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however, has forced every planter to sell his hundred priests and many nuns in Merida product to the Reguladora, which then deter- alone. To-day there are five priests and no mines at what price the hemp shall be sold nuns in the whole State. To-day religious to the American manufacturers, who make it services are held in only four churches in the into binder twine. Of course the commis- State, and those are in Merida. Priests, nuns, sion of leading planters which ostensibly and Archbishop have fled, and nunneries, condirects the Reguladora, as it is commonly vents, monasteries, and churches have been called, is only a stalking-horse for the Gov- bought or confiscated by the State. As a rule,

By means of this device Alvarado the Governor paid for these properties, but has acquired the money, and therefore the at that time depreciated Carranza money was power, to put into effect his ideas of social the legal tender of the State, and the young reform, which constitute one of the most social reformer of thirty-six told me with a remarkable bodies of political measures ever chuckle how he acquired properties worth tried anywhere in the history of the world. three hundred thousand dollars for a few With the financial sinews derived from the thousand dollars gold. sale of henequen in the United States Alva- · If some fair-minded observers in Yucatan rado, who has barred Carranza's national to-day are shocked at some things the Govmoney from the State, has been able to keep ernor has done to the Church, they are his State currency almost at its face value of forced to praise what this despot has done in two to one-that is, two pesos for one Amer- other directions. ican dollar. On the other hand, Carranza's In Yucatan there are four hundred hene successive issues have dropped almost to quen ranches. These ranches vary in extent worthlessness—a course his latest issue is from a few hundred to seven thousand acres. rapidly following, it would seem, for it is at and employ from twenty to several hundred more than sixty to one as this is written. laborers. Each ranch is a separate commu

To begin with, Alvarado turned his atten- nity, and the haciendas are practically the tion to the Church. Yucatan has never subsidiary governmental divisions of Yucatan. been as “religious " as the other States of If the peons are to get education, they must Mexico. For instance, Merida, a city of get it on the ranch, for to leave the ranch eighty thousand and the capital of Yucatan, often means a walk of several miles. has never had more than twelve churches, Before Alvarado came into power every whereas, for instance, Puebla, with a popula- hacienda had its chapel, but only eleven had tion of ninety-five thousand, has more than schools. To-day all the hacienda chapels are sixty churches. But in Yucatan, as in most closed, but every ranch has a public school of Mexico, the Church had become to some for the children of the laborers, and the larger degree corrupt and had meddled in politics. ranches often have several schools. Includ

To say this is not to criticise the Catholic ing the town and city schools, there have been Church in general. Placed as that Church founded by Governor Alvarado in the eighteen is in Mexico, with virtually no competitors months that he has been in power no less than and with the great bulk of the people as its eleven hundred public schools. And this by adherents, any other church would have been the same man who has closed the churches. guilty to some degree of the same abuses In fact, in the great need of getting buildthat have stained the history of the Catholic ings and equipment for the schools churches Church. In an article published recently in have often been utilized for this purpose. The Outlook the Archbishop of Yucatan In the same way churches have been used for declared that the Church in that State has other practical purposes. not meddled in politics. But such was not The Governor's favorite hobby is the imthe testimony of many fair-minded Yucatecans provement of the conditions of the lower with whom I talked, themselves Catholics. classes, especially of the laboring classes. He When Alvarado was advancing through the has helped labor to get its just deserts, but he country in his campaign against Arguemedo, has prevented it from getting more than its the priests, as the Aztec priests did in ancient fair share of the profits of industry, and for wars, openly exhorted the people against the this reason he is as unpopular with some labor man who was coming to punish the usurper.

leaders as he is with the millionaire henequen It was not strange, then, that they were planters who are forced to sell their henequen among the first to feel his wrath.

to the State at the State's price. But the Two years ago there were more than a common laborer loves Alvarado for what the

1916

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Governor has done for the common laborer. Indeed, such an effect has already been He has put an end to peonage, that form of felt, and many citizens who approve most of debt slavery little less injurious to society than Alvarado's acts condemn him for his harshness chattel slavery. He has established the toward the Church. But in general, aside eight-hour day in all industries. He has from this wanton destruction, the average established compulsory arbitration for dis- male Yucatecan with whom I talked seemed putes between capital and labor.

to feel that the Church got only " what was Even the bitter enemies of the Governor coming to it.” If a priest enters politics, he who are honest and intelligent praise him for can at best expect only to exchange the establishing prohibition, or "beer temper- respect which he may command as a spiritual ance," in the State. On many street corners leader for the temporal power of the successin Merida are buildings labeled Salón Cerveza ful ward boss. And if his party is defeated, (beer saloon). But since Alvarado came out he has no right to expect that the fact of his of the north all drinks stronger than beer priesthood will save him from the fate meted have been taboo, and Yucatan society has to all defeated politicians in Mexico. profited thereby.

To-day the churches of Yucatan are being No doubt many people in the United States used more materially than spiritually. For associate disrespect for formal established re- instance, in the rural districts the most common ligion with intemperance and all kinds of im- use made of them is as schools. In Merida moral traits, and think that in a character in one is used as a club-house by the Masons, which the first is shown the others must lurk. who backed the revolution of Carranza and These people would be surprised if they went are now enjoying the fruits of victory; another to Yucatan. The same Governor who has houses a students' club, another is the headclosed the churches has closed the hard-liquor quarters of the Bricklayers' Union, a fourth saloons. In fact, in his judgment of their is a storehouse for the alcoholic liquors coneffect on the character of the people he places fiscated in the enforcement of the new temthe two institutions in the same category. perance law, a fifth has been torn down to

But explanation is required here. Four make room for a park for the people, while churches, one in each of the four principal the impressive and lofty Cathedral is filled with quarters of the city, are permitted to hold canned meats and vegetables imported against services. And the Governor has promised a siege which was expected from the Americans that these churches will have his protection during the war scare which followed the fight so long as the attention of their priests is at Carrizal in June. The Bishop's palace, directed solely to “ saving souls” and not to adjoining the Cathedral, is being renovated directing the affairs of State. A freethinker and remade into the Palace of Art, where the himself, Alvarado declares that others may boys and girls of Merida may study sculpture, think and worship as they please so long as music, and painting! And connecting the Palthey do not interfere with his government. ace and the Cathedral an arch has been built,

The most flagrant injuries which the called the Arch of the Revolution, to commemChurch has suffered have been dealt by the orate the victories of Alvarado and Carranza. people, not by the Governor directly. Still The rationalist, freethinker, or whatever he he admits that his preachings were the peo

chooses to call himself-in short, the person ple's inspiration when, more than a year ago, who accepts no established religion and who a nieeting of labor unions adjourned to go hopes eventually for the abandonment of from church to church tearing idols from all churches and fixed creeds, and the substitheir niches, burning those which would burn, tution of schools and flexible philosophiesand strewing church floors with the fragments will think he has found the millennium if he of others. Now the average religious image goes to Merida to-day. in Mexico is not a work of art. But among And the surprising thing is that the people those destroyed in this debauch of prejudice are doing very little worrying about the loss were some historical treasures. To deprive of their churches. In Mexico the women civilization of such relics is as unpardonable as have always been the mainstay of the Church, the act of the first Spanish Bishop in Yucatan, and in Merida most of the complaints against who destroyed the priceless records of the old the Governor for his Church policy come from Indian civilization. And of course the ulti- women. It might be thought that the sudden mate effect of such senseless destruction is reduction of the number of churches from to hamper honest and intelligent reform. twelve to four in a city of eighty thousand GENERAL SALVADOR ALVARADO, GOVERNOR OF YUCATAN, AT A NATIVE FIESTA The costumes worn by the women on each side of the Governor are the distinctive dress, called the hipil, of the

[graphic]

mestizo and Indian women. Note the elaborate embroidery

[graphic]

PHOTOGRAPH BY GREGORY MASON

A PUBLIC SCHOOL ON A HENEQUEN PLANTATION, FOR THE EMPLOYEES' CHILDREN

Several hundred of these schools have been established by Governor Alvarado

A SOCIALISTIC DESPOT IN YUCATAN

663

would mean the overcrowding of the four. Yucatan, and most of the men in prison are But I attended all of them, and found only one natives of other States. There are few begfilled. Certainly the Yucatecans

are less

gars, almost no starvation, a great deal of religious” than other Mexicans.

prosperity, little dirt, little disease except They are less religious in the formal sense some tuberculosis and the ever-present but of the word. But in the true sense of the now limited amount of yellow fever. There word, in its spiritual sense, they are as relig- are few soldiers. The only ones in the State ious as any class of people in Mexico. They were brought from the north by Alvarado, are more serious than the natives of central and it is a fact that in Yucatan there are fewer and northern Mexico, more intelligent, and soldiers than school teachers ! have more self-respect. They are a people Such is the land where and such the people who laugh little, but who smile a great deal. among whom Salvador Alvaras has been trying

Indeed, a land of smiles and sunshine is to create a Utopia. On the whole, for a human Yucatan. Merida, one of the most beautiful being, he has done mighty well.

, That he is cities of Mexico, is admittedly the cleanest. just according to his lights is indicated by the Its seventy-two miles of asphalt pavement enemies he has made. His greatest enemies are well washed. The prevailing white and are the millionaire henequen planters whose light-blue color scheme of the houses reflects handsome city homes line both sides of the the dazzling sun with a brilliancy which can Paseo de Montejo, the most beautiful street be viewed serenely only through smoked in Mexico east or south of the country's glasses. The city has an Oriental look, de capital. Even under former despots they rived partly from the quasi-minarets on some enjoyed the prerogatives of privileged baroof the churches and public buildings, and nial vassals of the crown, but Alvarado has partly from the dress of the lower classes. cut into their profits to improve the lot of The women wear the hipil, a one-piece dress the common man and of the State. The hanging from shoulders to ankles without a Governor also enjoys the hatred of certain girdle, and decorated with beautiful hand labor leaders who, when they found that the embroidery even when the wearer is a cham- wings of the capitalists were being clipped, bermaid. Some of the workmen tried themselves to soar to unwonted heights around their heads a sort of tight bag, of power, only to find to their sorrow that called the pita, which falls in a loose fold there is only one god on Olympus in Yucadown their backs, and from the waist to the tan and his name is Alvarado. knees over the white cloth trousers of the The narration of the full list of the Govcountry they wear an apron called the delan- ernor's reforms and plans for reform would tare. Thus attired they look as Egyptian as fill an entire issue of The Outlook. He is if they had just stepped from a bas-relief. planning eventual Government ownership of

These people understand the art of living. all public utilities. At present his GovernFew cities have so many happy-looking per- ment operates two steamers under charter sons to the thousand as Merida. To look at between New Orleans and Progreso, and these Indians of the lower classes in their operates all the railways in the State, allowhomes, at work, or on the streets sometimes ing the owners dividends up to fourteen per makes you wonder if our civilization is worth cent of the profits. A huge plant for the while. A beautiful, shy people they are, manufacture of sacking from sisal hemp is temperate, clean, and, by Mexican standards, under construction by the Government. With industrious, Even the traveling salesmen $6,000,000 representing the profits on the lolling about the patios of the hotels seem to sale of henequen

over and above each have more soul and less paunch than the planter's share, a State bank has just been “ drummers ” of St. Louis or Pittsburgh. founded which will lend money to the planters.

That the Yucatecans are not cowards their But Alvarado has shown his keenness by history proves, but, although some of their centering his efforts on the removal of the Indians have been fighting the Government evils which are the principal ills of all Mexico of Mexico for several generations, most of -lack of education by the masses, unfair apthem care little for soldiering.

portionment of land, and abuses of temporal they think first of their fists, as we Americans power by the Church. do—not, like most Mexicans, of their knives. We have glanced at his handling of the

In fact, Yucatan is full of contrasts with Church and school problems, and found the the rest of Mexico. There is little crime in first, on the whole, good, although too harsh

wear

When angry,

[graphic][merged small]

A PRIVATE MOTOR CAR USED BY PLANTERS ON THE RAILWAYS OF YUCATAN The car is used on the railway tracks instead of on the highways, which are suitable only for mules and burros at times, and the second entirely good. He What sort of man is he who dares to try has done less to remedy the faults of the land to establish his conception of Utopia in this system than to improve the system of educa- seat of ancient civilization where the marks tion ; nevertheless, what he has done with the of the impermanency of man and his instituland is interesting.

tions are on every side ? A ferocious man, Up to the time when I left Yucatan (about a hangman, a wineglass-eater, and a lover of the first of October) in five towns the Gov- gun play of the common Mexican type, the ernor had distributed about three hundred newcomer to Yucatan is led to believe by and fifty lots of land of fifty acres each. some advance reports. But imagine that That is to day, three hundred and fifty land- newcomer's surprise when he finds instead a less persons, many of them just freed from solid man of medium height, neat but not peonage, were given fifty acres of land apiece dapper, with a quick smile never far from by the Government. This land was all un- his lips and a slow one always in his eyes. cultivated; part of it belonged to the Govern- Alvarado looks no more like the common ment and part of it belonged to wealthy fire-eating type of Mexican general than he men from whom it was taken either because looks like a bishop. He looks a good deal they had not cultivated it or because they like the quiet business man that he was bewere “ enemies of the cause." Each person fore the Madero revolution. He looks more receiving such land was required to do a fixed like an inventor or some sort of experimenter amount of work on it annually. After a cer- in love with his work, for his manner is tain number of years, if he had done his ex- always animated and his eyes have a peculiar pected share of development, the land would way of resting on you softly, and at the same become his in fee.

time apparently looking beyond you at some Of course to give homesteads to three hun- problem which is reflected on their owner's dred and fifty people out of the three hun- mind. dred thousand in the State is a small begin- Alvarado is an enthusiast, he is an inventor, ning, still it is a beginning, toward righting he is an experimenter, deeply interested in the greatest wrong in Mexico—land monopoly. what he is doing. This is why even his

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