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the evening, without any interference by parents of the children are obliged to send local authorities save the warning to Catholic them to these governmental institutions, groups that they should not interfere, how where the teachers are instructed to stifle can one say that it was not under govern- and eradicate any vestiges of religion that mental supervision ? It is hardly necessary our own schools hitherto sought to implant. to add to the above chronicle that whatever Oh, liberty of conscience, what crimes are of value was to be found in gold or silver being committed in thy name in Mexico ! plate was stolen by the most powerful. Dur- Our Mexico ! ing these days the priests of my diocese were I have gone into detail only about my own subject to every indignity and those who were diocese of Yucatan because of the personal not exiled were held in durance more vile knowledge which I have of its conditions. I than even slavery or death.

am able to state, however, that throughout On one Sunday of last May there was not the Republic this religious persecution is a church in my diocese open for the worship more or less violent according to local condiof Almighty God. Yielding to the protests tions and according to the different characters of many of the people, and to representa- of the local military commanders. tions made by some people of authority, the In all fairness, I am glad to state that none governor finally allowed four churches to be of my priests were murdered nor our nuns outopened on the 19th of May, but those out in raged, but I cannot say this for all the other the country remained closed, and the priests dioceses. Notwithstanding all that has been were positively forbidden to go out of the city said to the contrary, I know it to be a fact and to attend to services in country places. that nuns have been ravished and priests

Previous to the present troubles in Mexico have been murdered under the benevolent the diocese of Yucatan had an ecclesiastical government of Señor Venustiano Carranza. seminary, an academy, a training-school, two The limits of this letter do not permit me academies for girls, and more than thirty to enter into many details, but he who wishes Catholic free schools, where more than five to know them can find them accurately exthousand children received an education posed in “ The Book of Red and Yellow," similar to that being given to Catholic chil- written by the Rt. Rev. Francis C. Kelley, dren in the United States. Under the pres- D.D., President of the Catholic Church Exent régime of Carranzista authority in Yuca- tension Society, whose headquarters are in tan all these educational facilities have been the city of Chicago, Illinois. In view of all closed, the buildings and furniture have been this, how can any one declare that Mexico seized, while the sisters and lay teachers who has not suffered religious persecution, or that conducted them have been obliged to fee this persecution is, due only to elements for their lives.

which are foreign to the Constitutionalists ? Can you not, Mr. Editor, and you, gentle Señor Cabrera's second statement, that reader, imagine the desolation of my soul in “the Constitutionalists guarantee the most having to stand by helplessly while all these complete liberty of conscience and of public dastardly deeds have been perpetrated in the worship under the Constitutional principles name of liberty and justice ? Some of these called Laws of the Reform,” contains a institutions were the pride of my diocese for promise which ought to console the oppressed centuries. They were built up by the sweat heart of all Mexicans. Although this stateand blood of our ancestors, and my people, ment has the authority of the de facto Govmy clergy, and I labored together for fourteen ernment, where is there any evidence of its years to continue the good work-now only being put into practice? They are not new to see it all leveled to the ground by men of promises; they have been made before, Mexican blood who are standing forth to-day but “ by their fruits shall you know them." as champions of equal rights to all men. Were not these promises given in Washington · Imagine my desolation when I think of the by Carranza's Ambassador, Señor Arredondo, 270,000 Catholic people of the diocese of many months ago ? and yet most of the outYucatan, divided into forty-five parishes, left rages committed in my diocese have been without churches in which they might worship perpetrated since this proclamation of religGod or schools in which their children might ious freedom. be educated in the faith of their fathers ! Señor Cabrera not only tries to absolve his True, there are schools maintained by the party from the blame of religious persecution, Government in my diocese at present, but the but endeavors to throw the fault upon the

shoulders of the clergy, charging that they have meddled in politics. To his statement I reply that it is false that the clergy as a class have mixed in politics. As Bishop of the ecclesiastical province which embraces the States of Yucatan. Campeche, and Tabasco, I can state that the clergy as a class have abstained from every kind of politics ; but if one did so meddle here or there, it was without my knowledge. If in any other part of the Republic, they were only isolated cases. In Mexico a priest has the same right to vote and mix in political matters as any other citizen, but ecclesiastical restrictions forbid him to hold any civil office. Any priest who would violate the ecclesiastical provision would naturaily be subject to ecclesiastical censure; but what right would the civil law have to punish the clergy as a class for the indiscreet political actions of a few of its members, especially when there was no provision in the law of the land for the punishing of any such pseudo-violation? Why follow such illegal punishment by closing Catholic schools, molesting innocent nuns, and depriving the faithful of their houses of worship—the faithful who, according to Señor Cabrera, comprise ninety-nine per cent of the population of the country? Suppose a governor of one of the United States were to attempt to throw into jail some of the ministers of religion who mingled in politics ? Suppose he went further and attempted to close the church in which these ministers of religion held forth ? How long would the people of the United States, of any denomination whatsoever, stand for such an outrage? It is such a brand of liberty of conscience and freedom of public worship that Señor Cabrera's Government has given the Church in Mexico since it has been in power. What can we expect from it in the future? “ By their fruits you shall know them."

Looking into the future for a solution of the religious problem, which for more than fifty years has distressed our beloved Mexico, as an archbishop of that unhappy country, I am entirely in accord with the platform proposed by the Catholics of your great country, the United States, who in their convention of federated societies at New York recently reiterated the fundamental principles upon which the Constitution of the l'nited States is founded—“. Freedom of conscience and liberty of worship to all men equally." In order to be more explicit, and to be put on record, if it is so desired, I am

not afraid to express the great hope of the clergy and Catholic people of Mexico in the following propositions :

First, we do not ask to have restored the ancient union between the Church and State which was abrogated in the year 1857.

Second, we do not intend to attempt to restore temporal power," as is attributed to us by Senor Cabrera.

Third, as an interpreter of the wishes oi all Mexican bishops, which are well known to me, I can state that we do not ask the restoration of the property seized by Juarez froin the Church; but, on the contrary, all Mexican bishops would be ready, upon the iequest of the Holy See, to relinquish any claims that they may have in order to avoid any tiouble with public authority and bring about a lasting peace to our people and our country.

We do not ask any class privileges or special laws in our favor. On the contrary, we ask only the inalienable right of every man to worship God as his conscience dictates. Our idea of liberty of conscience is the same as that found in the laws of the United States, which gives to the individual the privilege to worship in whatsoever church he pleases; the right to educate his children in a public or private school; the choosing of the ministry as a vocation if a man so desires ; and a protection for him in his calling as long as he does not violate the laws of the land in which he lives.

We demand that all public officials respect the belief of the clergy and people, of whatsoever denomination they may be, and that as long as the Church is not allowed to interfere in matters of State, so the State will not interfere in ecclesiastical matters.

We demand the right of educating the children of Catholics in Mexico in accordance with our religious belief, and, even though the law of the land compels us to contribute to the support of public schools, yet we maintain the right to be permitted to found and support our own private schools where our children may be educated in the religion of their fathers.

We demand the restoration of all the church property of which we were recently deprived, and the right of possessing and holding title to our churches, homes, seminaries, schools, and all other ecclesiastical institutions necessary for the upbuilding of the Church.

In a word, we ask only for liberty and justice-those two great privileges which all lovers of equality demand as the fundamental




right of human existence. What American freedom of public worship to all the children citizen would be content with less ?

of the land. We are willing to forget all the In conclusion, let me assure Señor Cabrera injustice of the past, but we stand steadfast and his employers that no form of govern. for the principles of Mexico's liberty as laid ment can be built up in Mexico, or in any down in the Constitution of 1857. other country, that is not grounded upon equal Hoping, Mr. Editor, that you will give the rights to all men. The God of justice still same publicity to this statement of “the rules the universe, and the prayers of his other side of the Mexican religious question” exiled Mexican children will some day be as you have given to that of Señor Cabrera, heard. The day will come when the' Mexi- believe me, sincerely your servant, can Government, in whosesoever hands it

MARTIN TRITSCHLER Y CORDOVA, may be, will grant liberty of conscience and

Archbishop of Yucatan.






HEN the American opens his morn- ture among the Romans, the Greeks, and the

ing paper, he is apt to find in some ancient Egyptians. But he gives little evi

prominent place a cartoon or cari- dence that they used it for any moral purcature relating to the war. He does not per

Not until Christian inspiration had haps realize that the Englishman, the French- developed moral earnestness and made it man, the German, and not improbably the well-nigh universal did it lay hold of the Italian and the Russian, have a similar humorous and grotesque in art as a useful experience. While the war with guns is instrument. being carried on upon European battle- Phillips Brooks first called my attention to fields, another war is being waged by the use of caricature by the Church in the books, pamphlets, articles, and pictures. churches. He had the not very common abilThis second war makes less noise, but pro- ity to get a large view by looking through a duces not less far-reaching effects. Changes very small window. That Holy Trinity in in public opinion, when permanent in their Boston is what the American Baedeker calls character, are quite as important as changes it, the finest church edifice in America, is in the map of Europe. Germany may partly due to his architectural taste. He not lose, France may not regain, Alsace watched its erection with the greatest inand Lorraine, but nothing can give back to terest. He told me once that he discovered Germany that high esteem in which she was that a fresco painter had put in the decoraheld by the civilized world and which she has tion of the ceiling a burlesque figure, so recklessly thrown away, and nothing can rob small that it would escape the ordinary obserFrance of the esteem in which the whole vation from the floor below. It was painted civilized world holds her for the steadfast out before the scaffolding was taken down. loyalty and courage of her people. Those But in this incident Dr. Brooks found an who are interpreting the issues of the war, interpretation of ancient ecclesiastical archiwhether they do so by voice, by pen, or by tecture. The ecclesiastics, he said, have pencil, are forming a public opinion which seen in the gargoyles a symbol ; they were will long outlive military operations and even thought to represent the evil spirits driven political changes.

out of the Church by the divine grace within. This battle of the cartoonists is not new. But, he thought it more probable that they It is as old as Christendom. Mr. Parton in were simply the naïve expression of the his history of “ Caricature and Other Comic humor of the workman at an epoch which Art"? gives illustrations of the use of carica- had no funny papers and no comic art. This

1 "Caricature and Other Comic Art in All Times and ew is borne out by James Parton. How Many Lands," by James Parton. With 203 Illustrations. Harpei & Brothers, 1877.

else, for example, can we understand the figures in some of the capitals in the Strass- that day. Certainly this caricature must burg Cathedral (A.D. 1300)? In iwo of these have had some effect to counteract the fears groups animals are depicted performing the which the preacher endeavored to arouse, orthodox religious ceremonies : in one a whether such was the artist's intention or not. rabbit or hare is performing priestly devotions At a little later period this intention was at an altar on which is the sacramental cup, perfectly frankly avowed by the caricaturist. while near by stands another at a reading-desk In the period of the Reformation caricature with the open book of devotion before him ; was freely and effectually used by both Roman in another group a religious procession of Catholics and Protestants. They both realthe same animals is depicted in stone, one ized that a burlesque is sometimes more carrying a miter, a second the cross, while effective than an argument, and laughter a others follow in grotesque attitudes.

more powerful weapon than logic. Luther's In these cases it is safe to say that there claim to speak as God directed him is caricawas no intention to ridicule the religious tured by a grotesque figure of the devil services of the cathedral. The true explana- speaking through a tube into Luther's ear tion is probably that given by one of the early what Luther is shouting to the people through Fathers of the Church, who defends such a trumpet. His marriage was made the humor in stone by saying, “ This is a frivolity theme of a number of caricatures, which eviwith which to amuse the eyes of the faithful.” dently had more effect on Luther than all But the transition from burlesquing the cur- the sober arguments of his enemies or the rent religious ceremonies to using burlesque regret of his quondam friends. “My marto express a real if not a very profound dis- riage," he wrote, “ has made me so despicable belief in the current religious doctrine was that I hope my humiliation will rejoice the both natural and easy. Mr. Parton quotes angels and vex the devils ”-a mood which from "The Champagne Country," by Robert did not, however, last very long. Nor were Torres, the author's description of the por- the Protestants less ready with their caricatraiture in stone of the Last Judgment on tures, not only of priests and monks, but of one of the portals of the Cathedral at the Pope himself. Two of these caricatures Rheims :

are printed by Mr. Parton; in one of them

the Pope is portrayed as being cast into hell The trump has sounded and the Lord from a

by grotesque and laughing devils ; in the lofty throne is pronouncing doom upon the other he is provided with an ass's head risen as they are brought up to the judgment crowned by the papal tiara and playing the seat by the angels. Below him are two rows of the dead just rising from their graves, ex

bagpipes. Underneath is the inscription in tending to the full width of the great door.

German : Upon many of the faces there is an expression "A long-eared ass can with the bagpipes cope of amazement, which the artist apparently de- As well as with theology the Pope." signed to be comic, and several of the attitudes

The next era of caricature and cartoonsare extremely absurd and ludicrous. Some

at least as far as the volumes in my library have managed to push off the lids of tl.eir

indicate—was the close of the eighteenth and tombs a little way, and are peeping out through the narrow aperture; others have just got their

the beginning of the nineteenth century. beads above the surface of the ground, and

Apparently the age of conflict is also the age others are sitting up in their graves; some have

of caricature. As the red-hot iron gives out one leg out, some are springing into the air, and its sparks under the blow of the hammer, so some are running, as if in wild fright, for their the mind of the artist seems to need a paslives. . . . An angel is leading a cheerful com- sionate enthusiasm and the blows of a great pany of popes, bishops, and kings toward the contest to produce its greatest scintillations. Saviour, while a hideous demon, with a mouth Both the American and the French Revolustretching from ear to ear, is dragging off a

tions were characterized by a fertility of picnumber of the condemned toward the devil,

torial argument, sometimes serious, somewho is seen stirring up a huge caldron boiling

times satirical or humorous. As one would and bubbling with naked babies dead before baptism.

expect, the French reformer resorted to the

pencil more frequently and, I may add, more It is natural to believe that the artist fur: effectively than the American. Dr. E. F. nished this semi-humorous picture of the Last Henderson in his “Symbol and Satire in Judgment as a counterpoise to the solemn the French Revolution " reproduces one hundescriptions of it common in the sermons of dred and seventy-one of these pictorial argu




1 ܕܕ

ments. My cartoons,” he tells the reader, these caricatures. The nation is too bitter “ were photographed direct from the originals against its oppressors, and especially against -almost all of which are anonymous loose the King and the Queen, who have played the sheets. They are to be found for the most part of pretended friends only that they might part in the Collection Hennin, of the Biblio- deceive the people. A caricature to be huthèque Nationale, in Paris.

Others come

morous must have some vraisemblance, and from the Musée Carnavalet, and a few I was that quality these caricatures lack. They are able to purchase from antiquarians.

not arguments to win an opponent or to In the French Revolution France was suf- arouse the indifferent; they are taunts to fering from a bad attack of hysteria. But it wound a foe. Marie Antoinette is pictured was at first a hysteria of moral idealism. The as a harpy tearing up the Constitution with epoch affords a striking illustration of the her sharp talons, and Louis XVI as a horned truth that emotionalism uncontrolled by rea- pig, obese and stupid of countenance.

But son is always dangerous. The earlier pic- Louis XVI was not a pig, horned or othertures represent the earlier phases of this wise ; he was a good-natured, weak gentleRevolution. There are no caricatures, no man in a place that called for a leader of malice, little humor. The artist at once in- vision and strength ; and Marie Antoinette terprets and inspires the idealism of the was not a harpy, she was a fanatical imperination. Liberty crowning Benjamin Frank- alist who did not believe that the people had lin ; the King and Necker, his Minister of any rights or that rulers owed to them any Finance, united by a double chain emblemati- duties, not even the duty of keeping faith cal of their united love for the people and with them. emerging from the darkness of the past ; a With the period which followed the French coach dra.vn by six owls representing wisdom Revolution there came a notable change in: and containing three figures, one represent- journalistic art. Idealism disappeared, and ing the clergy as driver, two others repre- with it good will. The era was one of fierce senting respectively the nobility and the peas- combat, and the artists were fired by the ants, symbolizing the union of the three popular passions and took part in the fierce estates, proceeding harmoniously to Ver- campaigns. The artists' arrows flew thick sailles ; Necker borne aloft by the Duc d'Or- and fast from the quivers of England, France, léans and Lafayette and trampling upon the Germany, Italy, Spain, Holland, Russia. chains which symbolize the slavery from Some of them were mere fun; but most of which the people are emancipated ; France as them were arguments, appeals, denunciations. a mother teaching her two children to clasp Tragedy was not wanting, but comedy generhands as a symbol of the new spirit of fra- ally held the stage with every variety of riditernity-indicate the general character of the cule, caricature, and travesty, some farcical, pictures of the first year of the Revolution. some grim, all inspired by an unmistakable As this beautiful dream disappears and the spirit of moral earnestness. The artistic conflict between the people and the nobility fecundity of this period is amazing. deepens, the pictures change in character. Broadley in his handsome volumes on “ NapoThe priesthood are made the subjects of leon in Caricature ” gives in an appendix bitter caricature. Mirabeau's measure for 1,743'caricatures, from which he has made the the confiscation of the estates of the Church selection for his very fully illustrated work. is gleefully welcomed by satirical pictures. It is estimated that there are in existence One represents a fat priest assailed by two nearly two thousand caricatures of Napoleon, merry highwaymen ; a second pictures a and in pictures, prints, miniatures, medallions, priest literally reduced to a skeleton coming and medals eighty thousand portraits. as a suppliant to representatives of the The contrast in artistic conception and nobility and army; a third portrays a fat method of the different nationalities reprepriest in a press operated by two men, the sented in Mr. Broadley's two volumes would gold dropping out of his mouth, while two be an interesting subject for study, but to lean companions are walking away in the enter upon it would extend this article beyond distance, and a fourth fat priest is being reasonable limits. And yet a certain unibrought up to take his place in the press. formity of spirit animates them all; that which There is, however, but little humor in

I“ Napoleon in Caricature, 1795-1821," by A. M. Broad"Symbol and Satire in the French Revolution," by ley, with an introductory essay on "Pictorial Satire as a Ernest F. Henderson, Ph.D., L.H.D. G. P. Putnam's Factor in Napoleon's History,” by J. Holland Rose. Sons, 1912.

two volumes.' The John Lane Company, 1911.


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