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the old administrative machine into the melt- America exhibit theirs ? Americans prefer to ing-pot.

live in a community which makes the misery Thus in France and in Great Britain there of its miserable population known than in is to be hereafter, not, as some say, a one-man one which banishes it from sight. power, but a one-nation power—compact, Americans naturally admire a state in manageable, efficient, ready to meet problems which “ an idler does not exist " until they of war or proposals of peace alike with wis- read the reason : “ The citizen yields his dom and forcefulness.

individuality and takes and fills his place in the general scheme.” An idler does not

exist because “ each is a cog in the machine." WHAT GERMANY TEACHES

To destroy individualism in order to destroy

idleness seems to the American too great a The three articles which we have published price to pay for universal industry. An idler from Mrs. Gallison showing Germany as she does not exist in our State prisons ; but the saw it, and the quotations we have given Americans prefer the free life of the State from the articles of Miss Doty published in outside, where idlers do exist. the New York “ Tribune " showing Germany Americans can never share Mrs. Gallison's as she saw it, are more than contrasted pic- pride in the soup kitchens of Germany. Soup tures of social conditions produced by the kitchens are sometimes maintained for a war. They indicate both the virtues and the little while in our overcrowded cities. But vices of the German state-methods to emu- they are never our pride ; they are our late and methods to avoid. For it is one of humiliation. We are ashamed that they the merits of Mrs. Gallison's admirable arti- should exist. For it is not our ambition to cles that they unconsciously emphasize the feed the hungry efficiently, but to abolish difference between the German and the hunger; not to care generously for the pauAmerican ideals.

pers, but to put an end to pauperism. Americans may well admire the spirit of The description of Produktion is picturpatriotism which unites the common people esque: “A large block, having many spacious of Germany in enduring cheerfully untold inner courts ;" “ contains mostly apartments sacrifices in a war which they believe is “a for workingmen's families." Here housewar of the people in defense of their homes ;' keeping is apparently conducted by wholesale but Americans cannot admire a state so methods with great efficiency and great organized and governed that the people can economy. · By buying at the source and be made to believe that the German military selling without the help of the middleman party had not carefully prepared for this war they reduce the high cost of living.'” This and deliberately provoked it at the moment is surely a great improvement on our tenethat party thought was opportune. Ameri- ment-house life. From that America might cans prefer the apparent political strife in learn a valuable lesson for the benefit of her England and America, a product of free great cities, and perhaps of her factory towns. thought and free speech, to the apparent Nevertheless America's pride is not in her political unity of a people who seem to be of great apartment-houses, hotels, and tenementone mind because one mind thinks for the houses; it is in her individual homes, her people.

village and cottage life. Much better than Americans admire the efficiency of a gov- Mrs. Gallison's picture of Produktion we like ernment which in a beleaguered state so ad- Mr. Ford's plan of sharing his profits with justs the food supply that apparently there is his workingmen and leaving them to provide food enough for all her children at not extrav- for their individual homes and lives, although agant prices; but this admiration is abated

the cost may be greater. Economy or effiwhen they read that there is food enough ciency costs too much if for it we sacrifice the “if each member is put on regulated rations ;” individual home. and it is still further chilled when Miss Doty The one description of Mrs. Gallison which tells them that “official Germany denies its wins our unstinted admiration is her account poor and hides them,” and that she visited of what Dr. Biesalski and Director Hans a section in Berlin where " little children Wuertz are doing to help the lame, the halt, swarmed, dirty, ragged, barefooted, and pale." and the blind to help themselves. We wish Are there no poor in Germany, or does that every Board of United Charities, every Germany hide her poor, while England and Association for the Relief of the Poor, and

1916

MEETING LIFE SQUARELY

853

the superintendent of every asylum and poor- never be a gift; it must always be an achievehouse in the United States could read this ment. A man buys his freedom by restraint, section of Mrs. Gallison's third letter and self-denial, and work. To the criticism of learn from it a lesson. For the community an artist that he ought to have done his work can render to the handicapped no better in another way, La Farge promptly said : service than to enable them, despite their “ That would have been impossible. An handicap, to care for themselves and their artist, above all other men, must work out loved ones and contribute their share to the his genius under laws." Neither in the subgeneral welfare.

stance of his work nor in its technique is he In Germany industry is carried on by an free. He must express his own temperaindustrial army.

The people are privates; ment, and he must, by rigorous discipline and the few are officers. The officers organize tireless patience, master the method by which and direct the industry and give the privates at last he can freely express himself. “Grace," their allotted rations. Economical ? Yes! said George Macdonald, “is the result of Efficient ? Yes! But free? No! We forgotten toil." hope that Americans will never sacrifice their The discipline of life, which many people freedom for efficiency and economy.

For resent as an interference with their right to that is to sacrifice manhood for things. the pursuit of happiness, is really, if one

bears it patiently and meets it frankly, the

only way to happiness. MEETING LIFE SQUARELY

This is especially true of such a tragic

period as that through which the world is It was recently said of a prominent public passing. The shadow of the struggle in man that if he could evade a problem he Flanders and the Balkans covers the landthought he had solved it. This is the philoso- scape of the whole world, and even those phy of many people whose endeavor seems who are willing to buy peace at any price to be, not to meet life squarely, but to evade cannot purchase it. Try as they may to it: not to see difficult situations clearly nor evade the great and terrible experience by to deal with them strongly, but to shut the shutting their eyes to it, it faces them at eyes to the most ominous and perplexing every turn, and the only escape from it is to aspects and to find the easiest way out. This meet it bravely and to learn what it has to means, of course, that the real end of living, teach. the education which experiences bring with People are trying to get away from the them, is entirely missed, and the main pur- tragedy by taking refuge in amusements of pose of life is defeated. The student who

Miss Repplier has pithily said becomes expert in the various devices by that the gospel of amusement “ is preached which the drudgery of learning is evaded by people who lack experience to people who imagines that he is outwitting his instructors, lack vitality,” and she adds that there is an but discovers in later life that he has cheated impression that the world would be happy if himself. The discipline of education is not it were amused, and that it would be amused the attempt of the school or the college to if plenty of artificial recreation were provided benefit itself. It has been devised and is for it. Play of all kinds is as necessary and imposed for the sole purpose of helping the legitimate as work. Healthful amusements student.

and recreation are essential to physical and The cares and burdens and perplexities of spiritual well-being ; but they must be taken life were not devised to amuse an irresponsi- as tonics, not as anodynes. This country is ble power. They are wrought into the very not escaping the war by standing apart and structure of life, and are involved in its most shutting its eyes to the tragedy ; on the convital experiences, in order that men and trary, the war overshadows every home and women may be taught the great truths which lays a tax on every income, large or small. are behind all living, and in learning which Whether we will or not, we are our brother's the discipline of living finds its splendid justi- keepers, and the shadow of his calamity rests, fication. A proclamation of emancipation and ought to rest, on our homes. We canmay set slaves and serfs free from legal not stand apart and rejoice in our prosperity; bondage ; but this is only the beginning of in the long run his calamity must be our freedom. is only an opportunity to be- calamity, and in some orm we are sharing, come free, for freedom is not a gift and can and must share, it with him.

many kinds.

T

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE
THE fourth annual Conference on Stock Show at the Union Stock-Yards had

Markets and Farm Credits, held in brought to the city thousands of stockmen,

Chicago, December 4 to 8 inclusive, who gave part of their time to attending was not a conference of practical farmers and meetings of the Conference. stock-raisers—although there were some of The chief subjects considered were : The that character in the assemblage--so much as Federal Farm Loan Act, passed last July; it was of college professors of economics. Land Settlement; and the Marketing of Live This is not said in criticism, for it is recog- Stock, Grain, and Other Crops. As offshoots nized that, as bank cashiers are not usually of the general Conference there were authorities on finance and ship captains are not formed two new organizations—a National skilled in geodetic surveying, so the “heavy- Milk Producers' Association and a National fisted tillers of the soil” are not the deepest Co-operative Stores Association, the latter students of general agricultural economics, being in the interest of consumers rather but are quite as likely to be lost in the broad than producers, though in full recognition of general problems as the professor of economics the fact that farmers are consumers just as would be in the practical operations of farm- truly as are city customers. ing. Hence the work of this Conference is At the opening session the Federal Farm none the less significant because its leaders Loan Act, passed last July, was explained by were not“ practical farmers " except in a few James B. Marman, assistant secretary of the instances.

Federal Farm Loan Board, and, in the disThe President of the University of North cussion following, it was criticised for its Dakota, Dr. Frank L. McVey, is the per-. cumbersome machinery, and especially its petual President of the Conference, as Pro- inadequacy in not providing any means of fessor Charles W. Holman and Dr. Charles helping landless farmers with crop-production McCarthy, both formerly of the University and live-stock loans. Mr. Marman freely of Wisconsin, are perpetual secretary and conceded the shortcomings of the law in treasurer. For be it known that the Con- these respects, and gave assurance that ference is neither a democracy nor a repub- further legislation was looked for; particularly lic, but a hereditary monarchy, by divine toward providing for personal credits to help right of its originators and controllers. the tenant farmers who have no land security

Among the college men also present in to offer, and who therefore are not reached the self-perpetuating General Committee are by the present law. Dr. Thomas N. Carver, Professor of Eco- Professor Elwood Mead, of the University nomics of Harvard College, formerly head of California, declared in favor of State or of the Bureau of Rural Organization and Federal aid in land settlement as a public Markets of the Department of Agriculture; policy, not merely in giving free homestead Dean John Lee Coulter, of the Agricultural land, but in equipping farms with buildings, College of West Virginia ; and Director machinery, and stock, and providing the farmThomas Cooper, of the North Dakota Ex- ers with an opportunity to get their supplies periment Station ; and among the states- economically and earn a living from the men on the Committee are the Hon. Gifford start, which is not provided by the mere Pinchot, and Governor Arthur Capper, of giving of raw land, even with reclamation Kansas, not to mention divers farm-paper and irrigation ditches. He stated that to editors and leaders of farm organizations. make an irrigation tract ready and equipped

Every State of continental United States, for farming cost $150 an acre, aside from except South Carolina, was represented at the raw land and the main ditches. The the recent Conference by delegates, and settlers are too poor to finance such improvestrong delegation from Canada was also wel- ments even if given the raw land within comed. Nearly 900 men and women were range of a main ditch ; hence the land is not registered, and about 340 paid membership fully developed, and both the settler and the fees. At times the attendance of the three Nation suffer a great economic loss, which branches of the Conference aggregated would be saved if the Government would 1,500, for it happened that the annual Live (Continued on page following illustrations)

[graphic]

ARTHUR HENDERSON

ANDREW BONAR LAW Minister without Portfolio

Chancellor of the Exchequer
THE NEW BRITISH WAR CABINET
See an editorial, “ The Way to Win,” in this issue

[graphic][merged small]

ON THE FRENCH FRONT-GERMAN PRISONERS MARCHING PAST A BRITISH TANK

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