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THE WEEK

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were said to be present, outlined resolutions that a sudden military collapse or overwhelmwhich have since been sent to the King ing victory might force one of the combatThese resolutions contained what is almost ants to sue for mercy, as France did in 1871, equivalent to a threat in the words, “ If the Probably this is what the German General people are not heard in these resolutions, we von Kluck had in mind when he said the must take counsel what is to be done to mini- other day to a correspondent that the war mize the ruin which awaits us." The resolu- might take years to finish or might end in a tions plainly tell the King that he has “fallen few days. It is possible also that, without a victim to evil advisers who have persuaded such a collapse, one combatant might be so him that Germany must be victorious." The convinced of its own ultimate defeat as to people demand the instant dismissal of the make the best terms possible at the moment. present sinister” advisers; and the whole But, apart from these possibilities, each comtone of their remonstrance is in favor of batant has too much at stake which it thinks instant action against Bulgaria.

essential to its own future safety and to its Berlin has taken the new situation in the escape from financial ruin to make an agreeeast seriously but with outward confidence, ment on peace terms probable. Those sinand it is reported that plans had already been cere but over-optimistic lovers of humanity made in advance to afford substantial military who are so constantly crying peace when assistance to Austria and Bulgaria. An im- there is no peace are really doing more harm portant action is the removal by the Kaiser than good. of the former Chief of Staff of the German A convincing explanation of this phase of Army, General von Falkenhayn, and the ap- the war has lately been presented by the wellpointment in his place of Field Marshal von known writer on war topics, Mr. Frank H. Hindenburg, the hero and victor of Ger- Simonds, in the New York - Tribune." He many's triumphs last year on the Russian agrees with Lord Kitchener's forecast of a

three years' war (made, it is said, in the No progress of note was made by either early days of the war), but goes beyond that side in the great battle-line on the Somme early forecast, and now thinks that the war River or in the eastern war field during the will last in all four years, or at least into week ending August 30. Both the Anglo 1918. The reasons are both military and French and the Russian forces made slight commercial. As to the first, despite the recent advances. On the west the struggle still gains of the Allies-and, we may add, the new centers around Thiepval, Guillemont, and situation in the Near East-the Germans ocMaurepas. Perhaps the most notable single cupy a great deal of enemy country, and both incident in the war was the capture by the. in the west and in the east have available excelBulgarians of the forts around the important lent lines of defense many miles back of their Greek port of Kavala ; but, generally speak- present lines and yet still in the enemy couning, the actual fighting in the Balkans has try; moreover, if they do so withdraw, their not been at any one point of much impor lines become shorter and fewer men are tance.

needed to hold them, thus meeting to some The Zeppelin raid on England of August extent the "wearing down” theory of the 24 did more damage than some previous Allies. That the Allies are not in anything raids had accomplished, but still was not like immediate danger of military collapse seriously important from the military point needs no argument at this time. of view. The air-ships are said to have Turning to the exposition this article gives dropped about a hundred bombs, which dam- of the commercial and industrial reasons aged an electric power station and engineer- against the probability of immediate peace, ing works, started a few insignificant fires, we find that Germany has wrecked industrial and, according to English reports, caused the regions of vast importance in Belgium, death of three men, three women, and two France, and Poland, has “ literally burned children, and injured thirty-six other people. the factories and transported the machinery

to her home provinces ;" thus, if war stopped WHY PEACE SEEMS DISTANT

to-day, Germany could put her factories to Under present conditions, there seem to work to supply the world's demand, but be insuperable obstacles to an agreement on France, Belgium, and Poland would have to terms of peace by the nations at war in restore their factories, buy new machinery, Europe. It is, of course, at least conceivable and start afresh. But this is not all; the

districts in France, Belgium, and Poland now held by Germany include vast iron-fields, to. gether with immensely valuable coal regions. Now Germany, Mr. Simonds says, will never surrender these districts until she has been overwhelmingly defeated ; on the other hand, the countries to which they belonged before the war will never give them up to Germany unless those countries are at the last gasp. Similar arguments may be made as regards shipping. Mr. Simonds contends that Great Britain will insist that Germany make good out of German shipping the losses inflicted by German submarines on British shipping. Again, if war ceased now, Germany might expect a tariff combination by her former enemies, discriminating against Germany. If we look at the relation of Germany and Russia, of Turkey with the other Powers, or of the Balkan situation, other tremendous difficulties and complications present themselves.

In short, when Germany or German speak, ers and writers intimate that Germany might accept peace on the basis of “the map of Europe”—that is, the status quo, or, in plain English, the actual condition as it is to-daythe proposal is totally unthinkable from the Allies' point of view. On the other hand, the status quo ante—that is, the map of Europe as it was before the war—is equally unacceptable to Germany until she has undergone, or sees that she is on the point of undergoing, a complete and decisive defeat.

Prophecies are proverbially dangerous, but those who think that the only obstacle to peace is the hard hearts of men who like war for itself have as little conception of the magnitude of the great world problems which must be solved before peace begins as a child has of differential calculus.

girls from sixteen to twenty years of age, to distant points, tearing them from their families and forcing them to work on the land wherever Germany sees fit to use them. This is literally treating children like cattle.

It will be hard to believe that such a thing could happen were it not for France's official report and protest against this form of inhumanity. This protest is addressed to the governments of neutral Powers—we hope that our State Department will not fail to send a reply and to make that reply public. The protest is in the form of a White Book or Yellow Book—it has been called both-and those who wish to read the story will find it reprinted in full in the New York “ Times" of August 20. It covers nearly two pages of that paper in solid type, and it marshals as exhibits letter after letter, document after document; among other things a stirring letter from the Bishop of Lille to a German general, to whom he appeals as a Christian and a father, urging that “ the inviolability of God, who institutes it, is in the family," and saying that “to tear young girls from their homes is no longer war; it is torture, and the worst of tortures—undefined moral torture.”

The Premier of France, M. Briand, in transmitting the protest to the neutral Powers, asks for “the judgment that the universal conscience will render” on the facts stated, and summarizes those facts from the evidence gathered by the Minister of War. Roubaix, Tourcoing, and Lille were the chief places outraged in this way, and other smaller places are named. In those three places twenty-five thousand men, women, and children, without distinction of social conditions and of every age from sixteen up, were taken away. The men, it is said, are employed at farming, road work, munition-making, and digging trenches; the women to cook and wash for the soldiers and “ to take the places of officers' orderlies !” Here is a brief description of one scene :

WARRING AGAINST
CHILDREN

Charles Reade, in his “ Cloister and the Hearth," tells of the cruelty of a Duke of Burgundy who “decanted” at his sovereign pleasure people from villages, which he deemed too populous into other villages where he deemed that they were needed ; and the author describes movingly the wretchedness and grief of the poor people torn from their homes and friends and driven along the highway weeping. Germany has gone far beyond that, for the noble Duke did not divide families. She has driven the poor French villagers, and especially the boys and

Toward three o'clock in the morning the streets were barred by troops with fixed bayonets and a machine gun set up across the side. walk against unarmed people. The soldiers entered the houses and officers designated the persons who were to go, and half an hour later every one was carried away pellmell to a nearby factory, and from there to the railroad station for departure. Mothers with children under fourteen years were spared, young girls

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below twenty years old were carried away only with a person of their family, but this does not lessen the barbarity of the measure. Soldiers of the Landsturır. were visibly embarrassed to find themselves employed for such work.

In commenting on this stolidly inhumane action, the " Times” entitles its editorial As in Cæsar's Time," but quotes a noted French writer as denying to the Germans the right to be called barbarians because “the barbarians at least were on a level with the customs and sentiments of their time.”

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was, perhaps, the result of the Democratic Senatorial primary in Texas. This was won by Senator Charles A. Culberson (known as the Wilson candidate) over ex-Governor Colquitt by a vote which is reported to be in the neighborhood of 146,000 to 83,000. ExGovernor Colquitt, the defeated candidate for the nomination, has been a severe critic of President Wilson's Mexican policy.

The Outlook in its issue of August 23 reported Mr. Hughes's charge that Mr. O. H. Tittmann had been removed by President Wilson from the head of the Coast and Geodetic Survey. The Outlook said: “ No explanation, either adequate or inadequate, seems to have been made to meet this charge."

Newspaper correspondents have, however, reported Secretary Redfield's denial that Mr. Tittmann was forced to resign. They also have quoted Mr. Tittmann in confirmation of Secretary Redfield's denial.

CONGRESS AND POLITICS

Outside of the railway situation (dealt with elsewhere in this issue) during the past week the most important subject under considera tion by the Senate has been the Revenue Bill. In connection with the discussion of this bill, the incident which has excited most interest was the attempt of Senator Underwood to lower the exemption on taxable incomes from three thousand to two thousand dollars. Senator Underwood, declining to be bound by the Democratic caucus, carried his fight to the floor of the Senate. Despite the aid of fourteen Republicans, his amendment was defeated by a vote of 31 to 19.

On August 29 President Wilson signed the army and navy appropriation bills and the Philippine measure. It will be remembered that President Wilson vetoed the army bill originally passed by Congress because of a clause in the revised Articles of War exempt ing retired officers from military discipline. It was speedily amended in the way President Wilson desired, and by his signature has now become law. The justice and wisdom of his veto are strikingly attested by this quickly earned victory.

In signing the Navy Bill, President Wilson said : “ The Navy Bill is a very remarkable measure. Never before by a single act of legislation has so much been done for the

nas so much been done for the creation of an adequate navy. . . . It is a matter of unusual gratification that we should have been able at this time to do so much and do it so well-as I believe it to be done in this bill — and to do it with such unanimity of support and opinion."

Interest in the Presidential campaign, aside from Mr. Roosevelt's speech in Maine, which is discussed in an editorial in this week's issue of The Outlook, seems to have been lost in the tremendous concern which the country has felt over the railway situation. The most striking event of the week

SECRETARY DANIELS AND
THE HISTORY OF THE NAVY

Several times during the past few months Secretary Daniels has indicated his belief that the failure of the United States navy to maintain its rank of second place among the war fleets of the world was in part due to the in difference of Mr. Roosevelt's Administration. He recurs to this belief in a recent letter to Representative Butler, ranking Republican member of the House Affairs Committee. This letter, which constitutes an exhaustive and in many ways an excellent report on the progress of the navy during President Wilson's Administration, was made public on August 27. It is in presenting this record that Mr. Daniels again offers the criticism to which we have referred. says:

In 1905 the Secretary of the Navy (Mr. Bona. parte) asked for only one battle-ship, and in his Message to Congress in the same year President Roosevelt said, in order to maintain and increase the then standard efficiency of the navy, it did not "seem necessary, however, that the navy should at least in the immediate future -be increased beyond the present number of units," and he advocated adding "a single battle-ship to our navy each year.” In his 1907 Message President Roosevelt wrote to Congress : “I do not ask that we continue to increase our navy. I merely ask that it be maintained at its present strength." At that time the General Board was insisting upon two to three new battle-ships each year, but their

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recommendation was carefully pigeonholed and people of the country-excepting where they not permitted to reach the public.

aroused sharp condemnation." Mr. Daniels in this criticism apparently ignores the statement of the General Board

WHEN IS A BOS'N

NOT A BOS'N? of the Navy (which he himself quotes in his letter to Representative Butler) that in this

From this consideration of naval history it very year 1907 the navy of the United States

may be a relief to turn to an incident in a advanced from third to second place, judged

much lighter vein which has recently served by number of ships actually built, and in

to enliven naval circles.. quoting from Mr. Roosevelt's Message of

During the progress of the Naval Bill

through the Senate Senator Tillman intro1907 he neglects to add any quotation from the special Message which Mr. Roosevelt

duced an amendment of very innocent apsent to Congress on April 14, 1908, a Mes

pearance which fortunately does not appear sage which casts no little light upon the con

in the measure which President Wilson has ditions confronting the country at that time

just signed because it did not survive the in comparison with the situation to-day. Presi

journey through the legislative mill. In dent Roosevelt then said :

brief, this amendment provided by deft cir

cumlocution“ that no officer shall be adPrior to the recent Hague Conference it had

dressed in orders or official communications been my hope that an agreement could be reached between the different nations to limit

by any other title than that of his actual the increase of naval armaments, and especially to limit the size of war-ships. Under these cir.

To the civilian this sounds fair enough, cumstances I felt that the construction of one but the civilian is generally unfamiliar with battle-ship a year would keep our navy up to the distinction between the words rank and its then positive and relative strength. But grade. An officer may have the grade of actual experience showed not merely that it commander, of assistant civil engineer, of was impossible to obtain such an agreement chaplain or naval constructor. The quesfor the limitation of armaments among the

tion of rank is entirely a different thing. rious leading Powers, but that there was no

Rank means that officers in one grade . kelihood whatever of obtaining it in the future

have the same “official standing " as offiwithin any reasonable time. Coincidentally with this discovery occurred a radical change

cers in another grade. Some of the titles in the building of battle-ships among the great

of the various grades belong to the line and military nations-a change in accordance with some to the staff of the navy. It is quite which most modern battle-ships have been or as absurd to call a man " captain ” or “ comare being constructed of a size and armament mander” merely because he “ ranks” as which doubles, or more properly trebles, their captain or commander, as it would be to effectiveness. Every other great naval nation insist that a railway president be called has, or is building, a number of ships of this

" senator " because he might have the same kind; we have provided for but two, and there

social standing in a community as a member fore the balance of power is now inclining

of the upper house. against us. Under these conditions, to provide for but one or two battle-ships a year is to pro.

That the absurdities of this proposal would vide that this Nation, instead of advancing,

have been extended to warrant and petty shall go backward in naval rank and relative officers of the navy is made evident in a power among the great nations. ...I ear letter which a naval pharmacist recently adnestly advise that the Congress now provide dressed to the editor of the “ Navy." He four battle-ships of the most advanced type. I writes in expectation of the passage of the cannot too emphatically say that this is a meas- amendment : ure of peace and not of war.

In the last “Navy Register" I appear as a In 1916 President Wilson in his efforts to " Pharmacist.” In the next I will be known to build up the navy of the United States has the world as a “Boatswain." ... had the stupendous advantage of an aroused

I have already begun to address my Hospital public opinion made vocal chiefly through Apprentice as Coxswain, which is the title of private initiative and endeavor. In 1908 no

his rank. Instead of telling him to get the

bandages and lint ready for an operation by the such condition existed. Mr. Roosevelt's rec

Surgeon, I sing out: ommendations, as one man who was then a "Coxswain, the Commander comes! Stand Member of Congress has recently testified, by with the gear to marl, parcel, and serve !". .. excited only languid interest among the I have taught him to answer:

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