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The Outlook

SEPTEMBER 13, 1916
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York



Rumania to aid Rumania's other advance, THE TWO RUMANIAN FRONTS

already described, the position of the AustroRumania followed her entrance into the Bulgarian armies in the Near East is serious. war, reported last week, by energetic military As we said last week, Austria-Hungary is movements. Her natural hostile fronts are now obliged to fight on several fronts at the north side of the western section of Ru- Trentino, Trieste, Kovel, Lemberg, Transylmania and at the south side, on the Bulgarian vania in two sections, and, finally, it faces the frontier. Her advance on the first of these great army of the Allies now threatening to fronts into Transylvania, the triangular sec- advance from Salonika. Moreover, the Teution of Hungary which forms the south- tonic Powers have to cope with the results eastern of the Austro-Hungarian

of the Grand Duke Nicholas's advance in Empire, was rapid and successful. Appar- Asia Minor. ently she was all but through the passes

The situation in the Near East is such that before war was declared; she quickly seized it certainly lends coior to the argument of Kronstadt, and almost as quickly another im- those who believe that either this year or portant town called Hermannstadt, later took next the decisive military results will be obthe important town of Orsova, not far from tained in this field rather than on the western the “ Iron Gates” of the Danube, and appar

lines in France and Belgium. ently is already firmly established in Transylvania. What this means is evident in a glance GREECE AND THE ALLIES at any map. Transylvania is the nut between Greece still remains in a confused political the two halves of the nutcracker made by and international condition. The wildest the northern boundary of western Rumania, rumors were afloat recently about the Kingon Transylvania's south, and the western that he was dead, that he was ill, that he boundary of northern Rumania, on Transyl- had abdicated, that the Crown Prince was to vania's east. When we remember that this take his place, that he was ready to submit to latter half of the Rumanian nutcracker that part of the Greek people under Venizealmost joins the great Russian advance in los's leadership who wished to enter the war Galicia, the parlous state of Transylvania is on the side of the Allies. Almost anything obvious.

might happen before these words are read, Russia and Rumania have every opportu- but as we write (September 6) the figment of nity to act in concert. And not in one section neutrality is still maintained and Zaimis still only; for Russia is now free to send her troops remains Premier. Meanwhile the Allies in south through eastern Rumania and Bulgaria Greece have taken a firm stand to secure in an advance on Constantinople-free, that is, themselves from treachery and spying. They except for the resistance which may be offered have seized several German merchant ships by Bulgaria and her allies. This resistance in the harbor of Athens, and they have caused is evidently to be considerable, for large the arrest and deportation of even diplomatic bodies of hostile forces are already reported representatives of Germany and Austria who, as fighting against the Rumanian armies which as charged, have been guilty of underhanded aim to cross south from Rumania into Bul- agitation against the Allies.

Greece seems garia. Fighting has taken place not very far to have accepted this action, and has insisted from the port of Varna, on the Black Sea. only that the actual work of arresting the What resistance may be made to the Ruma- wrong-doers should be made through Greek nian and Russian advances—for Russian agents. To a neutral observer it would seem troops are already in this vicinity-remains that Greece's only opportunity for undọing to be seen. If Russia has armies to send the ill-advised policy which has brought her along this line and also, perhaps, through into such a pitiable condition is to follow the lead of Venizelos and the wish of the great was so almost regardless of the widely varying majority of the Greek people. Revolutionary opinions passed as to the justice of the law outbreaks have been reported from various itself and the desirability of a settlement by parts of Greece.

Act of Congress. Some of these diverging

views, as shown in the press of the country, OTHER WAR NEWS

will be found elsewhere in this issue, together The Russian drives toward Kovel and with The Outlook's own expression of opinion Lemberg appear also to have advanced dur- on the matter. ing the week. On September 5 General The law, which had already passed the Brusiloff reported that nearly twenty thousand House of Representatives by a vote of 239 prisoners had been taken in three days. to 56, was assented to by the Senate SaturGeneral Brusiloff continues his policy of day evening, September 2, by a vote of 43 to striking at one point and then at another. 28, and was signed by President Wilson as The chief object of immediate attack seems soon as his temporary absence from Washto be the town of Halicz, to take which would ington allowed. Only forty-eight hours were bring the Russians within good striking dis- required for action by Congress on this imtance of Lemberg.

portant topic. Amendments offered by SenaIn the great western conflict in the region tor Underwood, of Alabama, which gave the of the Somme River the fighting during the Inter-State Commerce Commission general week here dealt with (August 30 to Septem- power to fix hours of labor and wages, were ber 6) has been violent. Both the French defeated in the Senate by an overwhelming and British have taken villages and positions majority, as were also other amendments. of value in reaching their objectives. For The pressure of immediate action was everyinstance, on September 5 the British are where evident. This also appears in the first reported to have pushed a mile beyond the provision of the law, which consists of a town of Guillemont and to have taken im- sentence of about two hundred and fifty portant German defenses at the Falfemont words very clumsily expressed and without a Farm, while the French wedge, which has single period from beginning to end. Briefly been driven forward so as to outflank and com- summarized, what the law accomplishes is to mand the town of Combles, has been enlarged establish eight hours as the standard day in and extended The French have taken railway work; to direct that the pay for a twenty-nine villages in all since they started day's work should remain as it has been, their Somme offenses, and in three days last despite the change from ten hours to eight week reported the capture of over ten thou- hours in the standard ; to leave the pay for sand prisoners.

overtime as it has been (or, as it is called, pro Another Zeppelin raid on London and the rata), and not “ time and a half," as the eastern coast is to be reported. The usual brotherhood demanded—that is, a man who result is indicated by English reports, namely, works an hour overtime will now receive an that a few civilians were killed and some eighth of a day's pay for that hour ; to pro small damage done to buildings. The spec- vide a commission of three to be appointed by tacular feature of this attack was the destruc- the President to investigate the operation of tion, within full view of many thousands of the new system and report to Congress after people, of a Zeppelin by gunfire from an ten months ; and, finally, to fix penalties for aeroplane. The sight of the burning dirigi- violation of the provisions of the Act. The ble, which became a mass of fame and glow- law goes into effect on January 1, 1917. It ing metal before it fell, was terrible and mar- applies to all employees of railways doing an velous. English reports say that the total inter-State business, and also to employees number of Zeppelins lost by Germany in the of electric street railways and interurban war is not very far from thirty.

railways the lines of which cross State lines.

The commission to be appointed by the CONGRESS AVERTS

President is to carry on its observation for THE RAILWAY STRIKE

not less than six months or more than nine The news that Congress, at the earnest months. The law, of course, provides approsuggestion of the President, had passed a law priation of funds for the expenses of the dealing with the railway strike situation was commission. undoubtedly received with a sigh of relief The leaders of the railway unions at once from immediate danger the country over. This took steps to countermand the call for a




Nation-wide strike which had been previously THE REVENUE BILL sent out fixing the day of the strike as Mon It is interesting to compare Mr. Wilson's day, September 4—that is, Labor Day. statement of the Democratic attitude towards

It was made known almost at once that the the tariff (made in his address formally acrailway companies will fight the law on the cepting the Democratic nomination) with the ground of unconstitutionality. This will be attitude of the Democratic Congress on the based, presumably, on the claim that the law question of the duty on dyestuffs. Mr. is class legislation, and perhaps also on the Wilson said of the Republican party that it question whether Congress has the right by "had framed tariff laws based upon a fear of legislation to fix hours and wages for labor in foreign trade: a fundamental doubt as to one industrial field and not in others. Rail American skill, enterprise, and capacity.” way officials assert that the new law will cost Of the record of the Democratic party Mr. the railways something like $60,000,000 a Wilson said : “ The tariff has been revised, not year in increase of wages, while brotherhood on the principle of repelling foreign trade, officials put the actual increase at not over but upon the principle of encouraging it." $20,000,000.

Now, despite the President's words, the

Democratic House and Senate have passed THE PRESIDENT

a revenue bill containing a protective duty on SIGNS TWO BILLS

dyestuffs which, to quote Senator Underwood, During the week ending September 6 the of Alabama, one of only seven Democrats President signed two bills, the passage of who voted against it, “ makes Schedule K which must stand very distinctly to the credit of the Payne-Aldrich Tariff Bill blush with of the present Administration. Both bills shame." Mr. Underwood said on the floor had their genesis under Republican Adminis of the Senate: “ This schedule deliberately trations, but the Democrats can claim the proposes to give a special interest becween honor of transmuting the hope of their enact two and three million dollars. You will not ment into law. Both bills have been repeat have any revenue from dyestuffs from the edly discussed and recommended in the custom-houses after this war ends. The pages of The Outlook ; one, the Child imposts on dyestuffs levied by the present Labor Law, provides adequately for the pro law were bringing in more than $2,000,000 tection of children who are employed directly in revenue a year when the war broke or indirectly in inter-State commerce. The out. You are drafting a prohibitive tariff, other provides that compensation shall be which will cut off all revenue from this paid for Federal employees disabled or killed source." in the course of their work for the Govern We believe that the provision for duty on ment. Under the new law, as The Outlook has dyestuffs is a protective measure which even already pointed out, thirty-five per cent of an the most ardent advocates of tariff for revenue employee's salary is to be paid to the heirs in only can afford to accept without undue case of death, within six years after the injury qualms. The dye industry is so closely conor the beginning of disability. Ten per cent nected with the question of National defense is to be added for each dependent child of such and the production of high explosives that employee, not to exceed a total of sixty-six and the country cannot certainly afford to remain two-thirds percent of his wages. Furthermore, dependent upon foreign nations for its supthis law, in addition to giving medical attend ply, even at the cost of losing all our revenue ance for an injured employee, grants to the from duties on foreign dyestuffs. employee a monthly two-thirds of the wages The Revenue Bill, of which this s'estuff during total disability, and during partial dis schedule is a part, has now been paid by ability a monthly two-thirds of the difference the Senate. It retains the provision for the between his monthly pay and his monthly tariff commission of six members, not more wage-earning capacity. Finally, the law ap than three of whom shall be of one political propriates half a million dollars to be set aside party, which has been actively recommended as a separate fund in the Treasury, and to by President Wilson, and also a section debe known as the Employees' Compensation signed to prevent the "dumping" of foreign Fund. To administer it there is to be a goods in the United States at cheap prices l'nited States Employees' Compensation after the war. This section would make it Commission, to consist of three men drawing unlawful to import goods at a price substansalaries of $5,000 each.

tially less than the actual market value or

wholesale price in the principal markets in doubt. Perhaps the most plausible reason for the country of their production.

disbelief in its ability is the apparently wellThe Senate has added three amendments founded suspicion that the Mexican delegates designed to strike at the blacklists and the have not been given by their Government system of mail seizure established by the power commensurate with the importance of Allies. One amendment provides that the their duties. But there is good reason to President may withhold clearance either from hope with Secretary Lansing that their particular vessels that discriminate against “sphere of discussion will widen from day to any American citizen or firm, or from one or day.” Secretary Lane, the first member apmore vessels of any nation that restricts the pointed to the American Commission, has commerce of American ships or citizens. predicted that the conferences will last more Another amendment empowers the President than a month, and they may last two months. to deny the use of the United States mails, But in attacking this important problem, so telegraph, cables, wireless, and express serv- vital to the welfare of both Mexico and the ice to foreign subjects or firms if their gov- United States, the American Commissioners ernments persist in measures restricting have a right to expect from their countrymen American mails or trade.

a free hand and no criticism until the conThe third amendment is the result of the ferences are ended. protest of our tobacco-growers. Great Britain had discriminated against so-called luxu- MONGOLIA ries, tobacco included. The amendment Recently, in a brawl at Changchitung, on provides that where a foreign belligerent, the border between Manchuria and Mongolia, during the existence of a war in which the some Chinese soldiers killed some Japanese. United States is not engaged, discriminates Japan hastened to send a couple of thousand against the importation of any of our prod- of her soldiers to the district, and, according ucts, not injurious to health or morals, the to the newspaper despatches, has now dePresident shall have power to prevent the manded as reparation: importation into the United States of similar 1. The dismissal of the Chinese officers in articles from the belligerent country, and if command of the troops at the scene of there are no similar articles exported to the trouble. United States, then he may prohibit the im- 2. The withdrawal of the Chinese garrison. portation of other articles from the belliger- 3. The indemnification of the families of ent country or its dependencies.

the Japanese killed.

4. The right of Japan to police Inner THE COMMISSION

Mongolia ON MEXICO

The first three of these demands are perThe Mexican question is firmly fixed as an haps not unreasonable. The trouble is as to issue in the Presidential campaign, and it is the fourth. Mongolia is a huge country, an proper that it should be so. But every Ameri- empire in itself, half desert, lying north of can who puts his country above his party will China proper, and forming one of the four agree that the sessions of the American

great outlying provinces where the Chinese Mexican Commission at New London ought Government operates somewhat indefinitely, to be unhampered by political entanglements. the other three being Manchuria, Tibet, and Republicans ought to unite with Democrats Chinese Turkestan. in insisting that the Commission be exempt History has shown that the five million from political attacks.

Mongols are not a race to trifle with. To-day Attempts to work out a solution for the they may seem simple enough, mostly stockMexican problem by conferences have failed breeders and caravan drivers. The native in the past; little was accomplished by the princes of Outer Mongolia, however, along the so-called “A B C Conference" at Niagara Russian border, hold their heads high, and Falls two years ago or by the recent confer- during the anti-Manchu revolution (1911) ences on the border between General Obregon declared that their country had severed its and Generals Scott and Funston. There may connection with China. But as directly be some ground for the pessimistic forecasts thereafter they requested help from Russia of political croakers who predict that the pres- in framing a new government, it was natural ent Commission will accomplish nothing. But to assume that Russia had instigated the let us give the Commission the benefit of the change, hoping to gain control of the country.

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