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The Outlook

DECEMBER 6, 1916
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York


present conditions be extended immediately THE INVASION OF RUMANIA

only by Russia is perfectly evident. General The two German armies under the com- Sarrail will, no doubt, in due time advance mand of General von Falkenhayn and Gen- up the Vardar directly or through his aderal von Mackensen made notable progress vanced left wing, now at Monastir, but to during the week ending November 29 in expect him to conduct and complete the adtheir campaign against Rumania. It has vance and to capture Nish in a few days, or been evident ever since the Rumanians were even a few weeks, would be to ask the imdriven back from the territory they had possible. gained in Transylvania and through the The mystery of what seems now the exmountain passes into their own country that ceeding unwisdom of the Rumanian campaign their army was open to attack from several remains unsolved. As we have said before, directions. A glance at the map on the next it certainly displayed a total lack of " team page will show the position clearly.

work” among the Allies in the Balkans. The main advance of Falkenhayn's army Whether Rumania acted independently and was through the Vulcan Pass. By a sud without the approval of her allies in her den and startling march he advanced to invasion of Transylvania, which left her own the capture of Craiova, reported last week, southern and western frontiers exposed to so that the portion of the Rumanian army the enemy; whether in doing so she relied which was in extreme western Wallachia, too optimistically upon immediate support often called - Little Wallachia,” was cut off. from Russia ; whether the Allies' leaders It must now either surrender or fight to did not believe that Germany could quickly the last extremity. Meanwhile Falkenhayn's mass together an army adequate for the inarmy poured in from the other passes. But stant invasion of Rumania ; or whether Russia the severest blow of all to Rumania's hopes undertook to play the part of guardian of has been the crossing of the Danube by Rumania and failed to get her forces on the General von Mackensen's troops, which have ground in time—all this is now open for disalready reached Alexandria, a Rumanian city cussion, but the facts upon which to decide of 15,000 people, and the center of the great the question of responsibility are lacking. southern wheat district. It is reported that Rumania's plight, it should be rememMackensen and Falkenhayn are now in bered, does not by any means involve or imtouch. Certainly Falkenhayn's forces are ply the defeat of the Allies in the Balkans. now to the east of the river Alt, which river In a certain sense they stand where they did and its valley play an important part in this before Rumania entered the contest, with the campaign.

advantage that Germany must have expended Military observers predict a wide Teuton a great deal of force and munitions in the sweep eastward through Wallachia. This attack upon Rumania, and that the eastern already threatens Bucharest; and, indeed, section of Rumania is still open for the as we write it is reported that the Ru- advance southward of Russian armies. manian civil and governmental authorities have abandoned Bucharest and have gone SUBMARINES, Mines to Jassy, which is about two hundred AND ZEPPELINS miles northeast. Unquestionably the only Another American war question arose last large line of retreat for the Rumanian week when news came that the American forces is now out of Wallachia and into steamship Chemung had been sunk by a northern Rumania, which, through Molda- submarine off the coast of Andalusia in Spain. via, forms the line of connection with Rus- Accounts differ as to whether the submarine sia. That aid to Rumania can under the was German or Austrian. The crew were

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The Rumanian situation, described in The Story of the War, is here graphically shown. Wallachia and the Dobrudja make up southern Rumania, while
Moldavia and territory to the north make up northern Rumania. Little Wallachia is the western section of southern Rumania. Note on the Danube
Zimnitza (where Mackensen crossed, advancing to Alexandria) and Cernavoda, where he holds the railway bridge. Note also what an important part rivers,

especially the Alt, and railways play in this campaign. The key map in the corner shows Rumania’s relations to her neighbors

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saved in boats. A thrill of pride has been large German aeroplane also visited England, felt by Americans who read that the captain but with very trifling damage ; a few citirefused to lower the American colors, and zens were injured and one woman was killed. that his flag went down with the ship after it had been shelled by the enemy,

PEACE, FORCE It is claimed that the vessel carried con- AND SECURITY traband of war, and it is remembered that Three associations have recently been when the case of an American vessel, the under public discussion in connection with William P. Frye, was under debate, the Ger- the subjects of peace now, peace in the man Foreign Office promised that American future, and peace through security. merchantmen carrying conditional contraband It is well to distinguish between these three would not be destroyed, but that Germany objects and the leagues which represent them, reserved a claim of right to destroy vessels because a discussion about immediate peace carrying absolute contraband when this de- has in part grown out of the meeting of the struction was allowed under the provisions League to Enforce Peace, held in New York of the Declaration of London and with safety on November 25. That association has, to passengers and crew. Numerous other strictly speaking, nothing to do with any ships, not only British but neutral, as Nor- effort to bring the present war to a close. It wegian and Swedish, have been recently stands for a large future plan which aims to destroyed by German submarines apparently bring about such an agreement between the either under the same plea as that just set great nations of the world as would provide forth above or on an assertion that the ves for the settlement of disputed questions sels attempted to fee or to resist capture. peacefully, but would also provide a military

The subject of mines in the high seas is arm by which the decrees of the associated one that we could well wish were illuminated nations could be enforced, if necessary. by discussion ; but in order to discuss the But at the meeting of the League to Enforce question the facts as to the laying of mines, as Peace one of the important addresses was to the presence of floating mines, and as to made by Mr. Jacob Schiff, who urgently deobservance of the rule that mines should be clared that the League itself should not “ sit so constructed that they would soon become still and wait for the moment when one or harmless if they floated without restraint, the other of the Powers now facing each must first be obtained.

other shall have become completely exThe destruction of the hospital ship Britan- hausted ” before the new league of the nanic, with a loss of many lives (put variously at tions should be brought into existence. And from thirty to fifty), naturally aroused intense he declared also that the present conflict indignation. Berlin's defense has consisted would continue until some powerful factor of a statement that the Britannic was not shall “ step between these impassioned belsunk by a German submarine, and an intima- ligerents and persist until both sides name tion that the Britannic was being used for terms upon which peace may be discussed." transport purposes. The last statement is 'This is, of course, an effort to bring about emphatically denied and seems to have no peace at once-an object not regarded with basis of fact. Later it was asserted that the favor by an immense number of Americans destruction of the Britannic was caused, not and by many of the members of the League by a submarine but by a mine, and British to Enforce Peace ; an effort, also, as we bedespatches seem to recognize this as proba- lieve, outside the province of the League. ble. But if so, there seems to be no infor- Mr. Schiff's address has called out remonmation as to who laid the mine, or, if it were a strances from Mr. James M. Beck, one of floating mine, from what source it came or by the best of American writers and thinkers on what nation it was made. A similar state of this subject, and from other men of recogdoubt seems to exist about the facts as to the nized ability. One ground of their objections sinking of another hospital ship, the Braemar is well stated by the New York “ Times : " Castle, in the Ægean Sea, without loss of life. “No offer of mediation would be listened to

The news of the week told of another raid by the Allied Powers. The tender of it by German Zeppelins over England, and the would be resented as an unfriendly act." claim was made that two Zeppelins were To this may be added Sir Robert Cecil's rebrought down by British aeroplanes—one on cent declaration : “ So long as the Germans the coast near Durham and one at sea. A continue the Belgian slave raids and sinking

of hospital ships there cannot be any thought New York - Tribune” and in the Chicago of peace.” And we may also add Mr. Hall“ Tribune." Miss Doty is well known for Caine's statement of the English point of what she has done on behalf of prison reform. view: “We think such a peace would be She found the German people suffering treason to the dead, disloyalty to the living from physical privations and the mental strain an assault on the authority of government, of war. The food that she had, except in an open appeal to the lawlessness of anarchy, the very best of hotels and in certain private a deliberate outrage on the principles of homes, was inadequate. “Prison diet," she patriotism, and even on the sacred precepts says, “ does not promote health or strength. of religion."

One can live on it, but patriotism and temper Nevertheless, there does exist a second suffer.” The people at a café which she association, called the American Neutral Con- describes were “ shrunken, listless, disference Committee, which seems to believe traught.” She could not swallow the cakes that that it is a perfectly easy matter to stop the were served. “Only the music is cheerful,” war. Mr. Schiff, Mr. Oswald G. Villard, she says. “There is a revival of band playMr. Hamilton Holt, and Dr. David Starr ing in Germany. It is needed to hide the Jordan are among the prominent men in this lack of laughter and talk. ... Life has beassociation, and we have no doubt they are come mere existence, a prison existence." sincere in thinking that a joint conference of A satisfying meal she reports as a noteworthy the neutral nations to bring about peace experience. After one such meal she writes : would be an act of humanity. We refer “ It seems cruel to eat of Germany's best, them, however, to such statements as those but I decided to live henceforth at the most we have printed above and to their own expensive hotels.” common sense, which should warn them that Since her preceding visit the year before a peace made now would be but the prelude she reports a change in the attitude of the of another war. As someone has said : German people toward America : " When there is a mad dog in the house, it is To-day the average person is pathetically not the time to say, . Poor pussy, poor pussy!!”. eager to be friends. Slowly the people are We are glad to note that Mr. Robert Fulton awakening. For months the newspapers have Cutting, Mr. Theodore Marburg, and, we be- fed them on the triumphs of Germany and the lieve, one or two others have announced

perfidy of other nations. But these stories of that they were opposed to the aims of this

glorious German victories have resulted in

what? A lean and barren country, under-nourAmerican Neutral Conference and that their

ishment, death, the hatred of other nations. names were used in connection with the call

The people begin to doubt their leaders. for that conference without their consent.

To call these people “barbarians” is an outFinally, the third association to which we rage. They are, like ourselves, just folks, kindly refer is the National Security League, the and generous, deceived and browbeaten by a aims and purpose of which we commend in ruthless military group. the most unreserved terms. It stands for Her account of being spied upon is amuspreparedness, efficiency, and a practical pro- ing. She tells of doubling on her tracks gramme which will make the Nation secure when she went to visit a member of the because prepared and efficient. This League Social Democratic party in order that she will hold a congress in Washington in January. might avoid observation. She saw enough of

spies to form the following impression : A WOMAN'S REPORT OF

The funny thing about German spies is that CONDITIONS IN GERMANY

they dress for the part. They are as unmisTo readers of Mrs. Gallison's account of takable as Sherlock Holmes. They nearly alher visit to Germany (the second installment ways wear gray clothes, a soft gray hat, are of which appears in this number of The pale-faced, shifty-eyed, smooth-shaven, or have Outlook) it will be interesting to compare a only a slight mustache, and carry canes. very different report of conditions in Germany One spy she describes as standing out in from another American woman. Miss Made- the rain from three in the afternoon until leine Z. Doty last summer went to Germany. nine o'clock. “I simply cannot take him In part, at least, her purpose was to carry aid seriously. My friend and I get into gales to underfed German babies ; but it was in of laughter. I want to go out and invite art to observe conditions there. Her report him in to tea. He looks so miserable.”

appearing on successive Sundays in the “ But,” she acknowledges, “before I leave

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