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The Outlook

OCTOBER 25, 1916

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York


fair dealing in his administration of Mexico; MEXICO

an article by President Charles W. Dabney, of The New York “ World” of October 17 the University of Cincinnati, in our issue of contains a despatch from Mexico City which March 22, 1916, outlining a policy of helpfulquotes from

an interview given to Mr. ness toward Mexico; and an article in our issue Gregory Mason, of The Outlook's staff, who is of October 27, 1915, by Mr. Andrés Osuna, now in Mexico, by General Pablo Gonzales, one a Mexican, formerly of the Educational Deof General Carranza's right-hand men. In the partment of that country, eulogizing the perinterview as reported in the “ World ” Gen- sonality and character of General Carranza. eral Gonzales condemns President Wilson for In addition to publishing these special his treatment of Mexico on the ground of articles we sent Mr. Mason to Mexico, once “his repeated lack of frankness and clarity," in May, 1914, and again in April, 1916. He and expresses himself as preferring to intrust has now been visiting that country for the the welfare of his country to any conceivable third time in behalf of The Outlook. "aggression from Hughes " rather than " to We believe that our readers will find Mr. the doubtful friendship of Wilson.” In this Mason's forthcoming articles on the Mexican despatch the “World” makes the following situation illuminating and instructive. His statement : " Speaking for the Government, visits to Mexico have been made, not to furGeneral Pablo Gonzales to-day gave replies ther any preconceived political notions or the to a representative of The Outlook, of New fortunes of any party or faction, but to learn York, to a series of questions on Mexican at first hand something about the prevailing affairs and conditions, and concerning the

social and industrial conditions in that counrelations between Mexico and the United try. We have sent him on these missions of States."

investigation in the hope and belief that they Mr. Mason telegraphs us that he is on his will aid The Outlook in its efforts to discuss way home and is bringing the full text of this the Mexican problem with intelligence, caninterview with him. We hope to be able to dor, and human sympathy. publish it in the next issue of The Outlook. In his telegram he says: “General Gonzales

THE STORY OF THE WAR: blames President Taft for the downfall of GREECE AND THE ALLIES Madero, but assails President Wilson and The complex situation in Greece was probprefers Hughes.

ably brought to a head last week by the action Since the death of Madero we have endeav- of the Allies in taking over the Greek naval ored to keep our readers informed, at first ships at Piræus, Athens's port, and in hand as far as possible, as to the Mexican landing marines in Athens itself. This was situation. In pursuit of this policy we have followed by demonstrations in the streets of published during the last two years articles Athens made by those who sympathize with that have attracted wide attention. Among the King and his party. Naturally in the these were a series of papers by Mr. Caspar capital the royal influence is stronger than Whitney, published in The Outlook for throughout the country. As we write, French May 5, 12, 19, and 26, 1915, which included marines are reported to be near the palace, a narration of maltreatment of innocent per- and a delegation of Greeks have left at the sons, many of whom were Americans, in American Legation resolutions asking the Mexico ; articles by Edward I. Bell, published sympathy and protection of the United States in The Outlook for October 6, 13, and 20, 1915, against foreign encroachment in Greece. in the course of which he pointed out those It will be remembered that some of the respects in which General Carranza has failed ships of the weak Greek navy were taken to observe the ordinary laws of justice and charge of by the Allies on October 11.


Those now taken over include two ships bought ceivable that the Allies should not protect
over two years ago from the United States. themselves against the danger that this army
The reason ascribed for the seizing of the ships should be misused by a reactionary Govern-
is to insure the safety of the Allies' ships in ment and a reactionary element in the army
Greek waters. The landing of marines is itself.
for the preservation of order in the capital,
and to prevent such a situation arising as, ON THE BATTLE-LINES
would hinder the Allies in the campaign The latest reports in our week-October
already begun against the Bulgarian, Aus- 11 to 18-indicate that the Rumanian armies
trian, and German forces, a campaign which both in Transylvania and the Dobrudja are
has and must have its base in Greece. offering more resistance to the attacks by the

Thus comes to a crisis the serious situation Teuton forces under General von Falkenhayn in Greece. It is generally admitted that a and General von Mackensen than their premajority of the people of the country are vious repulses had promised. There is no favorable to the Allies and would like to see doubt that the Rumanian army was at first Greece ranged in the ranks of the Allies. badly beaten back in Transylvania, but on On the other hand, King Constantine, whose October 18 Bucharest despatches asserted wife is a sister of the Kaiser, and who has that it had in turn actually driven back the many German affiliations, has more or less Teuton forces near Kronstadt. The almost openly opposed this desire of the Greek peo- piteous appeal of the King of Rumania to ple, and with him naturally stand many officers the Allies for assistance lest Rumania share of the army appointed by him and members the fate of Servia and Belgium perhaps of that political party which is closely under made the situation look a little more desGovernment control. From the beginning perate than it is. That immediate aid the Greek Government, whenever the King's come from the Allies advancing on influence was in the ascendency, has tried to Macedonia or Bulgaria is not, from the carry water on both shoulders, to placate the military point of view, possible. More Allies temporarily and yet to embarrass them probable is the advent of Russian forces and delay action by Greece.

under the command of the Grand Duke Venizelos represents the pro-Ally Greek Nicholas through the eastern part of the sentiment, and is already at the head of a Rumanian territory; indeed, there are signs provisional revolutionary government at Salo- of Russian assistance on large scale already nika. He is to-day, as he long has been, the appearing ablest and most influential man in Greece ; In another way Russia is aiding Rumania if he has his way, Greece will definitely by the intensity and violence of its attacks follow the example of Rumania and become against the common enemy farther north, an active ally of the Entente Powers.

where the movements towards Kovel and It is imperative that the situation in Greece Lemberg continue. The German and Ausshould be cleared up before the Allies' great trian reports of October 17 assert that these advance through Macedonia and to the relief Russian attacks are being withstood, but of Servia and Rumania is pushed on a large admit that the attacks continue “ without the scale. This is for the simple reason that slightest sign of diminution of fury." The such an advance, with the seaport of Salonika Germans have been carrying out a new and as its base, must not be exposed to treacher- active offensive in the Carpathians. ous attack or sudden quarrels in its rear. The Meanwhile Italy is doing her part in the Allies entered Greece with the informal con- great game of striking the enemy at widely sent of the Government as it stood then, and removed points on its whole line by renewfrom that day to this have waited patientlying the Italian drive against Trieste. Last for a definite decision by the tricky and un- week brought reports of smashing drives by dependable Greek Cabinets which have tried the Italians on the Carso Plateau and of to steer a middle course. If Venizelos had valuable gains in the general offensive along continued in power and the Court influence the entire Isonzo line. had been restrained, it would have been better, In the Somme offensive the most noted gain not only for the Allies, but for Greece and of the week was that of France in getting for the world at large. Greece, it is sup- possession of a considerable part of the vilposed, could put an army of three hundred lage of Sailly, northeast of Combles, which thousand men in the field, and it is incon- forms a strong part of the German defense

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against the advance towards Bapaume, and done in the latter form of search which would by the British in gaining and holding the not and could not be done in the former. famous Schwaben redoubt, which had long The Allies reply that the ships are taken been a thorn in the side of the British attack. into port with the consent of their owners Week by week the Somme advance goes on, and for the mutual convenience of the searchand, small as are the gains measured by miles, ing government and the owners, and that the there seems to be force in General Haig's Allies have never subjected the mails to a declaration that "the uninterrupted, system different treatment from what might legally atic pressure of the Entente armies must have been carried out on the high seas. As finally exhaust the morale and material forces to the delay and inconvenience caused by the of the Central Powers, especially as to the searching of the mails, it is admitted that this existing reserves of war material.”

must exist to some extent, but it is claimed

that steps have been taken to reduce the deTHE ALLIES' NOTE AS

lay and to make the search as little injurious TO NEUTRAL MAIL

as possible. The full text of the note from the British That no search for hostile information and French Governments in reply to the could be worth while unless covers of letAmerican note in regard to the treatment of ters even from neutrals to neutrals were neutral mail by the Allies was published opened is asserted; but it is claimed that last week. It is rather a discussion of letters which do not cover improper purposes points and principles involved than a proposal are not molested, although just how the disfor new action. The Allies quite correctly tinction is made does not seem very clear. declare (and sustain their contention by In this connection the Allies, with some historical instances) that there is no real natural feeling, point out that many neutral difference of opinion between this country mail-bags have been, “ not examined, to be and themselves as to the right of a belligerent sure, but purely and simply destroyed at sea to examine neutral mail whenever it is prob- by the German naval authorities,” and refers able that such mail may contain contraband

to one recent case, that of the Swedish matter. On the other hand, every one con steamer Hudikswall, carrying

, 670 mailcedes that neutral countries and individuals bags. are entitled to have their mail held in violable As the American note referred to the Hague unless such a probability exists. So that the Convention XI, the Allies state that they do real question is whether in their conduct in not consider that convention binding because this war the Allies in exercising recognized it has not been signed or ratified by several of rights have pushed those rights to such a the belligerents, but add that they recognize point as to violate their obligations.

the force of the convention as having the The note points out that information for the validity, not of law, but of reason, and that enemy may be as truly military assistance, and they have guided their action as regards mails therefore contraband, as munitions, and also so far as possible by the principles therein that under the modern parcels post methods laid down. it is quite possible that considerable quanti In short, the tone of the note is conciliatory ties of things which are physically contraband and reasonable but firm. It expresses an may be conveyed. As to the first point, the intention to do everything possible to secure note shows that this is not a theory merely neutral rights, but not an intention to push by asserting that as a pure matter of fact theoretical considerations to a point which hostile acts projected through the mails have would allow neutral mails to be used as a been frustrated and dangerous plots have been valuable asset to the enemies of the Allies. discovered in the mails and baffled. Furthermore, the Allies claim that money, or credit PRESIDENT WILSON SPEAKS for money, sent to an enemy country through AT SHADOW LAWN the mail is quite as much military assistance Shadow Lawn, the President's summer as commodities.

home on the coast of New Jersey, was the Our Government has tried to make a dis scene of his regular Saturday campaign tinction between the ordinary seizure of mails speech on October 14, when he addressed a on the high seas and the taking of neutral ships large delegation of men and women from into British ports for the searching of mails Pennsylvania. there, the imputation being that things are The larger part of his speech was devoted

to a discussion of machine rule. The Presi. dent, without mentioning the names of Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Pinchot and the other Progressives who in Pennsylvania supported the Democratic nominee for Governor two years ago against the Penrose machine, declared that “certain gentlemen ” who had “ allied themselves with the Progressive Democrats ” have now “joined their fortunes with the very machine which they were then trying to break up." He similarly attacked the Republicans of New Jersey by declaring that they were “trying to put in the saddle in the State of New Jersey influences which came out of one of the most lawless communities in this State-I mean the communities that lie along the coast of Atlantic County, communities which have habitually refused to obey the laws of the State.” The President, in connection with this, as with his references to Pennsylvania, omitted all names. This sort of veiled attack renders it impossible for the accused to make any answer without naming themselves, and yet leaves them, if silent, under imputations which may be altogether false.

The President praised the rank and file of the Progressives, and declared that the contests at Chicago four years ago and this year “ were for the control of the machinery of the party"--manifestly the Republican party. The President added that now, after the smoke has cleared away, " we see standing out before us that familiar Old Guard that has never for a moment been disturbed in its possession of power.”

He emphasized the importance of electing a Congress in sympathy with the President, for, he said, “a President without a Congress . . . can get you into trouble, but he cannot get you out."

He made a telling thrust at the Republicans when he reminded his hearers of the occasion “when the Republican machine was able to compel the majority of its members in the House of Representatives to vote that American citizens had no right to travel on the high seas.”

He declared that his opponents were not criticising what was done by the Administration, but only arguing that the thing that was done was done in the wrong way. And he added : “ They never can get over that fundamental uneasiness, gentlemen, that America is in charge of somebody else than themselves.”

He told his hearers that “at the present

moment it is almost impossible to do anything positive in the field of foreign affairs because foreign nations have been led to suppose that there may be a change in our foreign policy." This change of foreign policy he described as the drawing of the United States into the European war and the exploitation of our neighbors in Mexico.

He emphasized what he had said in Omaha by this declaration :

America is always ready to fight for things that are American. She does not permit herself to be embroiled, but she does know what it would be to be challenged. And when once she is challenged, there is not a man in the United States, I venture to say, so mean, so forgetful of the great heritage of this Nation, that he would not give everything he possessed, including life itself, to stand by the honor of this Nation.

The President left undefined, however, what he regards as a challenge to a nation's honor. He declared that America was saving herself for something greater that is to come”-namely, a final league of nations formed " in order to show all mankind that no man may lead any nation into acts of aggression without having all the other nations of the world leagued against it.”

The President did not indicate how a war of aggression could be more clearly demonstrated than that which Germany has been carrying on for two years, nor how the future league of nations would be more effective than the league of nations that is now opposing that aggression.


On the same day that the President was speaking at Shadow Lawn Mr. Roosevelt was addressing the crowds in the anthracite region of Pennsylvania, notably at Wilkes-Barre. He characteristically went to a labor center to speak on the dangers coming from autocratic action on the part of labor leaders. Without going into the merits of the eight-hour day, except to say that he betieved in it and desired it for the butler and the farm-hand as well, he did most emphatically condemn the method of passing the Adamson so-called Eight-Hour Law when, under what he described as “threat and duress," the principle of arbitration was repudiated and a law put through without an examination of the facts. He declared that President Wilson had furnished

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