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ago have crumbled into ruin. For, if anything is obvious, it is that force has constantly dominated our Government. What, for instance, prevented the confirmation of the nomination of Rublee for the Federal Trade Commission ? Force, pure and simple. Senator Gallinger did not make use of his “sweet reasonableness." He did not convince the Senate that Rublee was not adequately equipped for the job. He did exactly what the robber does who says, Hold up your hands! He threatened to “kill ” the nominees of the other Senators unless his revenge in this matter could be satisfied. Inci. dentally, Mr. Hughes has not denounced this use of force, and yet it is incomparably the more dangerous to democracy. What prevented the passage of the Child Labor Act until 1916 ? Did the "rule of reason” govern the Senators from Pennsylvania and the South? They voted exactly as the manufacturing companies of their States dictated. What makes Congress pass " pork-barrel " appropriations ? The force of bipartisan selfishness. What passed the PayneAldrich Tariff Bill? The force of special privileges. What prevented the nomination of Roosevelt in 1912 and 1916 ? The force of partisan and selfish interests. So it is all along the line. If you but dig into the forces behind the Acts, whether it be an appointment, a delayed Child Labor Act, or other remedial legislation, you will find the pressure of forces, silent and invisible perhaps, but powerful. Laws which are good are strangely obstructed and die in committee rooms, and queer jokers often emasculate those which are passed. It is not the handiwork of reason. Our delayed reforms, our halting progress, our “pork barrels,” our denial of democracy-all this is the result of the use of force. It may masquerade under the name of reverence for the Constitution or the courts, defense of private property, right of contract,

ict, “our free institutions," and what not, but the weapon is the same. Legislatures and Congress are not convinced, they are compelled.

If now labor unions should adopt similar tactics, they would but imitate the practice of their “masters." This may not be desirable, but surely it is naïve for us to decry the use of force on the part of the laborer when the employer has everlastingly used it both in his private business and in his dealings with the Government. If“our free institutions " have borne up under the assaults of organized wealth, they can certainly stand a little hammering from the other side. By making the shoe pinch on the other foot the labor union may bring us to our senses.

F. R. SERRI, The Mills Building 15 Broad Street, New York City,

"HELP FOR THE FARMER" In a recent issue of The Outlook there ap. peared an article by the Hon. Carl Vrooman. Assistant Secretary of Agriculture, upon the subsistant Secretary of Agricult ject “Help for the Farmer.” The article set up the claim that in the last three years the Depart. ment of Agriculture, under Democratic administration, had done great and numerous things to help the farmer make more money, and charged that the Department under Republican direction had ignored the economics of farming and devoted its attention to abstract science, which “ buttered no parsnips " for the real farmers.

A list of alleged achievements of the last three years was used to illustrate the claim, but in every instance the credit belonged to the Republican Administration. For example: The fever tick, which prevented the South from raising meat animals, was driven out of half its infested area before President Wilson was elected. Hog cholera serum was discovered years before the Democratic Administration. The office of Markets and Rural Organization was created by a Republican law, signed by President Taft, and the work was installed by Dr. Thomas N. Carver, the foremost agricultural economist in America, a Republican. Dr. Carver labored, too, successfully in organizing farmers and making them independent of middlemen, purchasing their supplies directly from manufacturers in car lots. The Assistant Sec. retary of Agriculture sent out letters to comfort the middlemen by assuring them that Dr. Carver's effectiveness would be curbed; it was, and he returned to his work as Professor of Economy in Harvard.

When the present Administration took over the Department, it found an army of fourteen thousand highly organized workers, of whom three thousand were scientific specialists. They were engaged in works of research, many of which have brought results in the last three years. When the Department was taken over in 1897 by Secretary James Wilson, he found no organization, and his predecessor, Hon. J. Sterling Morton, a Democrat, had recommended that the Department be abolished. The McKinley, Roosevelt, and Taft Administrations, with James Wilson, Secretary of Agriculture through all three terms, created the greatest agricultural system the world has known, and gave farmers definite knowledge in place of tradition; farmers no longer plant potatoes according to the moon. The momentum of that organization has carried it through the last three years without the addition of a single important enterprise of Democratic initiation.



A farmer, according to the “Rural New Yorker," drove to the public market in a certain town with vegetables and fruit for sale. A girl passed his stand, went to a grocery store and bought two cans of tomatoes and carried them home. For the price of these two cans this farmer was ready to sell a large basket of fresh and sound tomatoes-right from the vine. The farmer thinks that the biggest asset of the middlemen is just that quality in the consumer which sent the girl past him after the canned goods.

In a private letter written "somewhere in France” a surgeon with the British army gives this graphic description of the strenuous life of an erstwhile quiet city physician: “An attack was on for next day. Mines, minnewerfers, shelling. It was simply hell for twenty-four hours. Intense 'strafing' on both sides. The trenches were littered with cases. I had 120 cases and was certainly of use. Had a smack on the hand dressing one. Just a scratch. Our candle was blown out every now and then by the concussion of the high explosives. We got down all right yesterday, however, and slept in a wood in a captured German dugout.”

"Is he a good after-dinner speaker ?” asks “ Life," and answers its own question thus: "Splendid! He never talks more than five minutes, and when he gets through he makes you feel that you could have done much better.”

“ The Humane Monday Germans ” is a headline that arrests attention. Why should they be more humane on Monday, one reasons, when “ blue Monday" is a proverbial expression for irritation and sourness? The explanation is simple. The writer in “ Collier's "who uses the above heading is describing the city of Baltimore. One of the institutions of that city is the Bachelors' Cotillion, perhaps the oldest dancing club in the United States. The balls given by this society are known as the “Monday germans," and their humane feature

their numane feature is that they end at midnight, instead of keep ing the poor tired débutantes up till dawn.

The fact that automobiles are surely getting into everybody's hands is brought home by an advertisement in the “Situations Wanted" columns of a New York City paper. It reads: “Laundress wishes private family washing; open air drying in country; automobile deliv ery ; reasonable prices. Address," etc.

A Japanese hunter of big game writes to the * National Sportsman" about hunting in Korea. He says of an animal called the “ nukattei:" "In Korean language this means 'wolf,' and it * the most fiercest and terrible or quick active

If in the world. He is the most large-damage ker to live stock and human life in Korea;

can be met so easier than in any other country." He asks for information on this point: "How to prevent the terrible damage of large beast when a dangerous game lion, tiger or leopard charges at me, so near, before I have time to receive another loaded gun from gun-bearer?** This would seem to offer a favorable opportunity for the use of jiu-jitsu, it is respectfully suggested. An American hunter would probably use a bowie-knife if he had one.

Two of Thackeray's characters are to be presented on the stage this season. John Drew will be seen as “ Major Pendennis," and Sir Herbert Tree as “ Colonel Newcome." Mrs. Fiske, it will be recalled, made " Becky Sharp" famous on the stage in a play of that name.

A poultry raiser who specialized on capons writes to the “Country Gentleman " that be found that his nearest market, Detroit, had not yet become habituated to that luxurious diet. He makes this amusing comment: “ Even though the automobile business has produced a large and ever-increasing class of wealthy men, their epicurean tastes seem to stop with gasoline. There are probably less than 300) families in Detroit who serve capon on their tables at regular intervals. The only demand is among the larger hotels. The supply is far greater than the demand.” But at present high prices for market luxuries, a city that has three hundred families with the capon habit ought not to feel despondent.

Jules Verne's famous story, “Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea," a prophecy of the submarine, is to be dramatized for the movies. A submarine a hundred feet long, accommodating forty persons, has been built specially for the job. Under-sea pictures have been taken in large numbers, it is said, with this boat figuring as Captain Nemo's craft, in the vicinity of Jamaica. The actors who appear in the play are clothed in diving costumes and work at depths of from thirty to forty feet below the surface. It is reported that the submarine used in this work, the Nautilus, has been seized by British cruisers as a possible German Unterseeboot.

An interesting photograph showing the preparation of Indian relics for exhibition, published in The Outlook for September 27, was credited by mistake to the Museum of Natural History, New York City. It really represented work of the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Foundation. This museum, which will soon have a fine building of its own in New York, will house a mass of relics dealing with primitive man in North America, collected dur ing many years by Mr. George G. Heye, of New York,

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The Outlook

OCTOBER 18, 1916 Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York


Admiration at the physical exploit of the German submarine U-53, Captain Rose, in crossing the Atlantic Ocean, and baseless hopes that the adventure had a bearing on peace proposals or on amicable settle ment of the questions still at issue between Germany and the United States, gave way in a day to the shock of learning that the U-53 came not in peace but in war. As Mr. Roosevelt has put it in a public statement: “ War has been creeping nearer and nearer, until it stares at us from just beyond our three-mile limit, and we face it without policy, plan, purpose, or preparation.”

In a few hours on Sunday of last week, following her dash into Newport and out again after a three hours' stay, the U-53 (perhaps aided by another submarine) stopped and sank five, possibly six, merchant vessels. It is claimed that the technical requirements of the legal process of visit and search and of provisions for the safety of crew and passengers were observed ; and our Government has apparently accepted this view. One of the vessels was Dutch, one Norwegian, the others British. One, the Stephano, was a passenger liner, voyaging from Canada to the United States, and having on board many of our citizens, some returning from their summer vacations. The lives of all were saved because of the instant response of our destroyer squadron at Newport to wireless calls. It is impossible to say what the submarine would have done if help had not been at hand, but there are not lacking instances elsewhere in which (even since Germany's “ pledge" to the United States) German submarines have left neutrals and noncombatants at sea in open boats, and it is exasperating to feel that our navy is forced to act as a tender to a commerce-destroying warfare which President Wilson describes as being "utterly incompatible with the principles of humanity.”

All were saved, in fact, but the driving of

helpless women and children into open boats lowered in haste on the high seas is far from being process free from “jeopardy.”.

At least two neutral ships were destroyed. Holland and Norway will doubtless protest; if they had the aid of the largest neutral nation of the world in enforcing neutral rights at sea, the protest might avail. Presumably Germany claims that these ships carried contraband or conditional contraband, although no proof of this has yet been submitted. Even so, the questions raised in the case of the William P. Frye, an American vessel, and followed by Germany's partial admission of wrong-doing, may apply here. If these neutral ships did not carry contraband, then their sinking was pure piracy.

After her day of destruction the U-53 disappeared from the ken of eye or wireless. Conjecture and imagination have played rather wildly about the questions whether this was a single spectacular raid or the beginning of an extensive commerce-destroying war just outside our three-mile limit; whether we were facing a practical blockade of our ports from beyond the three-mile limit, such as we have already warned Great Britain might amount to an unfriendly act; whether the U-53 had a supply ship, possibly one of the monster German merchant submarines ; whether she had a supply station on some remote, unoccupied island or beach ; even whether she was really built in Germany or put together somewhere on this side the water. All such questions belong to the field of conjecture and remain unanswered as we write.

Meanwhile our Government has received a memorandum from the Allies urging it “ to take efficacious measures tending to prevent beiligerent submarines, regardless of their use, to avail themselves of neutral waters, roadsteads, and harbors." It is argued that the nature of such craft exposes to danger neutral submarines in the same waters—that is, for instance, an American submarine near our coast might be fired upon by mistake ; and that if belligerent submarines are allowed

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