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were said to be present, outlined resolutions that a sudden military collapse or overwhelmwhich have since been sent to the King. ing victory might force one of the combatThese resolutions contained what is almost ants to sue for mercy, as France did in 1871. equivalent to a threat in the words, “ If the Probably this is what the German General people are not heard in these resolutions, we von Kluck had in mind when he said the must take counsel what is to be done to mini- other day to a correspondent that the war mize the ruin which awaits us." The resolu- might take years to finish or might end in a tions plainly tell the King that he has “fallen few days. It is possible also that, without a victim to evil advisers who have persuaded such a collapse, one combatant might be so him that Germany must be victorious.” The convinced of its own ultimate defeat as to people demand the instant dismissal of the make the best terms possible at the moment. present “sinister " advisers; and the whole But, apart from these possibilities, each comtone of their remonstrance is in favor of batant has too much at stake which it thinks instant action against Bulgaria.

essential to its own future safety and to its Berlin has taken the new situation in the escape from financial ruin to make an agreeeast seriously but with outward confidence, ment on peace terms probable. Those sinand it is reported that plans had already been cere but over-optimistic lovers of humanity made in advance to afford substantial military who are so constantly crying peace when assistance to Austria and Bulgaria. An im- there is no peace are really doing more harm portant action is the removal by the Kaiser

than good. of the former Chief of Staff of the German A convincing explanation of this phase of Army, General von Falkenhayn, and the ap- the war has lately been presented by the wellpointment in his place of Field Marshal von known writer on war topics, Mr. Frank H. Hindenburg, the hero and victor of Ger- Simonds, in the New York “ Tribune." He many's triumphs last year on the Russian agrees with Lord Kitchener's forecast of a line.

three years' war (made, it is said, in the No progress of note was made by either early days of the war), but goes beyond that side in the great battle-line on the Somme early forecast, and now thinks that the war River or in the eastern war field during the will last in all four years, or at least into week ending August 30. Both the Anglo- 1918. The reasons are both military and French and the Russian forces made slight commercial. As to the first, despite the recent advances. On the west the struggle still gains of the Allies—and, we may add, the new centers around Thiepval, Guillemont, and situation in the Near East-the Germans ocMaurepas. Perhaps the most notable single cupy a great deal of enemy country, and both incident in the war was the capture by the in the west and in the east have available excelBulgarians of the forts around the important lent lines of defense many miles back of their Greek port of Kavala ; but, generally speak- present lines and yet still in the enemy couning, the actual fighting in the Balkans has try; moreover, if they do so withdraw, their not been at any one point of much impor- lines become shorter and fewer men are tance.

needed to hold them, thus meeting to some The Zeppelin raid on England of August extent the “ wearing down” theory of the 24 did more damage than some previous Allies. That the Allies are not in anything raids had accomplished, but still was not like immediate danger of military collapse seriously important from the military point needs no argument at this time. of view. The air-ships are said to have Turning to the exposition this article gives dropped about a hundred bombs, which dam- of the commercial and industrial reasons aged an electric power station and engineer- against the probability of immediate peace, ing works, started a few insignificant fires, we find that Germany has wrecked industrial and, according to English reports, caused the regions of vast importance in Belgium, death of three men, three women, and two France, and Poland, has “ • literally burned children, and injured thirty-six other people. the factories and transported the machinery

to her home provinces ;" thus, if war stopped WHY PEACE SEEMS DISTANT

to-day, Germany could put her factories to Under present conditions, there seem to work to supply the world's demand, but be insuperable obstacles to an agreement on France, Belgium, and Poland would have to terms of peace by the nations at war in restore their factories, buy new machinery, Europe. It is, of course, at least conceivable and start afresh. But this is not all; the

last gasp

districts in France, Belgium, and Poland now girls from sixteen to twenty years of age, held by Germany include vast iron-fields, to- to distant points, tearing them from their gether with immensely valuable coal regions. families and forcing them to work on the Now Germany, Mr. Simonds says, will never land wherever Germany sees fit to use surrender these districts until she has been them. This is literally treating children like overwhelmingly defeated; on the other cattle. hand, the countries to which they belonged It will be hard to believe that such a thing before the war will never give them up to could happen were it not for France's official Germany unless those countries are at the report and protest against this form of inhu

Similar arguments may be made manity. This protest is addressed to the as regards shipping. Mr. Simonds contends governments of neutral Powers—we hope that Great Britain will insist that Germany that our State Department will not fail to make good out of German shipping the send a reply and to make that reply public. losses inflicted by German submarines on The protest is in the form of a White Book British shipping. Again, if war ceased now, or Yellow Book—it has been called both—and Germany might expect a tariff combination those who wish to read the story will find it by her former enemies, discriminating against reprinted in full in the New York * Times Germany. If we look at the relation of of August 20. It covers nearly two pages Germany and Russia, of Turkey with the of that paper in solid type, and it marshals other Powers, or of the Balkan situation, as exhibits letter after letter, document after other tremendous difficulties and complica- document; among other things a stirring tions present themselves.

letter from the Bishop of Lille to a German In short, when Germany or German speak. general, to whom he appeals as a Christian ers and writers intimate that Germany might and a father, urging that “the inviolability accept peace on the basis of “the map of of God, who institutes it, is in the family,” Europe "—that is, the status quo, or, in plain and saying that “to tear young girls from English, the actual condition as it is to-day- their homes is no longer war; it is torture, the proposal is totally unthinkable from the and the worst of tortures—undefined moral Allies' point of view. On the other hand, the torture." status quo ante—that is, the map of Europe The Premier of France, M. Briand, in as it was before the war—is equally unac- transmitting the protest to the neutral Powers, ceptable to Germany until she has undergone, asks for “the judgment that the universal or sees that she is on the point of undergoing, conscience will render” on the facts stated, a complete and decisive defeat.

and summarizes those facts from the eviProphecies are proverbially dangerous, but dence gathered by the Minister of War. those who think that the only obstacle to Roubaix, Tourcoing, and Lille were the chief peace is the hard hearts of men who like war places outraged in this way, and other smaller for itself have as little conception of the mag- places are named. In those three places nitude of the great world problems which twenty-five thousand men, women, and chilmust be solved before peace begins as a child dren, without distinction of social conditions has of differential calculus.

and of every age from sixteen up, were taken

away. The men, it is said, are employed at WARRING AGAINST

farming, road work, munition-making, and CHILDREN

digging trenches; the women to cook and Charles Reade, in his “ Cloister and the wash for the soldiers and “ to take the Hearth," tells of the cruelty of a Duke of places of officers' orderlies !" Here is a Burgundy who decanted” at his sovereign brief description of one scene : pleasure people from villages, which he deemed too populous into other villages

Toward three o'clock in the morning the where he deemed that they were needed ;

streets were barred by troops with fixed bayoand the author describes movingly the wretch

nets and a machine gun set up across the sideedness and grief of the poor people torn from

walk against unarmed people. The soldiers

entered the houses and officers designated the their homes and friends and driven along the

persons who were to go, and half an hour later highway weeping. Germany has gone far

every one was carried away pellmell to a nearbeyond that, for the noble Duke did not

by factory, and from there to the railroad divide families. She has driven the poor station for departure. Mothers with children French villagers, and especially the boys and under fourteen years were spared, young girls

1916

THE WEEK

5

seems

below twenty years old were carried away only was, perhaps, the result of the Democratic with a person of their family, but this does not

Senatorial primary in Texas. This was won lessen the barbarity of the measure. Soldiers by Senator Charles A. Culberson (known as of the Landsturır. were visibly embarrassed to

the Wilson candidate) over ex-Governor Colfind themselves employed for such work.

quitt by a vote which is reported to be in the In commenting on this stolidly inhumane neighborhood of 146,000 to 83,000. Exaction, the “ Times” entitles its editorial Governor Colquitt, the defeated candidate for “ As in Cæsar's Time," but quotes a noted the nomination, has been a severe critic of French writer as denying to the Germans the President Wilson's Mexican policy. right to be called barbarians because " the

The Outlook in its issue of August 23 rebarbarians at least were on a level with the

ported Mr. Hughes's charge that Mr. O. H. customs and sentiments of their time."

Tittmann had been removed by President

Wilson from the head of the Coast and GeoCONGRESS AND POLITICS

detic Survey. The Outlook said : “ No exOutside of the railway situation (dealt with planation, either adequate or inadequate, elsewhere in this issue) during the past week

to have been made to meet this the most important subject under considera- charge." tion by the Senate has been the Revenue Bill. Newspaper correspondents have, however, In connection with the discussion of this bill, reported Secretary Redfield's denial that Mr. the incident which has excited most interest Tittmann was forced to resign. They also was the attempt of Senator Underwood to have quoted Mr. Tittmann in confirmation lower the exemption on taxable incomes of Secretary Redfield's denial. from three thousand to two thousand dollars. Senator Underwood, declining to be bound

SECRETARY DANIELS AND by the Democratic caucus, carried his fight THE HISTORY OF THE NAVY to the floor of the Senate. Despite the aid of Several times during the past few months fourteen Republicans, his amendment was Secretary Daniels has indicated his belief that defeated by a vote of 31 to 19.

the failure of the United States navy to mainOn August 29 President Wilson signed the tain its rank of second place among the war army and navy appropriation bills and the fleets of the world was in part due to the Philippine measure. It will be remembered indifference of Mr. Roosevelt's Administrathat President Wilson vetoed the army bill tion. He recurs to this belief in a recent originally passed by Congress because of a letter to Representative Butler, ranking Reclause in the revised Articles of War exempt- publican member of the House Affairs Coming retired officers from military discipline. mittee. This letter, which constitutes an It was speedily amended in the way Presi- exhaustive and in many ways an excellent dent Wilson desired, and by his signature has report on the progress of the navy during now become law. The justice and wisdom of President Wilson's Administration, was made his veto are strikingly attested by this quickly public on August 27. It is in presenting earned victory.

this record that Mr. Daniels again offers the In signing the Navy Bill, President Wilson criticism to which we have referred. He said : “ The Navy Bill is a very remarkable

says : measure. Never before by a single act of

In 1905 the Secretary of the Navy (Mr. Bonalegislation has so much been done for the

parte) asked for only one battle-ship, and in his creation of an adequate navy. . . . It is a Message to Congress in the same year Presimatter of unusual gratification that we should dent Roosevelt said, in order to maintain and have been able at this time to do so much increase the then standard efficiency of the and do it so well—as I believe it to be done navy, it did not "seem necessary, however, that in this bill, and to do it with such unanimity

the navy should-at least in the immediate future of support and opinion.”

-be increased beyond the present number of Interest in the Presidential campaign,

units," and he advocated adding "a single bataside from Mr. Roosevelt's speech in Maine,

tle-ship to our navy each year.” In his 1907

Message President Roosevelt wrote to Conwhich is discussed in an editorial in this

gress : “I do not ask that we continue to week's issue of The Outlook, seems to have

increase our navy. I merely ask that it be been lost in the tremendous concern which

maintained at its present strength.” At that the country has felt over the railway situa- time the General Board was insisting upon two tion. The most striking event of the week to three new battle-ships each year, but their

people of the country-excepting where they aroused sharp condemnation."

The ques

recommendation was carefully pigeonholed and not permitted to reach the public.

Mr. Daniels in this criticism apparently ignores the statement of the General Board of the Navy (which he himself quotes in his letter to Representative Butler) that in this very year 1907 the navy of the United States advanced from third to second place, judged by number of ships actually built, and in quoting from Mr. Roosevelt's Message of 1907 he neglects to add any quotation from the special Message which Mr. Roosevelt sent to Congress on April 14, 1908, a Message which casts no little light upon the conditions confronting the country at that time in comparison with the situation to-day. President Roosevelt then said :

Prior to the recent Hague Conference it had been my hope that an agreement could be reached between the different nations to limit the increase of naval armaments, and especially to limit the size of war-ships. Under these circumstances I felt that the construction of one battle-ship a year would keep our navy up to its then positive and relative strength. But actual experience showed not merely that it was impossible to obtain such an agreement for the limitation of armaments among the

rious leading Powers, but that there was no . kelihood whatever of obtaining it in the future within any reasonable time. Coincidentally with this discovery occurred a radical change in the building of battle-ships among the great military nations-a change in accordance with which most modern battle-ships have been or are being constructed of a size and armament which doubles, or more rly trebles, their effectiveness. Every other great naval nation has, or is building, a number of ships of this kind; we have provided for but two, and therefore the balance of power is now inclining against us. Under these conditions, to provide for but one or two battle-ships a year is to provide that this Nation, instead of advancing, shall go backward in naval rank and relative power among the great nations. ... I earnestly advise that the Congress now provide four battle-ships of the most advanced type. I cannot too emphatically say that this is a measure of peace and not of war.

In 1916 President Wilson in his efforts to build up the navy of the United States has had the stupendous advantage of an aroused public opinion made vocal chiefly through private initiative and endeavor. In 1908 no such condition existed. Mr. Roosevelt's recommendations, as one man who was then a Member of Congress has recently testified, - excited only languid interest among the

WHEN IS A BOS'N
NOT A BOS'N?

From this consideration of naval history it may be a relief to turn to an incident in a much lighter vein which has recently served to enliven naval circles.

During the progress of the Naval Bill through the Senate Senator Tillman introduced an amendment of very innocent appearance which fortunately does not appear in the measure which President Wilson has just signed because it did not survive the journey through the legislative mill. In brief, this amendment provided by deft circumlocution “ that no officer shall be addressed in orders or official communications by any other title than that of his actual rank."

To the civilian this sounds fair enough, but the civilian is generally unfamiliar with the distinction between the words rank and grade. An officer may have the grade of commander, of assistant civil engineer, of chaplain or naval constructor. tion of rank is entirely a different thing. Rank means that officers in one grade have the same “official standing ” as officers in another grade. Some of the titles of the various grades belong to the line and some to the staff of the navy. It is quite as absurd to call a man captain ” or “commander ” merely because he "ranks captain or commander, as it would be to insist that a railway president be called " senator” because he might have the same social standing in a community as a member of the upper house.

That the absurdities of this proposal would have been extended to warrant and petty officers of the navy is made evident in a letter which a naval pharmacist recently addressed to the editor of the “ Navy." He writes in expectation of the passage of the amendment :

In the last “Navy Register " I appear as a " Pharmacist.” In the next I will be known to the world as a “Boatswain." ...

I have already begun to address my Hospital Apprentice as Coxswain, which is the title of his rank. Instead of telling him to get the bandages and lint ready for an operation by the Surgeɔn, I sing out:

'Coxswain, the Commander comes ! Stand by with the gear to marl, parcel, and serve !"

I have taught him to answer:

as

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