers, herds of cattle, plowmen. The well as its class time. And so the School of house itself where the camera people live is Pictorial Photography arranged for one or a pre-Revolutionary one which is said to have two picnics every week. Only, it could not been an inn once. Some quaint examples

Some quaint examples keep its enthusiastic members from carrying of antique furniture still survive in it. Its their working tools to the picnic groundsnearest neighbor has the date 1801 on its or waters, as it was in the case of the initial door lintel. Fine,old trees, very photograph- picnic, which involved an excursion to a able, line the highway; one of the elms near by charming lake for boating and bathing. is said to be the largest but one in the State. Then there was the trolley picnic through the A beautiful old church is in the quiet village, Berkshire Hills, passing Sheffield, Great Barand near it is a hillside cemetery which gave rington, and Stockbridge, loveliest of New the suggestion for one of the class problems- England villages, with incidental visits to the a competition for the best photograph to summering places of well-known artist phoillustrate a line from Gray's “ Elegy Written tographers-Mrs. Gertrude Kasebier among in a Country Churchyard." For this the them, and George H. Seeley, whose wellschool's leader offered as a prize one of his known poster-like pictures, all made in the own prints—and to his admirers this was as vicinity of Stockbridge, were exhibited to the if Whistler, in his teaching days, had offered class, and proved that one does not need to his pupils one of his own paintings as a spur travel far afield to find subjects for genuinely to quicken their industry. Another prize pictorial work. was offered for the best post-card photograph “ The angel sought so far away to celebrate the charms of little-known East

Is waiting at your door." Canaan.

Perhaps one of the chief benefits that The delightful thing about this summer come from such a gathering of kindred spirschool was the continual variety of interest its is in the pleasant social life that it enit offered. One day its leader would say, genders. What bright sallies at the dinner “We'll all go down by the river this morning table! What keen comments on art and and see what we can do with that as a prob- letters! What joyous mirth on the occasional lem.” And he was so enthusiastic in carry- straw rides by moonlight! Here the irreing out the suggestion of one worker there pressible talker finds his or her antidote in that her camera was actually carried out by the gay repartee that stops the flow of words ; him into midstream—it was a shallow place, the sententious story-teller has his grateful of course—to get a better point of view. opportunity; the quiet thinker is moved to “ Never mind wet feet, if we get a real pic- contribute his quota to the conversation ; the ture," was the leader's comment. Another organizer finds scope for his faculty in protime the demonstration took the form of moting dark-room and studio efficiency by showing the difference between a lens por forming co-operative committees; the “costrait and one made with a pinhole, both taken tume committee” shows its genius by proin full sunlight; then there was a procession viding unexpected wardrobes from the shelves of camera-carriers to the village church-a of the country store ; and in the taking of difficult but fascinating subject; and always - candlelight pictures " there is perhaps even




an opportunity for a harmless flirtation such other said, “ Now I wish you would take a as the wariest summer girl sometimes in- picture of us when we're dressed up ; I'd dulges in.

really like to have one of that kind !"--witThen the exhibition of prints, when the nessing to the universal wish to be “dolled last week comes, and all the neighbors drop up” when our photographs are taken, instead in to see what these camera cranks have been of looking like our usual selves as our friends doing. That surely was an occasion! Many know us. But on the whole the comments were the naïve comments. One of the good are kindly, and the school terminates its sesnatured farmers who had posed said, “ You sions with the good will of the entire comcertainly made me look like a tramp;” the munity, and the hope that its members will photographer's feelings were mollified when call again when summer days once more lure the farmer's hired man remarked, “ That's a the camera devotee to the woods and the good picture ; it looks just like ye.” An- fields and the riverside.





HEN one calls on the Cardinal, one preternaturally tall-six feet five, I think. wanders through long, white halls His face, thin, scholarly, ascetic, with sparse

in the archiepiscopal palace, through grayish-white hair above it, is bloodless, and cloisters formerly opened to wind and rain, his forehead so white that one feels one looks now closed and glassed from the elements by on the naked bone. His eyes are deep-set, a less heroic race. In the salon formerly the eyes of a man who sees a great deal. used for a reception-room a German shell There is a pleasantly humorous expression has torn through the roof and burst, leaving about the corners of the firm mouth, but the jagged fragments in the mirrors, so that they expression of his face in conversation shows are splintered like ice under the hammer and a man who knows what he thinks, measures fling grotesque reflections and spars of light what he says, and feels in advance the exact into the emptiness overhead. The daïs, with effect of every remark that he makes and of its crimson hangings, droops in shreds. The every look that he casts upon one. His hardwood floor is plowed and uprooted, black habit with the cardinal-red braid, the and carved cherubim smile placidly from the heavy gold chain about his neck and the débris. In still another room huddle por- heavy gold cross at his breast, the wide cartraits of archbishops of old ; saints and poli- dinal sash, and the black-skirted cassock—all ticians, some of them in Louis Quatorze serve to emphasize the old-ivory whiteness wigs ; and the familiar faces of Pius IX, Leo and tooled artistry of the fine face above XIII, and the present Pope, Benedict XV. them. There is something feminine in the

The Cardinal receives in a tiny white- Cardinal's face—a feminine deference and washed room, furnished with horsehair chairs, sympathy and comprehension perhaps-but walnut-wood desk and table, and a small coal the effect which he makes on a caller is the stove. On the walls are an image of the same that he makes on the world at large, Virgin, framed in glass, and a pencil drawing that of a finely poised, keenly intelligent, yet of the Cardinal as a boy. Through the win- very gentle Prince of the Church and shepdows one looks into a dead garden where herd of a nation. shells have plunged and burst.

The Cardinal is like a Degas painting, if They tell in Belgium of an American tourDegas had pictured cardinals instead of ist who called on the Cardinal. “You're a chorus-girls and ballet-dancers. He seems Catholic, ain't you, Mr. Cardinal ?” he in

quired. See the picture entitled "" The Christian Indictment' The Cardinal understands English, and - A Symbolic Portrait of Cardinal Mercier," in our alcogravure section in this issue.

gently answered, "Yes."

“Well, I'm a Presbyterian myself, but I for help, and in a moment more the warlike ain't got no prejudices," said the visitor. priest was under arrest and soldiers were

Unlike this American, the Cardinal has charging into the crowd. prejudices. He is strongly prejudiced in Then an extraordinary thing occurred. favor of Belgium, and any one or anything The Cardinal had continued on his way, but which helps Belgium. He is a steadfast up- the disturbance behind caused him to stop. holder of the work of Herbert C. Hoover and He saw the danger to the priest, retraced the Commission for Relief in Belgium. He his steps, and followed the soldiers having speaks in exalted terms of America and the priest in charge into a little guard-house. Americans. He is not afraid to be pro-Ally, Civilians and soldiers alike made way for the and his written and spoken words have been Prince of the Church. The Cardinal strode a keen embarrassment to the occupying gov- in, looking neither to the right nor to the left, ernment. In him conquered Belgium has his extraordinary height lifting him head and found a voice.

shoulders over the crowds about him. Then It has found also an example of patriotic he caught sight of the priest. Onlookers recalcitrance. In May, 1915, when Malines say he merely looked at him steadfastly, was isolated by Governor-General von Bissing raised his right arm, and beckoned; and, in an effort to force the railway repair-shop without a word having been spoken on either workmen to work for the Germans, and a side, the priest followed the Cardinal out of the cordon of soldiers was thrown about the city door and down the road, and they continued to keep the people from going in and out, the on their way to Brussels. Cardinal wished to go to Brussels to celebrate The Cardinal was then sixty-four years old, a High Mass. He sent word of this to the yet he walked from Malines to Vilvorde, a German commandant, but the commandant distance of seven miles, and there took the courteously replied that, on order of the Gov- electric tram. ernor-General, the Pass Bureau was closed, and that for the present no pass could be “ They are so stupid, these Germans ! issued to his Eminence. The Cardinal at Sometimes I feel that they are like silly, cruel once sent word to the commandant that he children, and that I should do something to would be obliged to walk to Brussels, and help them." two hours afterwards he left his palace on The Cardinalis quoted as having used foot, accompanied by two or three priests, these words, and they are a fair statement and began the long march south.

of his political attitude. Even in his disobeMen, women, and children thronged about dience to the powers that be he is always him, priests came from all over the city, and priest as well as Prince. This gives him an before the Cardinal was fairly started on his uncanny power over his people, and over the way his walk had taken on the character of invaders as well. It is impossible to dissoa dangerous popular demonstration.

ciate the paternal from the political reason At the first sentries he was stopped and for his acts, and so the Governor-General, his personal Ausweisa card of identifica- who is a bold, downright, hard-handed milition which all Belgians must carry-was de- tary administrator in Belgium, finds all mouths manded. After a brief argument, he and closed but one, all arms paralyzed but one, two of his priests were permitted to proceed. all heads outwardly humbled but one-and The crowd, however, was balked. An ex- that one the Cardinal's. Yet he can do cited argument began, and one of the soldiers nothing to change matters. The drama of arrested a priest. I am told that the priest re- Canossa and Canterbury is being played taliated by beating the sentry with an umbrella again in the twentieth century, and the priest and disarming him ; the second sentry called still is victor.

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