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Tommy (during heavy bombardment, to his musical pal). “Chuck it, Nobby! I can't get to sleep while you're making that awful noise!

THE PETTY ANNOYANCES OF LIFE AT THE FRONT

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THE CONSCIENTIOUS HEN Visitor from Town: What on earth's the matter with this hen-she starts attacking me when I try to take the egg from her nest. ... Look here, you silly thing, here is my egg-ticket!"

A GOOD-NATURED GERMAN JOKE ON GERMANY'S FOOD SHORTAGE

THE WEEK

“Ay! Ay! Boatswain! Ready! O ready!" and fast racial or national lines. Distin

The old-fashioned Boatswain in our mess tells guished publicists of Japan, Russia, Engme that we haven't got the terms just right; land, and the United States can be found that seamen never heard of a " Boatswain " or the vill

who will aver in confidence that the Russiana " Coxswain," but that the proper pronuncia

Japanese Treaty is aimed directly at England. tion is.“ Bos'n" and " Coxs'n ;" but it all sounds Dautical to us of the Medical Corps, and, any.

And just as distinguished men from all these way, we address each other by the titles of our countries can be found who loudly protest ranks. ...

against this view of the convention. There has been considerable discussion in our This disagreement among experts is the mess as to the way the new law. will work. less remarkable when one considers that the Personally, I have always desired the title of final text of the treaty has not yet been made “ Boatswain,” and now that, practically, it is public. But the text of the tentative agreelegally mine, I have proposed that all of us

ment as published in the semi-official Japanese Fharmacists, Machinists, and Carpenters-now

newspapers on July 8 is as follows : staff Boatswains-should perform some of the more public functions of the line Boatswains. The Imperial Government of Japan and the I don't mean that we should do any of the work 'Imperial Government of Russia, having resolved with the anchors and chains and such, but we by united efforts to maintain permanent peace might “pipe the side " when the Secretary of in the Far East, have agreed to the following: the Navy or the Chairman of the Senate Navali .. ARTICLE I Committee comes aboard. Instead of the piping. Japan will not be a party to any agreement of one lone line Boatswain there might be ten or political combination directed against Russia. or a dozen of us staff Boatswains all piping the Russia will not be a party to any agreement side together. It would make an appropriate or political combination directed against Japan. reception for the civil functionaries, who always require the limit in `military honors, and for

ARTICLE II Staff Admirals, even if the line Admirals would

In case the territorial rights or special internot stand for it. ...

ests in the Far East of one of the contracting Some of my messmates do not take kindly parties, recognized by the other contracting to the changes required bị the new legislation. party are menaced, Japan and Russia will con• The old and philosophic Chief Machinist said: fer on the measures to be taken in view of the “ Well, I s'pose I'll have to stand for it, to be support or co-operation necessary for the procalled Ensign ;' though I ain't one an' don't

tection and the defense of these rights and look like one an’ don't want to be one." ....

interests. The Gunner and the Carpenter growled

In faith thereof the undersigned, duly authorbecause they did not wish to be addressed as

ized by their respective governments, have “Boatswain."

signed this Convention and thereto affixed their The one line Boatswain in our mess, who is a seals. . taciturn and muscular person and an overbear- ' Done at Petrograd, the third day of the ing line officer besides, said: * As all you guys seventh month of the fifth year of Taisho, corare going to be called what you ain't, I'm goin' .responding to the 3d of July (20th June), 1916. to be called 'Judge'in this mess, an' don't you

MOTONO. fergit it.” . . . . . . . .

SAZOXOFF. According to the“ Navy,” the blame for thisWe are informed by responsible Japanese proposal cannot be put upon any legislator from in this country that the following arrangethe interior country. It was the work of a veryment has been tentatively agreed upon, the small group of men in the navy itself who final details to be adjusted within a few weeks, have coveted the military titles which belong when the Japanese delegates, Prince Kanin to the officers of the line. .; i and Dr. Adachi, arrive at Petrograd :

This tempest in a teapot is a good illustra- First, a grant to Japan of the control of tion of the pettiness which sometimes creeps the Eastern Chinese Railway between Changinto the discussion of even large public issues. chun and the Sungari River. Japan had

asked for the railway concession from ChangJAPAN AND RUSSIA

chun to Harbin. The Sungari River is just It is not remarkable that on a subject of about half-way between those two points. which so little is known as the form and in- The tentative price which Japan is to pay for tended effect of the recent movement towards this concession is $7,000,000. Second, Japan a Russian Japanese Entente there should be is to have a share with Russia in the navigaa great deal of variety of opinion. This tion rights of the Sungari River. Third, variety of opinion seems to follow no hard freedom of trade, residence, and travel in

Siberia, Mongolia, and Manchuria to be enjoyed equally by Japanese and Russians. Fourth, Japan to furnish munitions to Russia when to do so does not interfere with her own plans for defense.

All these concessions and the considerations to be paid for each are to be threshed out in Petrograd when the Japanese delegates arrive there.

On the other hand, ample reason for the agreement between Russia and Japan is found in the desire of both to be secure from the Far Eastern ambitions of any third Power and in the manifest political and economic advantage which the alliance offers to both Powers in present world conditions.

MOTIVES FOR
THE TREATY

So much for the little that we know of the actual arrangement between the two great Powers who were at war with each other only eleven years ago. When it comes to considering the conditions which have made such a treaty desirable for both Russia and Japan, we are on more solid ground. The desire of both Japan and Russia to keep the influence of any third Power at a minimum in China has been a principal factor in the arrangement of the treaty. Russia's desire to be protected by a strong ally in her rear while she is facing embattled Germany has been matched by Japan's desire to have the support of Russia for Japanese policies toward China. But, while military motives have been strong in bringing the two nations together, the entente has been mainly brought about by commercial factors. Japan's trade with Russia has increased enormously since the beginning of the war. As Mr. Alexander Znamiecki, Russian expert of the National City Bank of New York, has recently said to a representative of The Outlook, “Two very important factors in the RussianJapanese rapprochement are Russia's need of foreign markets for her foodstuffs, raw materials, and half-manufactures, and again the value for the growing Japanese industries of the enormous neighboring Russian market.” In this connection an article in the influential Russian newspaper "Novoe Vremya” recently said : “ Japanese merchants, adapting their merchandise to the demands of the Russian traders, are studying the Russian household in every detail. A few days ago, for instance, some boots appeared on sale, of Russian shape, for the use of the populace, accompanied by a bottle of shoe polish."

As to the prediction that the RussoJapanese alliance means the end of the AngloJapanese alliance it can only be said that there is no proof that Russia and Japan are at present aiming at such a consummation.

THE CHURCH
IN MEXICO

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, which was the scene of the conferences which ended the Russo-Japanese War, has been assured of additional historical fame through its selection as the meeting-place for the members of the joint American Mexican Commission appointed to discuss the difficulties between the two countries. By the time this issue of The Outlook reaches our readers the date of the first formal conference will probably have been decided at a preliminary meeting in New York City. Portraits of the six commissioners appear elsewhere in this issue.

The greatest interest in the conferences lies in the possibility that they will be marked by a discussion of more fundamental questions than the withdrawal of our soldiers from Mexico and the patrolling of the border. Certainly it is to be hoped that the deeper questions of the economic and agrarian reconstruction of Mexico will be discussed, as well as the future status of the schools and churches in that country.

The religious question in Mexico has been a source of friction throughout the history of that country, and a careful and sane discussion of it by the Commission is to be desired. 'That this will be accomplished is the more probable in view of the fact that the leading Mexican member of the Commission, Señor Luis Cabrera, has had a powerful hand in the formation of Carranza's policy towards the Church. Señor Cabrera has recently published a pamphlet on this subject which is a highly interesting contribution. In defending the Constitutionalists from charges of injustice towards the Church Señor Cabrera says: “We Constitutionalists are Catholics, the Villistas are Catholics, the Zapatistas are Catholics. Ninety-nine per cent of the Mexican population is Catholic, and therefore the Constitutionalist party couid not in the present struggle attempt to deprive the Catholics, who form the totality of the Mexican people, of their right to profess their religion or of their right to take part in political questions." He goes on to say that the aim of the Con

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These laws provide for the separation of
the Church and State, the incapacity of the
Church to possess landed property, and the
abolition of convents. In gist, the aim of
the Constitutionalists in enforcing these laws
has been to keep the Church out of temporal
affairs, in which it has often wielded a most
unwholesome influence in Mexico in the past

We Americans who also believe in freedom
of worship and in the absence of all Church
power in temporal affairs must sympathize
with the Mexicans in so far as they pursue
these aims. We ought to congratulate the
Catholics of the United States, therefore, for
going on record at their recent convention in
New York City as demanding in Mexico only
" liberty of conscience and freedom of wor-
ship as they exist in our United States."

If the Catholics of Mexico want only what
the Catholics of the United States profess to
want for them, they are asking for only what
the Constitutionalists profess to be willing to
give them. Any continuance of friction over
the religious question in Mexico would mean,
therefore, that either the Church authorities
or the Constitutionalist leaders are insincere.
And if either party should prove to be insin-
cere, that party can expect to be condemned
by the public opinion of the United States.

Unfortunately, there is only too much evi-
dence of outrages and injustices committed
against Catholics in Mexico, but Señor Ca-
brera says that these are the deeds not of
Constitutionalists but of bandits, who have
sprung up from the disorganized condition.
But he adds that some Catholics in Mexico
have so conducted themselves as to produce
exasperation and disorder. All this makes it
all the more clear that the Church in Mexico
should be one of the subjects of considera-
tion by the Commission.

his fellow-artists as "Papa" Corot, died
forty years ago, in his eightieth year. His
friend and associate, Henri Harpignies, has
just died, in his ninety-eighth year. Har-
pignies was more than twenty years younger
than Corot, but the older man and the
younger man were thrown together in the
Barbizon colony, and the work of Harpignies
shows the influence of that relationship.
Corot and Harpignies made a journey to-
gether into Italy in 1860. At that time
Corot was sixty-four years old and Harpignies
about forty. It is easy to imagine how
strong must have been the art sympathy be-
tween these two in order to bridge the dis-
parity of their ages in such a journey to the
land in which the art of painting, as we mod-
erns understand it, had its birth. The effect
of that journey was immediate on Harpignies,
for on his return he scored his first great
success in the Paris Salon.

The group of painters who lived in the
little village of Barbizon, near Paris, and who
gave birth to what is now known as the Bar-
bizon school of painting, were rebels against
the sentimental, subjective thecries which
then dominated French art. They aban-
doned studio compositions, garlands of roses,
shepherds and shepherdesses of the Corydon
and Phyllis type, and went directly to nature
for their inspiration. Rousseau found his in
trees; Corot his in gentle landscapes suffused
with light; François Millet found his in the
work and family life of the French peasant.
The sufferings and privations which this
group of disciples of a new art endured
are most interestingly exemplified in the life
of Millet, who had for most of his career the
greatest difficulty in keeping soul and body
together. The story is told of Corot-
whether it is apocryphal or not we do not
know—that when he sold one of his pictures
at what seemed to him and his friends to be
a most generous price (but which was, in
reality, trifling compared with the immense
sums that his paintings command to-day),
and when he was congratulated on this suc-
cess by a colleague, he replied, whimsically :
" Well, I am not sure. It makes the collec-
tion of Papa Corot incomplete !"

Harpignies was the last survivor of this great band of artists, but it is comparatively recently that his pictures have come to be appreciated at their full value in this country, for his name and work have been over shadowed by the greater fame of his Barb zon colleagues. Harpignies has been esp

A GREAT FRENCH PAINTER

To those who are prone to think of Corot, the greatest figure of the Barbizon school, which has reflected such glory on French art, as an ancient" it will be a surprise to learn that one of his colleagues and intimate personal friends lived until only last week.

of who was affectionately known by

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