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1916

THE U-53 AND THE MIDDLE WEST

415

comments of this sort was that of the Lincoln emphasized was that a blow had been given (Nebraska) “ State Journal,” which said: the theory of the ocean as a barrier against Like the previous sensational naval achieve

foreign attack. Said the " Herald-Republiments of the Germans, the material result is

can," of Salt Lake City (Utah): comparatively slight. The commerce raiders

Captain Hans Rose and the little vessel he were finally sunk or driven to port. All the

commands have given the final blow to the Deutschlands Germany can build cannot carry

theory of " splendid isolation " so long urged by goods enough to affect the blockade greatly.

a certain class of Americans as rendering unSubmarine operations on the Atlantic coast are

necessary any preparations for National defense. not economical war. The ships passing in and

It may be assumed that what one U-boat has out of American ports pass also in and out of

been able to do with ease others can accomEuropean ports. There they are equally open

plish without difficulty. When the deadliest to attack by submarines, which in that case need

weapon ever invented for naval warfare can be only a few hundred miles from home. The

reach American shores, the day when thousands moral effect, the audacity of the deed, is the

of miles of tossing waters form a barrier to main accomplishment in these attacks on the

invasion would seem to have passed. American side. The German navy cannot strike a body blow. It must content itself with “ To this Nation," the Rocky Mountain dealing bold and unexpected pin-pricks to prove News,” of Denver (Colorado), said, “it was how brilliant the Germans could be on the sea

notice in letters of red that the Atlantic Ocean if only they had the chance.

is no longer such a safeguard as was imagined; As has been said, numerous lessons were that we are, for good or bad, in very close drawn from the German operations. In view contact with Europe, and not so very far of the proximity of the election, there was removed from the Asiatic shores of the more or less discussion of the raids in con Pacific Ocean." nection with the Wilson Administration's for It may fairly be said that the Middle eign policy. For instance, the “ Oklahoman,” West has never found the war so vital a matof Oklahoma City, a Democratic newspaper,

ter as it has been to the Eastern States. thanked God that in these parlous times “ The Middle West is not in such close touch man tried by the fire of experience” was at with Europe or European affairs. To the the head of the Government. The Topeka farmer of the prairie European problems “ Capital,” owned by Governor Capper, of seem remote. He still maintains much of Kansas, which is solicitous lest the United the traditional isolation of the Nation. The States become militaristic, made the inference interdependence of nations is more or less of that a fleet of submarines could safeguard the an empty phrase to him. In this sort of an country from attack. “ If the modern U-boats,” atmosphere the peace plans of Mr. Bryan it said, “ now developed to a size of two hun and Mr. Ford have been peculiarly effective. dred feet in length, equipped with powerful They have appealed to Middle Western idealtorpedoes, are able to travel a month's or ism, and have had the enormous additional more distance from their base and sink mer advantage of not cutting across Middle Westchantmen, what chance would a fleet of mer ern economic prosperity. Thus it comes to chantmen or transports carrying an army appear both idealistic and materially profithave of navigating the Atlantic or Pacific able to keep out of any risk of war. War,” Ocean and landing on a hostile shore, with runs the argument, " is a horrible thing, and fleets of defending U-boats hunting for them as needless as it is horrible. Thank God, on the way and waiting for them at their we are not as these mad Europeans, in whose points of arrival ? For defense the U-boat quarrel we have no part !” It is this frame in adequate numbers is so formidable that of mind that has given especial force in the alone, and not as a mere arm of a high-grade Middle West to the campaign argument that navy, it could defend a coast pretty effectively President Wilson has “ kept the country out from an invading army that must be trans of war,” and that always has tended to take ported across the seas. An army attempting the edge off the acuteness of feeling on issues to attack overseas would be decimated before arising from submarine warfare. it ever reached land."

H. J. HASKELL. But perhaps the view most commonly The Kansas City "Star," Kansas City, Missouri.

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ENGLAND AND THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY

BY ARTHUR BULLARD

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE S the great struggle drags on, it clerico-royalist reaction, has definitely won. becomes more and more evident France is liberal. In the councils of

that the most important factor in Europe—in all broad issues-her influence determining the form and spirit of the new will be modern, humane, and progressive. Europe to follow the war will be the internal The position of Russia will almost cerpolitics of the British Isles.

tainly be the opposite. Even the most A few months ago a well-known English optimistic believers in the Russian revolution man said: “We call this a war of liberation. -of whom I am one--must realize that the But it is blind folly not to realize that it may Foreign Office is ever the last stronghold of be quite the opposite if we Liberals are not the reaction. For some months after the strong enough to make and keep it liberal.”' war the Russian Liberals will be more than And his tone indicated that he was distress busy consolidating and expanding their vicfully uncertain as to which of the great political tories in internal politics. These gains have parties would rule Great Britain after the war. been real. They are full of promise for the

No better description of the very serious- future. But in all probability the foreign and very perplexed-frame of mind of the affairs of the Empire for some time to come British Liberals has appeared than Mr. will be left in the hands of the old diplomatic Wells's new novel, “ Mr. Britling Sees It corps, bred from and trained under the Through.” After the war, as before it, all ancien régime. the hopeful, progressive elements of English However, the Czar will be faced by a very life will have to struggle against the same pressing need for money. Even if the Gerbitter reactionary party which had brought mans have real money to lend after the warIreland to the verge of civil war.

which is doubtful-he would hardly dare

to make friends with the Kaiser immediately The tide of battle has now definitely set after hostilities. He will be dependent on in against the Central Empires. Inevitably his two western banking allies. we begin to speculate over the plans which The Russian diplomats at the peace conthe Entente Powers are forming for the re gress will probably be reactionary by instinct organization of Europe. The determining and tradition, but their votes will be influelement in all forecasts must be one's guess enced by their master's urgent need of conat the outcome of the political struggle in the ciliating those who can lend him money. British Parliament.

So Great Britain will hold the balance of The general policies of the Entente will be power. Her delegates will do as they are determined by the three original partners. told. If the King's Cabinet is Liberal, Great Their lesser-and later-allies will be mainly Britain will side with France, and together occupied in pressing their private claims. they will find it easy to impose progressive In its broad lines the new map of Europe will policies on their great ally. But if the Tory be drawn by France, Russia, and Great Britain. Imperialists hold the Government at West

We can foretell with considerable certaintyminster, they will strike hands with the the attitude of the French. They did not Russians and outvote the French. enter the war in hope of gain. They ex The situation of Poland offers a notable pect to reconquer Alsace-Lorraine, to secure example. It is a very thorny problem. But a protectorate in Syria, and to receive some one fact is obvious. It will be most distastecolonial advantages in Africa. But they ful for the Czar to grant liberties to the Poles would not have gone to war for any nor all which he refuses to his subjects of Russian of these gains. They wanted to be let alone. blood. If the Government of Petrograd is Their prime interest in the reorganization given a free hand in this matter, the Poles like ours—will be for a régime of justice and are doomed to new disappointments. peace.

The French would like to see a reconstiThe Republic, in its long fight with the tuted Poland, partly because they cherish a

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traditional friendship for the Poles, partly trial rivals out of business which in a smaller because they really believe in the theory of way have furnished the subject matter of all the rights of nations. But France, single- our anti-trust legislation at home. handed, will not be able to control the issue. The lens-grinding industry of France is The Poles themselves are well aware that often cited as a concrete example. A gentheir fate in the event of German defeat will eration ago all the best lenses for microscopes, be determined at London, not at Petrograd. field-glasses, and telescopes were made in If the British delegates join with the French France. It is charged that the German in urging the Czar to keep his promise, ne Government by excessive subsidies not only will do it.

encouraged German firms to enter the field, But the British delegates cannot insist on but enabled them to sell below cost in the Russia being more liberal to the Poles than French market till the French industry was their own Government is to Ireland. If Sir killed. Even the French army was buying Edward Carson and Lord Lansdowne and its field-glasses from Germany. And during the other Englishmen who believe in sup- the war it has been necessary for the French pressing with bayonets the unrest of the Irish to recreate the industry. Catholics are in power, they will hardly raise This is the essence of what is called their voices in behalf of the oppressed Catho- * dumping.” Even before the war considerlics of Poland.

able experiment had been made in “antiIn a thousand ways, if the British and dumping” legislation. Perhaps the Canadian French diplomats work together, consciously law was the most effective. It is extremely using the great argument of their lending probable that all the nations of the world will power, they can help in the stupendous task pass such defensive tariffs after the war. of liberalizing Russia. But if the Tories are Direct government subsidies to give home in power and try to “ cash in ” on one-half industries unfair advantages in foreign trade the Imperialistic projects they freely discuss are in absolute opposition to the idea of in their papers, they will support their own free trade. And even the most doctrinaire caste—the Czar and his Court. There will free-trader could hardly object to legislation be small hope for the Poles and as little for which made it impossible to dump goods in a the Liberals of Russia.

foreign market at a price below that current In a like manner, the fate of the Balkans de- at home. pends on Great Britain. That unhappy penin- But there is another and more disquieting sula has long been the “ sore spot of Europe.” meaning attached to the “ War after the Infection, spreading from this center, has set War.” On the basis of the widespread sentihalf the world at war. And Europe will not ment in favor of defensive tariffs against be cured--there will be no definite end to unfair competition, influential politicians in all war-till a decent solution is found for the the Entente nations are preaching a policy of problem of the Near East. Nowhere is high

economic vengeance,

programme intended minded, far-sighted statesmanship so desper- to smother the industry of the Central ately needed. There are in Great Britain Empires by frankly vindictive customs walls. many men eminently fitted for the work of These ideas are advocated by those who are reorganization and conciliation. Whether or anxious to be freed from all competitionnot they will be in a position to utilize their fair as well as foul—and who are willing to knowledge depends on the hazards of party use to this end foul means as well as fair. politics at Westminster.

Here again the crux of the whole matter

lies in British politics. The Liberals of EngThe influence of Great Britain, for or against land have led the world in the evolution the future peace of the world, will be even more towards free exchange of commodities. A obviously paramount in the much-discussed group in favor of an Imperial Zollverein had matter of the economic “War after the War." grown to dominance in the Unionist party.

At present there are two quite distinct Immediately before the war this was one of meanings attached to this phrase.

the “issues” of British politics. It is beyond It is very generally believed in the other doubt that all this agitation in favor of antinations of Europe that German industrial dumping laws has greatly strengthened the competition has been “unfair.” It is charged Tory position. that the German Government has used on a France, Russia, and the other Entente colossal scale the methods of driving indus- allies were already high tariff countries before the war. In industrial and financial matters party's radical idealism cooled. It had formed they are all largely dependent on Great Britain. alliances with powerful “ interests” which So if the Tories win control of the Government quickly became “vested.” It had become a at London there is a chance that they may big, prosperous—and rather lifeless—maimpose on their own country and on their al- chine. It had grown fat on power and, to lies a unified and oppressive customs barrier say the least, sluggish. After ten years of to smother the Central Empires.

office the Liberal Cabinet found it necessary There could be no measure more distress- to defend some of its members from “ graft ing to lovers of peace the world over than charges" in the obscure Marconi affair. such a policy of industrial vengeance. It is Even before the menace of war arose many at this point that the politics of Great Britain ardent Liberals were hoping for the defeat most closely affect us in America. The of their party. As a political organization it League to Enforce Peace, the possibility of no longer represented the best of British cordial co-operation between the United Liberalism. Sincere friends of the party realStates and Great Britain, depends on the ized that a shake-up was necessary. But the defeat of this reactionary programme. men in power were reluctant to surrender, “ Peace would be an empty word if the and unless the organization was able to rejugreatest industrial nation of Europe was venate itself from within a defeat at the bent on a ruthless economic war.

polls was inevitable in the near future. It is So, from almost every point of view, the probable that the Asquith Ministry would center of interest in speculating on the nature have fallen before the end of 1914 if the of the new Europe which the Entente will war had not come. organize if victorious is found to be the What had happened in our Republican struggle of the political parties at Westminster. party between 1860 and 1912 had taken

There are two points of great similarity place in the Liberal party of Great Britain in between British politics and our own. Under

ten years. the two-party system neither political camp is Shortly after the outbreak of war a coalihomogeneous. As we have the “ Old Guard” tion Cabinet was formed. As every one and “ Progressive ” Republicans, with many expected a short war, the postponement of sub-species in between, so the Unionist party party quarrels-union in the face of the of Great Britain is split up into many hostile enemy—seemed the wise policy. But there factions. Sir Edward Carson and Sir Horace are some questions of internal politics which, Plunkett are as far apart as Uncle Joe Can- while they can be safely postponed for a few non and Raymond Robins. It is equally months, cannot be ignored for years. Wittrue that membership in the Liberal party is ness Ireland. Now, with the wisdom of two no sure sign of Liberalism. The right wings years' experience, it is evident that a longof the two parties are nearer together than continued coalition policy is unsound. the two wings of either party.

The new Cabinet was not three months A second point of similarity is that the same old before the Tories broke the truce by a phenomenon develops in England which we revival of party intrigues. They understood have learned to expect in any party that is “coalition " to mean their return to power. a long time in power. The Liberals came in Their principal newspapers were quite frank with the Campbell-Bannerman Ministry in about it. They had one great advantage 1904, and they were continuously in power over their Liberal colleagues in the Ministry. for the ten years preceding the war.

They controlled the vitally important departIn 1904 the Liberal party was a fighting ments of the army, the navy, and the foreign organization, inspired by high ideals. It office. The Liberals had already been forced offered a large programme of constructive to surrender on the Home Rule Bill because legislation. Its record in this matter is good. the Tory army officers had mutinied. The Most of its campaign promises have been element of democracy in the British Governfulfilled. It has put through sweeping Budget ment is almost entirely limited to Parliament. reforms. It has made labor representation And war inevitably gives predominance to possible by the payment of Members. It has the administrative and executive departpulled the teeth of the Lords and has initiated ments. High commands in the army and many social reforms-old age pensions, na- navy, important posts in the diplomatic corps, tional insurance, etc.

are confined to the aristocracy. But with each of these victories some of the Of course there is nothing in war to change

1916

A NOTE ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF MONTANA

419

a landlord's dislike to a direct tax on land danger that the Empire may be ruled by values. Face to face with the Germans, the Tories in the first period after the war. It Tories and Liberals could co-operate to a is perhaps most probable that the first eleccertain extent. But the internal life of the tions when peace comes will be indecisiveEn.pire also had to be “governed.” And in one party or the other winning a precarious these matters, where there was no chance of majority—too slight to be stable. agreement, the Tories, whose aid was needed There is little reason to fear for the ultiin the conduct of the war, scored victory mate outcome, for a new element is entering after victory.

into British politics. The self-governing dominTheir most successful political coup has ions—Canada, Australasia, South Africa—are been the breaking of the alliance between the surely going to have a larger voice in ImpeLiberal party and the Irish Nationalists. If rial affairs. And they, having no indigenous the Tories can succeed as well in forcing aristocracy, are much more definitely liberal Asquith to break his pledges to the Labor and democratic than the mother country. party, it will be very doubtful if the Liberals But the Imperial reorganization will be slow can win in the next general elections.

work. There may be several years—the So, although there can be little doubt that immensely important years of European reliberal ideas and modern progressive tenden- construction before Great Britian definitely cies predominate in British life, there is grave makes up her mind to be liberal.

A NOTE ON THE TRANSFORMATION OF

MONTANA

SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE

T

HE State of Montana doesn't owe nomic and political quality to the State of very

me anything, and I owe Montana as great importance.

little. But I do like to see a great Butte is a unique mining camp and the American commonwealth getting on. To the richest hill in the world. The greatest copper East, Montana has long been merely a great deposits in the United States are in the copper-mining State which has a very wicked Butte district. The social and political life mining camp named Butte, which produces of the State were long under the sway of the strikes and Socialists and more copper ore than

copper interests. Daly and Heinze and any like territory in the world. Oh, yes, and a Clark, the Anaconda and the Amalgamated, State which is also noted for violent political are names of National notoriety and interest. feuds and corrupt political practices on a Marcus Daly, looking for silver, came upon scale as vast as the mining operations them- rich copper deposits deeper down. About selves. Well, the East has another guess the time that these deposits were first showcoming about Montana.

ing their richness a young mining engineer, There are two Montanas, the old and the Augustus Heinze, came to Butte, a man of new. The new Montana is becoming a great thorough technical education, a graduate of agricultural as well as a great mining State, technical schools not only in the United States and into the eastern part of the common- but in Germany. At first he was employed wealth are pouring many thousands of enter- as superintendent by the Anaconda Company. prising farmers from all over the Union. The He began to discover fractions of rining United States Department of Agriculture for claims of very great value, unlocated and un1915 shows that Montana leads the twelve surveyed, at the borders of the greater claims. principal agricultural States of the country Quitting the Anaconda and locating these fracin the average per acre production of wheat, tions, he began to develop rich mines, which oats, barley, flax, potatoes, and rye. In by and by encroached upon their neighbors. fifteen years the farm value of these prod- William A. Clark, the third member of this ucts in Montana has increased more than great copper triumvirate, was likewise one of seven hundred fold. And the agricultural the original owners in the Butte district. element is contributing a balance and an eco- The competitive activities of these power

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