« 上一頁繼續 »
strongest condemnation the action of Germany in deporting French women, girls, and young men from the neighborhood of Lille to other French territory held by the Germans, there to work under German direction. Now comes the pernicious action of Germany as regards Belgian workers. Having taken from Belgium money and supplies of many kinds and having left the Belgian people, for whom it is responsible, to be fed by Americans and other neutrals, Germany now proceeds to take from Belgium thousands of men and to make of them German serfs. One's indignation is doubly kindled at the hypocritical pretense by which this despicable action is defended by Germany. The German Governor-General of Belgium says : “At bottom it is a blessing. Nothing so demoralizes a man as long idleness.” The Belgians are perfectly willing to work, but it is not surprising that they are not always willing to work under German direction and control. Cardinal Mercier, that noble representative of religion and humanity in Belgium, thus describes the scenes which have followed the beginning of deportation :
Suddenly parties of soldiers begin to enter by force these peaceful homes, tearing youth from parent, husband from wife, father from children. They bar with the bayonet the door through which wives and mothers wish to pass to say farewell to those departing.
They herd their captives in groups of tens and twenties and push them into cars. As soon as the train is filled the officer in charge brusquely waves the signal for departure. Thus thousands of Belgians are being reduced to slavery.
The deportation has been going on quietly for about a month, and reports state that within a single week in one limited section from eight hundred to twelve hundred men were being “rounded up” daily, and, as one writer says, “ carried off pell-mell to unknown destinations like slave gangs." Comment upon the inhumanity and heartlessness of such conduct and upon the callousness of the Germans, who have now committed almost every conceivable outrage upon Belgian citi
citis zens and Belgian liberty, can only feebly characterize the wrong. The facts speak more eloquently than any words.
seems to have been a real surprise to the German generals. Heretofore the British advance towards Bapaume has been chiefly from the southwest. Now the British have attacked directly from the west along the little river known as the Ancre. The most important result up to date, in our judgment, is found in General Haig's bulletin of November 14, saying that five thousand prisoners had already passed through the collecting stations and more were coming in. Germany cannot lose five thousand prisoners at a time indefinitely without serious weakening. That she has already weakened the Somme line is quite evident, as the reports speak of the poor quality of her troops left to guard the points attacked last week. The British forces have taken the strongly fortified village of Beaucourt and two or three other villages only less important. They are now coming pretty close to the point where the direct attack upon Bapaume must begin. Berlin frankly admits its losses in the engagements on both sides of the river Ancre.
On the other hand, the news from the Balkans has been during our week in the main favorable to the Germans. Heavy engagements have been reported along the Transylvanian border of Rumania. General von Falkenhayn's progress seems to be considerable and to threaten a southward driving of the Rumanians which may ultimately endanger the capital of Rumania, Bucharest, and also, perhaps, make possible a union between General von Falkenhayn and General von Mackensen. Just how matters stand in the Dobrudja is not altogether clear. Apparently the bridge at Cernavoda was only partly destroyed by the Rumanians when they crossed the Danube in retreat, and there seems to be reason to believe that the Germans crossed the break by a pontoon bridge and have forces on the western side of the Danube. The reason for believing
taken place to the west of the river.
It is also reported that Mackensen's forces in the Dobrudja have been attacked and driven back from the northward, but they are certainly still in possession of a line north of the railway which runs from Constanza (which town, by the way, has been bombarded by Russian ships) to the Cernavoda bridge. If the news of Mackensen's retreat because of attacks from the north is true, it must mean that Russia is now coming rapidly to the defense of Rumania and that
THE BATTLES OF
The greatest military event of the week ending November 15 was the new drive of the British forces in the Somme sector. This
either she has put forces across the Danube acted as really part of the German military at the north of the Dobrudja peninsula or organization. He rejects the theory that else that larger forces than have been sup- this restriction is not justified by military posed were present in the peninsula itself at necessity, and says very frankly and openly the time of Mackensen's drive northward that the Allies still have a long and bitter
There has been no very important action struggle before them, and that this, “ in juson the Russian front in Galicia and Volhynia. tice to the principles for which they are In Macedonia the Servians have fought fighting, imposes upon them the duty of emsharp and successful engagements and are ploying every opportunity and every measure now seriously threatening Monastir. It is which they can legitimately use to overcome said that the Bulgars were in one day driven their opponents." back seven miles by combined Servian and He adds that inconvenience caused to French forces.
neutral nations in this way is not “to be
compared for an instant to the suffering and THE BRITISH REPLY TO
loss occasioned to mankind by the prolongaOUR "BLACKLIST" PROTEST
tion of the war even for a week." A note from Viscount Grey in reply to the As an instance of the kind of thing aimed American protest against what is commonly at in the so-called “ blacklist " order, Viscount called here the “blacklist” order of Great Grey declares that German business houses Britain was made public last week. It is an in neutral countries have not only aided'in able, clear, and forceful exposition of the espionage, but have even acted as bases of British position. It courteously declines to supply for German cruisers and as paymasters remove the restriction which affects certain of miscreants employed to destroy munition American business firms. Great Britain has factories. contended from the beginning that this order takes no action against such firms, and that
THE GERMAN CHANCELLOR they are injured only indirectly and as a con
DEFENDS THE FATHERLAND sequence (for which Great Britain is not
On November 9 Dr. von Bethmann Hollresponsible) of a perfectly proper restric
weg, the German Chancellor, made an imtion placed by Great Britain on its own sub
portant address to members of the German jects. This view is expressed so strongly by Reichstag. It was a rejoinder to the recent Viscount Grey that press reports from Wash
speech of Viscount Grey, the British Foreign ington declare :
Secretary. Lord Grey had said that the It can be stated authoritatively that as a
origin of the war must influence peace condiresult of this legal defense the United States
tions, and that, if it could be proved that the will abandon its original contention that the
war had been forced on Germany, then Gerblacklist is a violation of international law. A
many would be entitled to ask for guarantees new protest will be made, but it will be based on the argument that the blacklist methods con
against future attacks. stitute a serious breach of international comity.
Herr von Bethmann Hollweg began by Of course it is possible for a perfectly
asserting that in 1915 England and France legal order to be enforced in such a way as
promised to Russia domination of the Bosto be oppressive to neutrals. It is also true
phorus, Constantinople, and the west shore that, even though Great Britain is acting
of the Dardanelles, Asia Minor to be divided within her legal rights, she might, as we have
among the Entente Powers, and that to heretofore pointed out, make concessions as
these plans was added the disposal of Alsacea matter of friendship with this country. If
Lorraine to France. Though silence had been such concessions are asked, however, it is
maintained with respect to the plans, the
Chancellor affirmed that the history of interwell to remember that it would not be fair
national relations was now clear. He thus for our Government to make urgent requests for such concessions through comity if it is
partici not prepared to do the same thing in future What made France join with Russia ? Alsaceunder similar circumstances.
Lorraine. Viscount Grey, apart from the technical
What did Russia want? Constantinople. defense adduced, writes eloquently on the
Why did England join them? Because Geractual need for the restriction of the activi. many had become too strong for her. ties of those German business firms in neu- So much as prelude. The Chancellor adtral countries which, as he declares, have mitted that on July 30 a Berlin newspaper
issued a special edition with the report that the German Emperor had ordered mobilization, but said that the sale of this special edi tion was prohibited immediately by the police, that the Foreign Secretary informed the Russian Ambassador at once by telephone that the news was false, that the Russian Ambassador sent a warning to his capital as soon as the special edition was issued, but imrnediately followed this by a contradiction ; and that the
ne following day, when Russian mobilization had been ordered, the Czar telegraphed to the Emperor that it was impossible to stop military preparations, “made necessary by AustroHungarian mobilization.” There was no word about German mobilization, said the Chancellor, and added that a partial Austro-Hungarian mobilization could have been no excuse for a general Russian movement, that only after this occurred did Austria-Hungary order a general mobilization, that after the news of the general Russian mobilization Germany did not mobilize at once, but at first only proclaimed a state of threatened danger of war; that this was communicated to the Russian Government, and only then was it added that mobilization must follow if Russia did not stop all war measures against Germany and Austria-Hungary within twelve hours, and that Russia gave no answer. Thus, in German opinion, the Russian mobilization was an aggressive and not a defensive measure.
amination of every endeavor to find a practical solution, and will collaborate for its possible realization. This all the more if the war, as we expect and trust, shall create political condi. tions that do full justice to the free development of all nations, of small as well as great nations. Then the principle of justice and free development, not only on the continent, but also on the seas, must be made valid. This, to be sure, Lord Grey did not mention.
The Chancellor then pointed out that Lord Grey's ideas regarding international guarantees of peace seemed to possess a peculiar character, in that they took into consideration only British wants, and that neutrals who during the war had to accept in silence British domination of the seas were to form a union after the war, when England hoped she would have conquered Germany, in order to guarantee that the British plans should prevail under the new conditions. Referring to the British plans of 1915 the Chancellor declared :
Such a policy of brute force cannot be the basis of an efficient international league of peace. . . . The first condition for the evaluation of international relations by way of arbi. tration and peaceful compromise of conflicting interests ought to be that no more aggressive coalitions be formed.
Germany is at all times ready to join the league of nations--yes, even to place herself at the head of such a league-to keep in check the disturbers of peace.
This speech of the Chancellor's does not sound like the Germany which marched triumphantly over prostrate Belgium, which declared that necessity knew no law, which promised to occupy Paris and crush France. Concerning this we comment in an editorial on another page.
THE GERMAN CHANCELLOR'S
Whatever one may think of this, it is uninteresting compared with the Chancellor's reply to that part of Lord Grey's speech concerning an international league to preserve peace. The Chancellor affirmed in words which must have had his Emperor's approval :
We never concealed our doubts as to whether peace could be permanently guaranteed by international organizations, such as arbitration courts. I shall not discuss the theoretical aspects of the problem in this place. But from the standpoint of matters of fact we now, and in peace, must define our position with regard to this question.
If at and after the end of the war the world will only become fully conscious of the horrifying destruction of life and property, then through the who's of humanity there will ring out a cry for peaceful arrangements and understandings which, as far as they are within human power, will prevent the return of such a monstrous catastrophe. ...
Germany will honestly co-operate in the ex
THE BACKWASH OF
The Presidential returns indicated, as The Outlook pointed out in last week's issue, that the proposition to vote any class or group of American citizens as a block will always be destined to failure. The more complete returns which have come in since last week supply only added evidence to the indications already received that the women's vote," the "hyphen vote," and the “labor vote" which figured so largely in the election prophecies were in great measure figments of the imagination.
The conclusions which we drew from the early election returns we see no reason to
change. The fact that South Dakota, which five minor party members. They are an last week was reported as probably voting in Independent from Massachusetts, a Prohibifavor of woman suffrage, is now definitely tionist from California, a Socialist from New settled into the other column by about 5,000 York, a Progressive from Minnesota, and a votes does not affect the suffrage issue one Progressive Protectionist from Louisiana. way or the other.
Perhaps no minor groups ever had more To turn from the suffrage to the question power. It will be interesting to know what of hyphenism, the results in Hoboken, New bids the Republicans and the Democrats will Jersey, and in St. Louis, Missouri, are inter- make to win their votes and thus elect a esting. In Hoboken, a city largely popú- Speaker. To find a similar case we have to lated by Americans of German ancestry or go back to 1855. Since then there has never birth, there is every evidence that the voters been a Congress in which one party did not cast their ballots, not as they were directed have enough votes to organize the House. by their self-appointed leaders, but as they The Democrats have some hope of inindividually pleased. Hoboken previous to creasing their number, however, from the election was flooded with circulars from the canvass of the vote of the Third District German Independence League of New Jer of New Jersey (Middlesex, Monmouth, and sey, calling upon the voters to vote for Ocean Counties). The two Democratic Hughes, Wittpen, and Martine. There were members of the County Board of Elecnearly ten thousand votes cast in the city, of tions, which acted as a Board of Canwhich Wilson received over 5,000, Hughes vassers, went on record as refusing to over 4,000, Martine about 4,700, and Witt- count the votes cast in two sections because pen some fifty less. The Second Ward of the election boards had made the return of Hoboken, always strongly Republican, went the votes in figures instead of spelling the for Hughes by even less than its normal numbers out, as the law requires. But the Republican majority.
two Republican members insist that the votes A similar story comes from St. Louis. should not be thrown out. The disfranchiseRepublican leaders had predicted that “Wil ment of the voters represented would defeat son would be slaughtered” in the seven Re- Robert Carson, the Republican candidate, publican wards in South St. Louis, which are who, on the face of the returns, had received populated largely by Americans of German a plurality over Thomas J. Scully, Democrat, extraction. Even the Democratic leaders the present Representative in Congress. feared that Wilson would run five thousand behind the State ticket in these districts. Returns, however, show that Presi- ELECTED TO CONGRESS dent Wilson made material gains over the
On another page appears the portrait of vote cast for the Democratic candidate at the Miss Jeannette Rankin, Republican, the first last municipal election. Indeed, he ran only woman to be elected to Congress. Her vicsome three hundred votes in a total of eighteen tory is the more striking as Montana went thousand behind the Democratic candidate Democratic on the Presidential issue. for Governor.
Miss Rankin is reported to be about thirty
four years of age, slender, and with lightWHAT PARTY WILL
brown hair ; of personal attractiveness and CONTROL CONGRESS ?
with unusual intellect. She is the daughter As The Outlook has already reported, the of one of the Montana pioneers. “ She is Democratic majority in the United States this sort of girl," reports one of her friends : Senate remains at twelve, but it may be in
Her father was trying to rent one of his creased should the contest against Repre
houses in Missoula, Montana, and there wasn't sentative Howard E. Sutherland, Republican, any sidewalk in front of it. A prospective who, on the face of the returns, has been tenant was found, but the tenant said he wouldn't elected Senator from West Virginia, result in take the house unless it had a sidewalk. Jeanfavor of the present incumbent, Senator nette called up some carpenters and found them Chilton.
too busy to lay the sidewalk. And so she bought As to the House, as The Outlook has also the lumber, borrowed a hammer and saw, and reported, the outcome, as indicated. is a tie laid the sidewalk herself. between the Republicans and the Democrats. Miss Rankin is a graduate of the UniverEvidently the balance of power is held by sity of Montana and of the School of Phi
THE FIRST WOMAN
lanthropy. She has been an ardent worker production not infrequently reacts unfavorfor woman suffrage, going to the farms and ably upon both farmer and consumer, and into the mines to argue the question. She is most favorably upon the middleman. A credited with having been more than any surplus of food products is often a weapon in other woman the means of obtaining the suf- the middleman's hands, not a protection frage in Montana. She wanted to carry the against his extortions. It enables him, since fight into the National Legislature, and made he largely controls the channels of distribua hard fight against several men aspirants tion, to buy at the price he pleases from the for the nomination as Republican candidate- farmer and to sell at the price he pleases to at-large for Congress. It is reported that she the consumer. did much of her campaigning on horseback. If the pipe which leads from a reservoir is After her election she said, as reported : too small and too tortuous, it does not help
I knew the women would stand by me. The matters much to increase the size of the women worked splendidly, and I am sure they reservoir itself. feel that the results have been worth the work. I am deeply conscious of the responsibility, and what the CONSUMER it is wonderful to have the opportunity to be the IS PAYING first woinan to sit in Congress. I will not only
To the average consumer who is paying represent the women of Montana, but also the
the present prices for food philosophical diswomen of the country, and I have plenty of work cut out for me.
cussions as to why his daily bread is costOf course I know I'll be the first woman
ing him so much have very little real inMember of Congress, but I believe I'll be re
terest. The prosperity of the country to the ceived with courtesy and as an equal by those
consumer is expressed not in terms of gross Eastern Congressmen, even though they are tonnage of shipments from our shores, or in enemies of suffrage. While working for suffrage the totals of freight cars in movement across in the East I found that, no matter how strenu our transcontinental lines, or in bank clearously our opponents fought us, they were always ances, or the growth of munition cities. The ready to hear our side.
only prosperity which means anything to the
average consumer is the margin between the THE HIGH COST OF FOODSTUFFS
price of living and the amount in his pay President Wilson, in an address at Washing- envelope. For those who are living on a ton before the Convention of the National fixed wage basis the following figures spell Grange, offered one easy but not very con- not prosperity but hardship : vincing solution of the problem of the high Within the last month the best grades of cost of living. He said:
flour have been selling at from $11 to $11.50 We ought to raise such big crops that cir- · a barrel. Flour is higher to-day than at any cumstances like the present can never recur,
time since the Civil War, when, at the close when men can make it appear as if the supply of that conflict, it brought $15 a barrel. was so short that the middleman could charge A month ago potatoes were selling in the for it w.hat he pleased. It will not do to be New York market at $1 a bushel. To-day niggardly with the rest of the world in respect the price for the best grades is $2 and up. to its food supply. .
A year ago granulated sugar sold for 5.85 Farmers who have experienced the sorrows cents a pound; to-day it is 772 cents a pound. which come from glutted markets, consumers Not long ago sugar sold at retail for three who have seen foodstuffs left to rot on the cents a pound. According to a market farms because it did not pay to ship them to report in the New York “ Times," from which the city, while they themselves found no ap- most of these figures are taken, cabbages, preciable decrease in the cost of these same which used to cost from four to five cents a food products, will both be slow to accept the head, now cost from ten to thirty cents. The President's suggestion as even a partial solu- “ Times” says that turnips and carrots, tion of their pressing problems.
which a year ago were selling in Washington Increased food production does not neces Market, New York City, for fifteen cents a sarily mean cheaper food for the consumer half-peck, are now bringing twenty-five cents. unless the methods of distribution are so or- We know of one case where eight cents was ganized as to bring the surplus of food prod- charged for a single turnip. ucts cheaply to the consumers. On the other Cheese is one hundred per cent higher hand, under present conditions, increased than it was a year ago. Even common