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late day. In spite of these facts, the struggle which resulted in a state of affairs that the was so close that the day after the primary best people of Georgia deplored. When the issue was still in doubt. Mr. Bacon Leo M. Frank was finally lynched in Georgia, made his sole campaign on preparedness, Solicitor-General Dorsey took no vigorous including universal military service, and on measures to punish the lynchers. His nomthe fulfillment of international obligations. ination, though by a plurality, not a majorHis course was a brave one, and the remark- ity, indicates that the public of Georgia has able vote he received proved that it was not yet become aware of the stigma that was also a wise one. Whatever the result, the attached to the State. Mr. Dorsey's own large vote for Mr. Bacon shows that the statement that the nomination means that people of New York State can be counted on the people of Georgia are determined to to respond to an appeal to duty and honor. manage their own affairs indicates this.

In the Democratic primary Mr. McCombs, In Denver George A. Carlson, whose former Democratic National Chairman, was administration as Governor has brought nominated for the Senatorship.

credit to the State, has been renominated by James R. Mann, the Republican leader in the Republicans. In Arizona Governor Congress, after a struggle, was renominated Hunt has received the renomination from by the Republican voters in his district in the Democrats. Illinois ; while ex-Senator Lorimer, who sought the Republican nomination for Rep- THE PRESIDENTIAL resentative in Congress in another district in CAMPAIGN the same State, was, we are glad to record, For so late a stage of the Presidential defeated. Colonel Frank 0. Lowden was campaign there seems to be little that is nominated by the Republicans for Governor stirring the people. of Illinois ; while the present Governor, Early last week Mr. Hughes started on Edward F. Dunne, was renominated by the his second campaign trip. This will take Democrats. Governor Dunne's victory was him into the principal States of the Middle a defeat for the Roger Sullivan faction in the West. As he started on this trip he emphaparty. For Congressman-at-Large, Medill sized anew the issue which he has been McCormick, a former Progressive, led the making the foremost one in his speechesfield of Republican candidates.

that raised by the so-called eight-hour law In the State of Washington, Miles Poin- that put an end to the railway strike. He is dexter, who had the distinction of being for insisting that when Congress yielded to the some time the only Progressive United States threat of a strike, it subordinated a princiSenator, was renominated for the Senate by ple to an exigency, and he is urging that the the Republicans. The nomination of Mr. people repudiate such methods of dealing McCormick and that of Senator Poindexter with industrial questions, and that they show are two of many indications that the Repub- by their votes that they believe investigation licans and Progressives are fast reuniting, and a knowledge of the facts should precede It is a satisfaction to record that in South all such legislation.

all such legislation. He is also emphasizing Carolina Cole Blease, former Governor, competence and efficiency in government, whose attacks on the Negro, whose defense and is pointing out instances in which the of lynching, and whose wholesale release of present Administration has been incompetent prisoners brought disrepute to the State, has and inefficient for political reasons. So far been defeated for the Democratic nomination he has not undertaken, to any great extent, for the Governorship by the renomination of to carry on a campaign of education of the Governor Richard I. Manning. Of course American people in the large questions of in South Carolina this nomination is equiva- international obligation raised by the Eurolent to election.

He has been devoting himself Unfortunately for Georgia, Hugh M. largely to domestic issues and the AdminisDorsey has received the Democratic guber- tration's Mexican policy. natorial nomination. As Solicitor-General of The astonishing vote given in the New the Atlanta Criminal Court he prosecuted York primaries to Robert Bacon, the candiLeo M. Frank for murder. In the events date for the Senatorial nomination, who, as which followed Frank's conviction there was we have said, put foremost the international a campaign of appeal to mob violence, to duty of the United States and universal anti-Jewish feeling, and to class prejudice military training, indicates that the people of

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ihis country are much more ready for those one feels the assumption behind it all that issues than most of the political campaign its truth is to be tested by experience. speakers have seemed to imagine. We wish A most interesting illustration of this fact Mr. Hughes would take a leaf from Mr. occurred when the war broke out in Europe. Bacon's note-book.

He had expounded a theory in a book called So far, apart from his speech of accept- “ The Process of Interpretation.” He was ance, President Wilson has taken no active part to read an address before the Philosophical in the campaign for his re-election. It has been Union of the University of California late in announced unofficially that he will make no August, 1914. The address that he precampaign trips, but will answer his opponents pared is called “ War and Insurance," and it by addresses made at his own summer resi- was written, as he said, during August, dence, Shadow Lawn. In this he is following “under the immediate influence of impresprecedent. It is evident that he believes that sions due to the events which each day's his best course is to point to the legislation news then brought to the notice of us all; enacted during his Administration, and to and yet with a longing to see how the theory reiterate the claim that the Administration's of interpretation ' . . . would bear the test course in international matters has kept the of an application to the new problems which country out of war.

the war brings to our minds."

True to his philosophy, his mind discerned JOSIAH ROYCE

the nature and character of the war and its Of the three men who for years made issues. His words with regard to the wrong the Philosophical Department at Harvard perpetrated by Germany were ringing words. pre-eminent only George Herbert Palmer Nothing that has been said concerning the now survives. William James, pioneer in colossal crime of Germany in sinking the psychology, who adventurous mind led him Lusitania has surpassed in vigor, incisiveness, into unconventional regions of thought, a and clearness what he said last January in a philosopher who raised common sense into a meeting in Boston, when he spoke of the position both of dignity and interest, died spirit of Germany as bearing "the primal six years ago. And now his and Professor curse upon it--a brother's murder." Palmer's colleague, Josiah Royce, has also Not only was his intellect a penetrating died. There have been philosophers who one, but it had at its command pure, treated philosophy as if it had no relation to clear English. Few philosophers have known life, and whose mental operations were as far so well how to write. Royce's books removed from useful employment as the might well serve as models of English. Inperformance of an acrobat is from that of a deed, this command of the mother tongue skilled mechanic. It is because philosophy was a characteristic of his two colleagues, has seemed so often far removed from the Professor Palmer and Professor James, each realities of life that philosophy has had a bad having a distinctive style worthy of study. . name among the plain people.

Small in stature, with a Socratic kind of Different as these three men of Harvard face, Professor Royce's outward appearance were, they were alike, however, in being real belied his intellectual stature. The youth philosophers, lovers of wisdom, searchers for who heard him lecture in his high, strident the truth that lies in reality and real expe- tones might perhaps be pardoned for failing riences. This is true of Royce's idealism. to recognize in this teacher one of the great That which he thought and taught he made and impressive men of the day. a basis of conduct.

It is hard to imagine the mind of Josiah Though he was a profound student of Royce as the product of any other nation the history of philosophy, he was not a re- than the United States. No man in outward ceiver, reporter, or compiler of second-hand appearance could furnish a more complete opinions. Neither did he, as many philoso- contrast to the American of British literature, phers have tried to do, undertake to separate with his bragging and his materialism, than mental processes from moral considerations. he. But we believe that it is in such a man He could not see any way to the truth except as Josiah Royce that one can discern the through loyalty. To think straight was, ac- real American. . It would be well if America cording to Professor Royce's philosophy, just to-day would listen to his philosophy; and at another way of being straight.

all costs keep faith and be loyal. In reading what Professor Royce wrote At his death Professor Royce was sixty years of age. He was a native of California dates, or facts. It was evident that he knew and a graduate of the University of California, what he was going to say, and that he knew he and at that University had been instructor

was right. . . . I have heard celebrated orators in English literature and logic for four years

who could start thunders of applause without when, in 1882, he was called to be an

changing any man's opinion. Mr. Lincoln's

eloquence was of the higher type which proinstructor in philosophy in Harvard Univer

duced convictions in others because of the consity, where he remained in the Philosophical

viction of the speaker himself. Department, becoming Alford Professor of Natural Religion, Moral Philosophy, and

After acting as Washington correspondent Civil Polity in March, 1914. He was the

for and editor-in-chief of the Chicago " Tribauthor of one novel and many books of

une,” Mr. White with others formed the first philosophy. Like Bergson, he was one of

news agency to compete with the Associated

Press. the eminent constructive philosophers of the

In 1881 Henry Villard, owner of day.

the New York “ Evening Post," invited Mr. White, Mr. Schurz, and Mr. Godkin to

assume its management. Mr. White reTWO NOTABLE CITIZENS

mained in active service with the “ Post" The cities of New York and Chicago have until 1903. His specialty was political just met with notable losses in the death of

economy, and as his “Money and Banking." Horace White and William James Calhoun.

long a college text-book, shows, he was an Mr. White died in his eighty-third year. His

expert on the subject. life recalls the early days of Beloit College,

William James Calhoun, late Minister to from which he graduated in 1853, and the

China, died in his sixty-ninth year. President early days of journalism in Chicago, where

McKinley sent him as special commissioner he worked as city editor of the Chicago

to Cuba, President Roosevelt sent him in the “ Evening Journal.” Mr. White on one occa

same capacity to Venezuela, and President sion wrote:

Taft appointed him to China. At the present This was the day of small things in journal- time, when so much is said about Japanese ism. The duties of the city editor included commercial and political aggression, it is just reporting the police court, fires, markets, theat

as well to remember Mr. Calhoun's warning as rical matters, and public meetings; also looking

to lost opportunities in China. At a dinner over part of the exchange papers, setting type in any sudden emergency, and assisting in fold

given to him in Chicago on his retirement ing and addressing newspapers for the mail

from office he remarked : whenever help was needed in that department. A great deal is said about "dollar diploThe pay was five dollars per week and was macy." I do not know what is meant by that often in arrears.

phrase. In olden times the great forces were After remaining a year in the " Journal's "

political; in later days they are more economic. service Mr. White was appointed Chicago

The railways of China are opening up the coun

try. The nations that lend China money have agent of the New York Associated Press. He

a voice in the construction, the routes and then became connected with the Chicago operations of the railways. We have no voice “ Tribune," and reported all the Lincoln- in the trade that is being opened up. ... We Douglas debates. Mr. White wrote of his first talk about the "open door." Of what use is meeting with Lincoln, when the “ Tribune" the “open door” if we never use it or if other sent him to report the future President's speech people crowd in and occupy the field before we against the Missouri Compromise:

get there? China must be opened up. It re

quires money. The country is poor. We can At first glance his appearance was not attract

aid by loans. We can help only by co-operation ive. He was tall, bony, angular, and destitute

with other financial interests. If there be no of all the graces except a winning cast of counte

governmental support, the foreign country must nance with wbich he greeted all comers. But

withdraw, and that closes the “door.” that counted for much. Kindliness and honesty beamed from his eyes and from every wrinkle

A GREAT SPANISH on his face.

DRAMATIST It was a warmish day in early October, and

By the death of José Echegaray, Spain Mr. Lincoln was in his shirt sleeves when he stepped on the platform. I observed that,

loses one of its most distinguished men of although awkward, he was not in the least em- letters, and the world loses a foremost drambarrassed. He began in a slow and hesitating atist. manner, but without any mistakes of language, Echegaray did not begin his career as a

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