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The Outlook

NOVEMBER 29, 1916

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make this a slow process : First, the distance THE FALL OF MONASTIR

and natural obstacles involved in the camThe war history for our week (November paign ; and, secondly, the unsatisfactory state 15–22) may almost be summed up in two of things in Greece. That the leaders of the words, Monastir and Craiova. Each stands Allies in Greece have come to the end of for a great achievement and for long-reaching their patience with the tortuous and treachconsequences in the progress of the war in erous conduct of the Greek King became the Balkan region.

evident last week, when sweeping demands In the capture of Monastir the Servian were made upon the nominal Greek Governarmy, once crushed by the Teutonic forces, ment, first, for the surrender to the Allies of now reorganized and again in splendid fight- a large portion of the army's munitions and ing order, though in all probability smaller artillery of the Greek army; and, secondly, than it was, must feel exultant. Aided by for the immediate departure of the diplomatic their French allies and by a detached Russian representatives of Germany, Austria, Bulforce, the Servians again occupy one of the garia, and Turkey now in Greece. The first most important cities of their country. In the step is justified by the treachery of the Greek whole campaign which has resulted in the cap- army to Greece in its failure to resist Bulture of Monastir the Bulgarians have been out garian - invasion; the second, by the plotting maneuveredandoutfought. Their retreat from and intrigues of the Ministers of the Central Monastir (so the Allies' despatches say) was Powers. Meanwhile, the Greek people are little less than a rout. Strategically the gain

Strategically the gain likely to turn more and more to Venizelos, is a large one. Despite the fact that the rail- the head of the Nationalist Government, who way on which Monastir is situated ends at that has just issued a proclamation calling upon place, its occupation opens up, through the the people to wipe out the stain placed upon valley of the Cerna River, a road toward Nish, Greece by the disregard of its treaty obligato capture which must be the great effort of tions to Servia and by the tame submission the Allies' armies on the Salonika front. to invasion by Bulgaria.

The direct approach to Nish is of course northward from Salonika, through the valley of CRAIOVA AND ROMANIA the Vardar River, and by the railway running The second great event of the week above through that valley. The present situation is noted was the capture by General von Falthat the left wing (or western force) of Gen- kenhayn's army of the Rumanian town of eral Sarrail's total army is now well advanced Craiova. This is not an important place in and in good position; and if the right wing itself, but its occupation has tremendous sigin which the British predominate, is once nificance. It lies on a railway running in its placed in a good position to the eastward, the general direction from west'to east through long-expected main advance of the center of western Rumania. As the German forces this.vast army made up of several nationalities under Falkenhayn have pushed the Rumay begin to move toward Nish. The cap- manians south out of Transylvania, through ture of Nish would cut in two the only rail the passes, and back into Rumania, the left communication between Teutonic forces in or west wing of the Rumanian army has held the north and their allies, Bulgaria and Turkey, Orsova. Now the only rail communicain the southeast.

tion between Orsova and Bucharest is by When that great drive will come it is im- this railway which passes through Craiova. possible to say.

Those who impatiently The occupation by the Germans of the latter demand why General Sarrail does not come place seems to cut off the Rumanian army at to the rescue of the Rumanians hardly take Orsova from its base of supplies. The Ruinto account the two obstacles which will manians there are facing attack from two

directions, or, as some say, from three direc What is Belgium's answer to this new crime? tions, and their position is perilous in the To-day her soul is stricken. Every one of these extreme.

captives has to choose between death and disBut this is not the only way in which

honor. Their spirit is broken by the slow, the capture of Craiova threatens Rumania.

gnawing torture endured in complete isolation. This same railway runs from Craiova east and northeast until it joins another railway

WASTE PREVENTION IN running in a southerly direction to Bucha

GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE rest from Kampulung, where the Rumanians

The proposal in Great Britain to appoint a have been carrying on a strong resistance to

controller of food and to regulate food supthe Germans, aided materially by Russian plies and prices is not a confession of weakforces. If the German forces at Craiova ness, but the evidence of strength. follow the first railway to Pitesci, the junction

Germany acted wisely when, long ago, of the two roads, the Rumanians at Kampu

under the pressure of the food question she lung may be caught between two armies.

instituted thorough Government supervision Altogether, the outlook for Rumania is a bad

and regulation. As with Germany, so with one, and her capital, Bucharest, is in serious

England; the action was at first taken to danger.

indicate a greater extremity than actually

existed. It was wise because under war conThe offset to the prediction of disaster we have just recorded lies in the ques

ditions food should be controlled so as to tion whether Falkenhayn has sufficient

prevent speculation and to secure as far as forces or can get them from Germany and possible an even distribution of the burden Austria to carry out such large plans involv

which necessarily results in war time from ing movements in different directions. If he

any interference with natural food supply can, and there is real uncertainty as to this,

and sale. he has a good prospect of capturing Bucha

The same thing is true of the measures for rest and joining his forces with those of Gen

economy and restriction of extravagance eral von Mackensen in the Dobrudja.

which have been taken in France. Scientific On the other war fronts little of note took

and sensible control in such matters is far place during the week.

preferable to the chaos and unfair pressure
upon the poorer classes which would result

from maintaining in war time normal, peaceTHE GERMAN DEPORTATION

time liberty. OF BELGIANS

The atrocious deportation of Belgians by Germany continues. Beyond question it con

FRANCIS JOSEPH stitutes industrial enslavement and expatria The Austrian Emperor, Francis Joseph, tion on a large scale. One report of the has just died, at the age of eighty-six. deportation in six villages in the district of The year before he ascended the throne Mons says that twelve hundred men, the Austria had been severely shaken by the cream of the industrial workers, were taken revolutionary wave which swept throughfrom these places alone. The well-known out Europe. For Austria's policy at home Belgian writer, Émile Cammaerts, comment and abroad had been guided by Metternich, ing on the act; of deportation, calls them doubtless the most influential reactionary in “slave raids." and says, “ Trains roll through Europe. Thus the Austrian ship of state, Germany packed with human cattle," and under its youthful pilot, entered immediadds :

ately upon stormy seas both as to its domesThese things have been going on since Octo

tic and as to its foreign policies. ber 15. Ten days ago fifteen thousand had As to domestic policy, his Ministers advised been taken in Flanders alone. How many are Francis Joseph to suppress the Hungarian there now? Between twenty and thirty thou democratic and revolutionary movement withsand. If things are allowed to go on at this

out mercy. He did so. A mere boy, the rate, we shall witness the wholesale de portation

responsibility lay with his absolutist Ministers of an entire people reduced to slavery.

rather than with himself. But his dreadful This, indeed, is a disaster worse than inva.

deed taught him to be more tolerant of sion, worse than the retreat from Antwerp, worse than the wholesale massacres of Louvain,

national ideals and to try to bring about coTamines, Andenne, Dinant-worse even than

hesion with seeming respect for autonomy. the ceaseless persecutions of the last two years. He exhibited this particularly in his relations

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with the Poles, even though his was the nar- largely a personal one. His hold on the row idea of a benevolent autocracy imposed people, apart from any political influence, is from above rather than the recognition of illustrated by his course at a time of serious the progress of a freely developing people. rioting in Vienna. He refused to order out Despite this limitation, however, we would

the troops. “I know my Viennese better," call attention to the difference in the condition he remarked. He sent a military orchestra of Austrian Poland and that of Prussian or instead, and the riot finally broke up in Russian Poland. In Prussian Poland gayety. child is actually afraid to say its prayers in Polish because of the forced Germanization of THE DISMISSAL OP the country, and we all know how ruthlessly SIR SAM HUGHES Russian Poland has been Russianized. But The Canadian Government, through the in Austrian Poland a child may begin its dismissal of Sir Sam Hughes, Minister of education in a Polish kindergarten, continue Militia, by Premier Borden, has lost a picthrough Polish grammar and high school and turesque part of its machinery, but perhaps graduate at a Polish university.

the Canadian Government will find that its Austria's relation to Bosnia has been like machinery moves more smoothly without its her relation to Poland. However much one energetic and pugnacious Minister of Militia. may condemn the annexation of Bosnia to Some months ago Sir Sam Hughes, who Austria, as transcending the Treaty of Berlin won golden opinions for himself by his (which merely assigned the province to Aus- energy and skill in organizing the expeditrian military protection), we have to admit that tionary forces of Canada, was severely critinowhere was there greater advance than dur- cised for his laxity in the handling of the ing the generation between the Treaty of Ber- moneys devoted to the purchase of munitions. lin (1878) and the Austrian annexation Now- The charges that were brought against him, adays Bosnia actually enjoys self-government. though not sufficient to secure his removal The franchise is universal and direct. Schools from the Government at that time, neverthehave been established, roads built, telegraphs less clouded his record sufficiently to afford erected. The courts award justice. In a an opening for his political opponents. The country where once women never appeared charges against him were a heavy load for alone in public and where brigandage was a the Conservative party to carry, and the recognized profession, human life and honor, Liberals believed that his continuance as a it is claimed, are now as safe as in America. member of the Government would insure a

As to foreign policy Francis Joseph's popular demand for a change at the next reign has been distinctly disappointing. His Dominion election. The fact that the ConMinisters actually urged European Powers to servatives realized this was a powerful factor forbid the unification of Italy! No wonder in securing the dismissal of Hughes by the that Italy drove Austria out of the Italian Premier. peninsula after this.

Another factor in increasing the hostility We all know the history of the past two to Sir Sam was that he was too much inyears ; how the excuse of the assassina- clined to regard his department as a sort of tion of the heir apparent at Sarajevo by a separate government. He was responsible Servian affected the Emperor enough to for many acts which should not have been make him precipitate a war even though done without first being passed upon by the Servia had offered to yield to almost all of his Government of which he was only a part. demands and to submit the rest to the arbi- There was one position which Sir Sam tration of the Hague Court, and even though took which found, however, ready sympathy he must have known that a declaration of in Canada. There has been a tendency in war on Servia would bring about a European Great Britain to consider the Canadian solconflagration.

diers as an integral part of the British army The dead Emperor has been succeeded by and absolutely under the control of the British his grandnephew, the Archduke Charles Government. Sir Sam Hughes took the Francis Joseph. It is too soon to tell what ground that the control of them by the will be the result of this transition from a Canadian Government did not cease after very old to a very young ruler of an Empire they reached England. Several weeks ago which is already torn by serious racial con- he stirred up no small hornets' nest when he troversies. The late Emperor's rule was directed that Canadian soldiers should be sent to Canadian hospitals. Canadian soldiers the deficiency in our machinery for land are reported as disliking British hospitals. defense which necessitated the calling out Class distinctions as they exist in England of the militia for border service, the withare recognized in these hospitals, a fact which drawal of six thousand Guardsmen at the grates upon the more democratic Canadian

present juncture of relations with Carranza soldiers. There is much more freedom in the may seem questionable to many on the Canadian hospitals in England than there is ground that it tends to weaken the in the British hospitals.

impression that we are willing to back It is too early to determine whether the up our demand for adequate guarantees dismissal of Sir Sam will prove a more dam- from the First Chief. Yet the official anaging factor to the Government than his nouncement in explanation of the withdrawal presence in the Cabinet. The final decision of the Guardsmen was that this action was in this matter will depend on how vigorously taken“ in pursuance of a policy already Sir Sam prosecutes his grievance before the announced to withdraw the militia gradually people of Canada. In the meantime the in accordance with the recommendations of Conservatives are rid of the load which they General Funston." have been carrying.

The units ordered home are five infantry

regiments, namely, the Seventh New York, TIIB NEXT MOVE IS

the First South Carolina, the Third Indiana, CARRANZA'S

the Third Wisconsin, and the Third MinneSo rapid are the changes in the complexion sota. of relations between Mexico and the United States that even a daily newspaper is not THE RAILWAY published often enough to keep the public up LABOR SITUATION to date on these developments. Only a ticker The importance of securing a legal interis adequate to this feat of publishing agility. pretation of the Adamson, or eight-hour,

However, it seems evident that the Ameri- railway law has led to effort on the part of can-Mexican Commission which has been the United States Department of Justice to meeting at Atlantic City has about reached push forward a test case, and it is even intithe end of its formal usefulness. The next mated that a decision may be hoped for move is Carranza's.

before January 1, when the law goes into The proposal telegraphed to the First effect. Applications for injunctions against Chief by the Mexican Commissioners for his the law have been made by many railways. ratification or disapproval is unofficially re- On November 22, at Kansas City, Judge ported to be as follows:

Hook, of the United States District Court, First, the withdrawal from Mexico of Per- in a case brought by the Missouri, Oklahoma, shing's forces within a fixed period of days, and Gulf Railroad, declared the Adamson provided there is no disturbance near the Law unconstitutional, and directed that appeal American column in the meantime ; second, to the Supreme Court should be accelerated. the concentration of Carranza forces in the The leaders of the brotherhoods take the territory now occupied by Pershing's men, ground that it is for the Government to with the assignment of other Mexican forces defend its own law, and, although the union to other strategic points for border patrol; leaders are parties to the action, they affect last, the agreement by Carranza that if he indifference to it, and plainly declare that they fails to protect our border from raids the stand on their Constitutional right to strike United States forces shall be permitted to (unhappily, we have no law to prevent such a pursue such raiders as far into Mexico as the public calamity), and will insist on the eightAmericans choose, and shall be given all hour day regardless of the meaning or unfacilities for such pursuit by the de facto Gov- constitutionality of the Adamson Law. ernment.

At the National Convention of the AmerCarranza's refusal to agree to these terms, ican Federation of Labor in Baltimore there if followed by another raid, ought to mean a general expression of hostility to that our forces would seize railways, towns, President Wilson's announced purpose to and other strategic centers for suppressing urge on Congress new legislation for combrigandage without taking the trouble of ob- pulsory investigation of labor disputes before taining the First Chief's permission.

a strike should be allowed. A special Although most intelligent citizens regret Message to Congress from the President on




this subject is expected in December, and it will doubtless include also his wish for an enlargement of the Inter-State Commerce Commission. Mr. Lee, president of the trainmen's union, asserts that preliminary compulsory investigation would not preserve the status quothat is, that while the employees would have all their plans exposed there would be nothing to prevent the employers from fortifying themselves for a strike during the hearings by hiring new men, discharging old ones, and so on, and says that this has proved true under the Canadian law. The Federation adopted a report recommending “ that any injunction dealing with the relationship of employer and employee and based on the dictum that labor is property be disregarded, let the consequences be what they may.”

Special correspondence and comment on the Federation of Labor's conference will appear in The Outlook later. Elsewhere in this issue will be found an editorial discussion of this renewed threat of a railway strike.


On November 20 occurred the first meeting of the Commission established by the joint resolution passed during the recent session of Congress to inquire and “report as to the wisdom or feasibility of Government ownership and as to the comparative worth and efficiency of Government regulation and control as compared with Government ownership and operation." Though the broad scope of the inquiry embraces telegraph and telephone lines, express companies, and other public utilities, and though it considers river and ocean as well as land carriers, it will doubtless be chiefly concerned with railway regulation.

Mr. Newlands, of Nevada, Chairman of the Senate Inter-State Commerce Committee, who had introduced the resolution, was appropriately made Chairman of the Commission, and the other members are Senators Cummins of Iowa, Underwood of Alabama, Robinson of Arkansas, Brandegee of Connecticut; and Representatives Sims of Tennessee, Esch of Wisconsin, Hamilton of Michigan, and Cullop of Indiana.

The tentative programme submitted by Mr. Newlands includes the following questions :

1. The practical results of Government ownership both as to efficiency and economy where actually practiced.

2. Whether Government ownership is com

patible with our system of government, and what its effect will be on our Governmental institutions.

3. Whether a system of Government ownership will suit local needs. ·

4. A practical method of securing Government ownership, whether by purchase or condemnation of properties, or by purchase or condemnation of bond or stock issues, or otherwise.

In his annual Message a year ago President Wilson, urging railway investigation, did not mention Government ownership as a possible alternative to the present system of regulation. He did, however, speak of fear that our railways, as at present equipped and co-ordinated, would not much longer be able successfully to cope with the problem of transportation. He inquired whether we could do anything else to supply ourselves with effective means in the process of regulation for bettering the conditions under which the railways are operated and for making them more useful servants of the country as a whole. In harmony with this, Senator Newlands introduced the joint resolution last winter ; but its text did not call for consideration of Government ownership. This, later proposed on the floor of the Senate, was finally incorporated in the resolution.

Though the text reads, “ ownership and operation,” there is no sound reason why public ownership and private operation should be eliminated from consideration.

The discussion now begun will be important, because it will reduce to concrete form the whole idea of Government ownership as applied to conditions in this country. There must also be consideration of such allied problems as the hours and wages of some 1,800,000 employees, the supplies to the railways, the reconstruction of the Inter-State Commerce Commission's procedure and the enlargement of the Commission, Federal incorporation of railways, Federal jurisdiction over all railway rates, Federal regulation of railway security issues, railway physical valuation, and a uniform rule of taxation.

This is a large programme to occupy the attention of the Commissioners before January, when its report is due

The report will come at a time when the dispute be. tween the railway unions and the railway managers will reach its most critical stage, when owing to complexity of control the railways have been puzzled as to how to obtain new capital and yet keep strictly within the law, and when the man in the street is form

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