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1916

ACROSS THE CONTINENT WITH HUGHES

91

greatly needed leadership into National unity; human interest in the presence of the pecple and that, looking toward the future period which indicates that he is enjoying every of difficult international reconstruction which minute of it. I suppose the contrary view is soon to come, he must at least be careful of Hughes is partly due to the fact that he to preserve for himself and his party an hon has been on the bench and partly to the orable measure of good will from the great comparing of every Presidential candidate nations with whom we shall soon have to deal with Roosevelt, whose marvelous physical and intimately and intricately in time of peace. human exuberance has long held the world's It is a difficult task, but as the campaign record, and who, when in the West, is as proceeds I expect to see the Republican much a part of it as if he were born in it. candidate walk in it with wise and clear But the success of Hughes in overcoming vision.

the view that he was a sort of Supreme Court Speaking from a month's experience with abstraction was complete. The first day the many thousands of Western folks whose out began the dissipation of the myth, which opinions and sentiments I have sought to was wholly dissolved by the time he reached fathom, I am satisfied that they are as anxious the Coast. Almost his first public act in about the country and as loyal to it as any Detroit was to leap from the railing upon the fierce pro-German or pro-Ally protagonist concrete roof of the players' bench at the could possibly be, but that their highest sense park and shake hands with both teams and of patriotic purpose in the coming election chat with Ty Cobb, who is, of course, the rises only to the point of desiring a idol of American baseball enthusiasts. And party in power that will insure permanent it certainly caught the crowd and did business National unity and order and welfare with against the myth. “By golly," said a man out the disruptions and agitations of recent ' next to me, “there is nothing cold about years, and a President in office who can be him! He is a modest man, but he is all counted on in future emergencies to analyze right." And it rather shook the coolness of ihe facts and then “ go and do it ” swiftly and the home team, for the first ball pitched by righteously. And they will take him on the the Detroit twirler was lined out over Ty record of his deeds, and they care very little Cobb's head by Witt, of the Athletics, for a about what he says he thinks he would have home run. And Ty himself didn't field that done in this or that past contingency of the ball in perfect form. National life. I am writing it as I think I That was a good start against the myth. have found it in the mind of the average man And Hughes kept it up until it was demolor woman of the West. I am regretfully ished. He showed himself to the satisfaction compelled to concede that the instinctive of the West to be a real human being with feeling in the West, and the mass of the red blood and a knowledge of his kind. One people, for that matter, is that the danger to evening, as the sun was setting over the richest democracy and morality in the world at large. hill in the world at Butte, clad in miner's and the danger to the United States in par- trousers and jumper and rubber hat, he went ticular from foreign aggression is much exag- with the rest of us rattling down the shaft of gerated by the thin line of international ideal- a great copper mine two thousand feet, and ists on the Atlantic slope.

far into the recesses of one of the rock Somebody ought to write a book on the po- chambers he talked with the miners and litical myth. Our public life is full of material. worked the rock drill by the light of the lamp. Before the trip through the West the Hughes Every man who is a candidate for the Presicandidacy was suffering from a political dency, or for any great Federal or State myth, namely, that the candidate was cold, office, ought to have to do that, and by the reserved, an iceberg. one of the cold-storage ear-splitting noise of the drill and in the sweltwins, Fairbanks being the other. It is a tering temperature of ninety degrees learn little strange that the memory of the West something about what the length of a workwas so good as to what Hughes did when he ing day means in the hard and hazardous was Governor of New York, but not so good occupations of many of society's toilers. And as to the kind of a man and campaigner that we should then get the increasing influence he was. Nowhere in his public appearances of the human quality in government. is he stern or cold or forbidding. On the Hughes made himself one with the cowother hand, he is affable to a degree, and he boys at Miles City, with the knights of the has a winning smile and an exuberance of barbecue at Reno, as he rode into the auditorium and up to the very rostrum in an could commercialize Hughes on that day. automobile in Denver, with the rear-end Politics and profit stopped at the threshold. crowds at a hundred stopping-places--the And we all had a chance to reflect and get a West was satisfied with the human stuff there new vision of the right. is in him. And the thing you find yourself The reaction upon Hughes of his Western asking yourself is how a man who enjoys the trip was the reaction of democracy. Many world outside so much as Hughes could ever times he spoke of that. The great Northhave sat on the Supreme bench as long as west especially thrilled and inspired him. I he did. I suppose the answer is that the think I didn't hear him make a better speech Hughes on the Supreme bench was the in- than at Miles City, under the flags in the tellectual Hughes, the profound analyst and park, looking down from the band-stand upon student of legal as well as human affairs. the big, husky fellows, eager and strong, upon And there is no doubt that Hughes greatly the cowboys and the girls, upon the little folks enjoyed the bench. But you cannot help on big horses with the colts running after. feeling that he must be glad that once again Such enthusiasm, such response to ideals, he is breathing uncloistered air. I venture such a genuine body of folks! As we left to say that a large number of the several town the bunch of cowboys followed the hundred thousand who heard him in his trip train full tilt down the valley, the horses leapthrough the West have forgotten by this time ing backwards and forwards from one side that he was ever on the bench.

of the track to the other, or cautiously and A very powerful impression was made swiftly picking their way across it. One horse upon the West by the family and home aspect outfooted them all, and the last I heard as I of Governor Hughes's trip through the con- went inside was somebody from the rear stant presence with him of Mrs. Hughes, a platform shouting to the swift rider, “ Where sensible, strong, and splendid personality. are you going ?" and back came the answer, That suited the West. , It represented to the “ Going to follow you to Seattle.” You can't West, what above all else the West loves, the stop the spirit of the Northwest. And it is power and glory of a genuine American a good thing for the whole country that in home life. In the Painted Desert concession that whole section of the Nation there still of the San Diego Exposition they coddled lives the soul and vigor of democracy. This Indian babies together, and the babies cried is where Roosevelt was awakened. Rooseand the crowd laughed and cheered, and even velt was an idealist by inheritance and bethe Indians grinned. As they stood together came a radical in power, but he became a in front of the old Spanish lighthouse at San democrat in the Northwest. Democracy is Diego, overlooking a harbor as blue and its own inspiration to its wisest leaders. And beautiful as the Bay of Naples, watching the it was the power and vigor and possibilities Government hydroplanes hovering and flying of democracy which again and again found over us, I heard a dear old chap near me expression in the message of Hughes as he say, “ They are very common, ain't they, wended his way to the Coast. He talked just like the rest of us?.

everywhere of a strong, efficient National The tour of the West has made it clear that Government and the need of the use of Nathe Hughes appeal to the whole country will tional power, but it was all for the sake of be the appeal of an American, a democrat helping the cause of the whole people the who desires to see an organized country, women and children, labor, the defenseless, strong, efficient, and set upon doing what is those who cannot so well help themselves. right. He is an old-fashioned American in He exhorted them to have no fear that any his view of Sunday. We didn't travel on sinister power would frame up anything on that day. We rested and we went to church him, in the tariff, in Alaska, in monopolistic if we wished to. Mr. and Mrs. Hughes practice, anywhere else. If Hughes is going always did. There is nothing narrow about to be President, and I hope he is, it will it. It is a day for good cheer and recreation always help that he made his first great camand rest. But neither the moving-picture paign adventure into the West. concerns at Universal City nor anybody else Estes Park, Colorado, August 31, 1916. MIr. Davenport's next article will be entitled Hughes

and the People of the West

TWO VIEWS OF MEXICO

These two views of Mexico are, we believe, with some variations, the two views most commonly held by Americans. By thus placing them in juxtaposition we hope to help our readers to solidify and freshen their own opinions by the same process of examination and adjustment by which one is enabled to overhaul one's own mental stock in trade at a debate. There is truth in both these opinions, but much more of it in the second than in the first, we believe. The Outlook has never had much sympathy for the científicos, Mexico's aristocrats of wealth, who were largely driven from the country by the Madero revolution. The Outlook has never advocated the restoration of the científicos to their former despotic position or the favoring of special capitalistic enterprises as a part of American intervention. We sympathized to a considerable extent with the revolutionists of Madero as the leaders of a genuine and sincere social upheaval. But that revolution failed, as others in Mexico have failed, because its leaders lacked the strength to cleave to their first aims in denial of their own selfish instincts. The Outlook wants of Mexico only safety and fair play to Americans living there and the regeneration of Mexico for the Mexicans. But it doubts Mexico's ability to work out her salvation without outside aid. And the determination of the nature of that aid, whether political, economic, military, or all three, is, in our opinion, the Mexican problem to-day. In short, the question as regards Mexico is not the question of the end to be pursued, but is rather the question of selecting the means to the end. And we believe that a study of the means used in the regeneration of Cuba and the Philippines will be an important aid in choosing the means for Mexico.-THE EDITORS.

I. MEXICO-A DUTY

IT may be conceded that a large majority the right of revolution ; a revolution has been

of the American people believe that won, and the government the Mexicans are 1 there is no real reason for a war with trying to set up is the result of this revolution. Mexico. As a people, the Americans do not This must be admitted before justice can be desire any Mexican territory, have no desire given Mexico. . or ambition to govern the Mexican people, Calling the de facto Government of Mexico, and no zeal to impose upon Mexico their now generally recognized by foreign Powers, ideas of civilization. However, Americans “ the greatest of these mobs” does not should have a desire to assist Mexico in solving change the real issue, but simply is a reflection some of the vexed questions which confront on the people of Mexico, for the present that distressed country, for in the solving of Government is not a minority one, as have been them we bring peace to Mexico and remove almost all former governments set up in Mexa menace to the peace of this country. So ico, but is the result of a majority element it may be plainly stated that this country has enforcing their mandates by means of a a duty to perform, and that duty should be, revolution. and can be, so performed as to make Mexico Revolutions have never been popular with a true friend of the United States, and it is tory and conservative interests, but have alcertainly admitted that a friend is desired to ways been popular with the people. If dregs the south of us.

come to the surface during revolutions, it is It is not fair to the Mexican people to the result of conditions, and with peace restate that we have no quarrel with the Mexi- stored the dregs sink to the bottom. History can Government, for the reason that there is has made this plain, especially in connection no government, and to charge that Mexico has with the French Revolutions, which in their been and is being ruled by a mob. The fact nature were similar to those which have taken is that Mexico to-day has a government in place in Mexico for over a hundred years ; control of a greater portion of Mexico than the evidence of an attempt on the part of a any government set up since the days of people to secure, and retain, their political General Porfirio Diaz. It should be clearly and economic liberty-in the case of Mexico, evident that the people of Mexico, as a mass, as of France, to correct social and economic are behind this government, for they have conditions, rather than political. brought it into existence. We have admitted To-day Mexico has a real national spirit, centered for the first time on real issues which ment. Cut out everything else, the crux of they have won through a prolonged strife the whole situation is embraced in these two and which they will hold and not turn loose facts. These bandit raids into this country again. The belief in this on the part of the have never been the acts of the Mexican old reactionaries is the real reason for their Government, ordered and carried out, but of vindictive opposition to Carranza and his unorganized bands acknowledging no governgovernment. The rich and powerful interests ment and admitting of no control. Their which have in the past governed Mexico acts have been repudiated and the responsithrough a minority rule, hating the United bility assumed. On the other hand, acting States and the American people, now hope to under Government orders, the American return to Mexico and be seated in power by troops invaded Mexico. No matter what the army of the United States. This is the the reason, the act was an invasion. Further, real issue.

after accomplishing their purpose, they are The wrongs of the Mexican people have now held in Mexico against the protests of been enlarged upon, yet those remaining in Mexico and its people. In this matter the Mexico have not appealed to the United United States has a grievance; Mexico suffers States. The expatriates, however, who never from a wrong. It is admitted in this country gave a thought to the well-being of the peo- that if the de facto Government will show ple of Mexico, now cry out their wrongs and ability and purpose to protect the border having failed through a Villa and a Huerta the occasion for troops in Mexico will to go back, too cowardly themselves to fight, have ended. look forward with glee to the possibility Then it is the duty of this country to make of returning to Mexico under the flag of the first approach at a settlement, for in fact Uncle Sam, whom in their hearts they hate we are the aggressors, having invaded a and despise.

friendly country with which we are not at And is it the duty of the American people war. to commit this further outrage on unhappy If the above contention is even in part conand distressed Mexico ? The Mexican peo- ceded, this country can with good grace welple as represented now by the Constitu- come arbitration of a form which will finally tional Government are said by some to hate settle this trouble once and for all. Mediaand despise us. Do not for a moment be- tion will not settle it. The A B C conferlieve it.

ences have only resulted in postponing the There is a vast difference between the agony, as it were ; they never healed and hate for us on the part of the Constitutional- never settled things. The American people ists and that of the expatriates. One hates now demand a settlement, but they are not us for the supposed ills we have brought demanding a war to settle it, for in the minds upon him, dodging and ignoring his own of the majority it can be settled without responsibility for these ills; the other hates war. us for wrongs and aggressions which he The great burden of Mexico is now ecobelieves are uncalied for, and the evident nomic. The vital question is the stabilizing attempt at meddling in his affairs. This last of its currency. This done, commercial can be overcome when the duty owed to relations may be resumed with safety and Mexico is granted and we assist that coun peace be an accomplished fact, for ills will try in overcoming its present economic diffi- soon be forgotten when business occupies the culties and withdraw our troops from Mexico. attention of the people. As soon as these The reaction will then set in and they will be pressing needs are relieved the de facto come our good friends. But do not for one Government can give its undivided attention nioment believe that the reactionary element to organizing its administration along legal driven out of Mexico by the revolution will lines and in accordance with the Constitution, ever have for this country and its people other and it can then seat the government so than hate.

organized. The present critical condition has been from a commercial point of view, it would brought about by two things-border raids, seem better for the United States to lend resulting in sending United States troops into Mexico what money it needs and draw the Mexico, where they now remain without the interest, rather than incur the expense of a authority or consent of the Mexican Govern war, which costs not only money, but the lives 1916

TWO VIEWS OF MEXICO

95

of our citizens, when the reason for a war would be written as the selfish demands of invested interests in Mexico.

Such deeds would, in truth, be friendly and

the returns would be manifold. Money we can spare ; human sympathy also, which costs nothing. And the duty is performed.

WILLARD L. SIMPSON.

II. PHILIPPINE AND MEXICAN SITUATIONS

COMPARED Mr. Hamilton Wright says of the Filipinos : Mr. James Brown Potter, writing to The (New York “ Times” Magazine Section, Outlook, says of the Mexicans :

May 7, 1916.)

The difficulty in arriving at anything like a convincing presentation of the Philippines arises from the fact that most persons are in clined to consider the islanders as a homogeneous population swayed by common impulses.

the difficulty in arriving at anything like a convincing presentation of Mexico is precisely the same.

This applies perfectly to Mexico.

This is not so. Outside of the very few political leaders they are not deeply interested or informed in politics. Among the islanders, who speak in more than thirty-seven dialects, there does not exist at any time a consensus of opinion as to political issues.

The Filipinos are not like children who are The same is very true of the average learning something new. They have adult Mexican. minds in some ways, infinitely more subtle, infinitely more simple, than those of white men.

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