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cially admired by artists and connoisseurs for the vigor and beauty of his water-colors. The announcement of his death recalls once more the incalculable debt which the world owes to modern French art.

WILLIAM HAYES WARD

The death last week of Dr. William Hayes Ward, in his eighty-second year, at his home in Maine, ends a long career of usefulness and accomplishment. Dr. Ward was eminent as scholar, as editor, and as a leader of thought. His connection with the “ Independent” extended for forty-eight years, and his influence as an editorial writer and controller was always in favor of that which was liberal, progressive, and humane, whether in the realm of religion or social progress. Personally he was a man of marked kindliness and sincerity.

.Dr. Ward was graduated from Amherst in 1856, and from the Andover Theological Seminary in 1859. He held several honor ary degrees. A short period of work as pastor in Kansas and as a teacher in Beloit College and elsewhere was followed in 1868 by his entrance into editorial work with the “ Independent.” For the last three years he had been honorary editor.

As a scholar, and especially as an archæologist, Dr. Ward was everywhere recognized as of high rank. His best-known practical work in this field was in connection with the Wolfe Babylonian Expedition of 1884. As a writer on Oriental antiquities and art he put forth many articles and books, and he had the delightful faculty of talking on subjects before an audience with picturesque and almost dramatic effect. He lectured on Assyriology at Yale, was for a time President of the American Oriental Society, had been a trustee of Amherst College, and was active in the American Bible Society and the American Missionary Society.

knowledge of such subjects, but probably also because of the great power and influence of his name among those miners who were of his faith. His appointment was accepted as an eminently desirable one by the public at large, and the parties to the dispute welcomed it without exception. There is no question that his efforts and personality had great influence in bringing about a satisfactory solution of that difficult problem.

As priest and prelate Archbishop Spalding was honored and beloved. Pope Pius X, at the time of the Archbishop's retirement from active work because of failing health some eight years ago, said of him : “Few bishops had so great an influence on the life of the people, even outside of religion and outside of the Catholic denomination, as had Bishop Spalding.” He was consecrated Bishop of the Diocese of Peoria, Illinois, in 1877, and on his retirement because of ill health thirtyone years later was created titular Archbishop of Scyphopolis. In the earlier part of his career Dr. Spalding was, at his own request, assigned to a parish of Negroes in Louisville, Kentucky, and by his own efforts secured for his colored parishioners a church and parish house. His uplifting work among the Negroes at this period was notable and unusual.

Archbishop Spalding wrote much upon religious, social, and educational topics, and was the author of several books. He died at the age of seventy-seven. It is interesting to read that he was a descendant of one of the English colonists who first came to Maryland, and that his family in England were noted for having preserved their allegiance to the Catholic faith all through the days troublous to Catholics of the reigns of Henry VIII and Elizabeth.

ARCHBISHOP SPALDING

The death of Archbishop John Lancaster Spalding, of the Roman Catholic Church, will recall to the general public the very great service rendered by Archbishop Spalding as a member of the Anthracite Commission, which brought together the coal-miners and the coal-owners after the great strike of 1902. Bishop Spalding, as he then was, was selected by President Roosevelt to serve on that Commission, primarily because of his interest in all labor questions and his special

THE SISAL HEMP MONOPOLY

We reported last week the Congressional investigation into the alleged Mexican monopoly of sisal hemp and the somewhat mysterious failure of the Congressional investigating committee, which held its hearings in February and April last, to make any report. The Committee of the Senate which has this matter in charge, and which consists of Senator Ransdell, of Louisiana, Senator Gronna, of North Dakota, and Senator Wadsworth, of New York, has made the following statement :

A report on our investigations of the sisal hemp industry and its principal manufactured product, binder twine, has been delayed by a variety of causes which are unnecessary to

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enumerate. Since our hearings closed about Russian Government in establishing this confour months ago there has been an increase in venience for its subjects in America has been the price of sisal of from 756 cents per pound

the desire to attract to Russia more gold to at New York to 1038 cents—a rise of 234 cents

meet the exigencies of the war. This is per pound, or over thirty-six per cent.

indicated by the fact that the rate of interest This very material and unexpected increase

paid by the Government savings banks has in the price of a commodity which is so essential to the welfare of the American farmer as

been raised as an inducement for Russians sisal impresses the Committee with the neces in America to send home their savings. sity of having additional information before Another motive has probably been the hope rendering any decision. We have therefore of increasing the exchange value of the ruble asked the Federal Trade Commission to ascer. by the deposit of a large quantity of gold to tain the facts on several points relating to sisal Russia's credit in this country. and its substitutes ; and have also asked the But certainly a third motive has been to Secretary of State to approach the Mexican

benefit the Russian subjects in this country. Government with the request to investigate the

Such Russians, in attempting to send money situation and see if some relief cannot be obtained for the users of sisal in this country.

home, have often been cheated by unscrupu

lous bankers who have arbitrarily raised the We are glad that the Committee has so rate of exchange and used other unfair far taken the public into its confidence. But means to "do" the ignorant immigrant here. is it not fair to raise the question whether The great Mother Russia now proposes to this brief report may not confirm the feeling protect her subjects, and incidentally to take which has been expressed by the sisal hemp to herself the strength which their massed importers in this country that the Washington savings constitute. Administration desires to hold this whole No fair-minded person ought to object to controversy in abeyance until after elec- this. Only the extreme protectionist maintion? The Senatorial Committee says that it tains that it is wrong for foreign laborers to is confronted “ with the necessity of having send home what they save from their wages. additional information before rendering any No one objects because the Russian dealer decision.” Why could it not have sought in furs or minerals here sends home the this information last April, or have approached product of his sales. And the Russian. the Federal Trade Commission last April, or laborer is as much entitled to do as he have asked the Secretary of State to confer pleases with the money which is the price of with the Mexican Government last April ? his labor as is the Russian merchant to disWe think the importers of sisal have a just pose as he pleases of the money which is the basis for their criticism that the Administra price of his furs or minerals. tion has been dilatory in this matter. The original complaints were laid before the Gov THE LOSS OF THE ernment in December, 1915.

MEMPHIS

The cruiser Memphis, stationed in the THE RUSSIAN IMMIGRANT

harbor of Santo Domingo City, on AuAND HIS SAVINGS

gust 29 was driven ashore by sudden and The Russian Government has recently unexpected seas. In the first despatch to the established here a virtual extension of the Navy Department from Rear-Admiral Pond Government savings bank system in Russia the loss of this cruiser is thus described : in order to permit Russians in this country to Memphis driven ashore by heavy sea, Santo make a direct deposit of their savings without Domingo City, west of lighthouse, at 4:30 P.M. resorting to the somewhat tedious and uncer. She is lying close under bluff, has lines ashore, tain method of sending their money home and is getting crew off. Heavy sea came up through the foreign exchange machinery of suddenly and ship was unable to get up steam private banks.

in time to save herself. Twenty men of iberty At the Russian Consulates in New York party drowned on way back to ship. Castine City, Chicago, and Pittsburgh a Russian

ion (gunboat) dragged close in, but did not strike,

8 may now turn in his savings in return for a

or and got out to sea. Memphis will be total loss.

ands temporary receipt, which in turn is followed In a later despatch from Admiral Pond by a Government savings bank book sent further details of the disaster are given. It on from Russia.

appears that when the storm struck the There is no doubt that one motive of the cruiser Memphis her main steam line burst,

killing one enlisted man and injuring two he is sworn to protect ? Mr. Roosevelt's officers and seventy-seven members of her illustration will appeal to others than seacrew. Several other members of the crew faring folk : are reported missing in addition to those I can illustrate what I mean about the use lost from the liberty party. The rest of the and abuse of the word safety by the life-saving crew were all taken from the ship, the cap- service. This is a service especially designed tain of the Memphis being the last to leave. to secure greater safety for ships' crews, and

The Memphis is better known to the pub generally for persons whose lives are imperiled lic as the cruiser Tennessee. The Tennessee

on the water. It is a service to secure safety. was the ship which was sent to Europe to

But the safety is secured only because some bring relief to Americans stranded by the

brave men are willing to risk their own lives in

order to save other lives. They do not put outbreak of the war.

"safety first" as far as they themselves are concerned. If they did, no lifeboat would ever be

launched from a life-saving station. But the THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S

men on a sinking ship who crowd into the life

boats ahead of the women and children do put MAINE SPEECH

"safety first." I will say this for them, however: Mr. Roosevelt's Maine speech, delivered When they get ashore, they do not wear buttons at Lewiston on August 31, is an appeal to to commemorate the feat-as some of our opthe chivalry and courage of the American

ponents in the present campaign do. people. We hope it will inspire with the Mr. Roosevelt does not outline the future wisdom of courage the rather sluggish Re- policy of the Republican party ; but he sugpublican Campaign Committee. It strikes gests what would have been its policy during with characteristic vigor the same note which the last four years. A Hughes AdministraMr. Root struck in his speech last Februarytion would not have recognized in our citibefore the New York State Republican Con- zenship any dual allegiance. It would have vention, and which Mr. Bacon struck in his prepared itself with strength - so as to guarstatement to the voters of New York State, antee our own safety, and also to treat every reported in last week's Outlook. If this foreign nation, in any given crisis, as its campaign for a more courageous public pol- conduct in that crisis demands." It would icy is to be won at all, it must be won by the couple universal suffrage with “ a system of wisdom of courage, not by that of prudence. universal obligatory military training in time No campaign in such a crisis as the present of peace, and in time of war universal service can arouse an enthusiasm of support which in whatever capacity the man or woman does not provoke an enthusiasm of hostility. shall be judged most fit to serve the com

Mr. Roosevelt indicts the Democratic poli- monwealth.” It would either have recogcies and condemns the Democratic campaign nized Huerta as the de facto President of slogans.

Mexico, and held him responsible to protect “Mr. Wilson has kept us out of war." life and property, or it would have gone into Has he? “A greater number of Americans Mexico with whatever force was necessary have been killed by Mexicans during these for their protection. It would not have sent years, when we are officially informed that the feet to Vera Cruz unless its presence we have been at peace with them, than were was required to protect Americans, and it killed by the Spaniards during our entire war would not have recalled the fleet until Amerwith Spain. Moreover, when the war with icans were protected. It would not have Spain was through, it was through. But allowed munitions of war to be sent into peace still continues to rage as furiously as Mexico with which to carry on a wholesale ever in Mexico.” Moreover, “ during these campaign of anarchy and massacre. It would three years of Mr. Wilson's ‘peace' the not have recognized Carranza as the head of Mexicans themselves have been butchered a de facto government, and at the same time by their own bandits steadily and without indicted him, as President Wilson's Secretary intermission ; and Mexican women and chil- of State in an official statement indicted him dren have died by thousands-probably by on June 20 last, as responsible for anarchy, scores of thousands-of starvation, and of plunder, and murder in Mexico and unprothe diseases incident to starvation."

voked raids upon Americans in Texas. “Safety first.” Yes. But whose safety ? Nor would a Republican administration That of the protector or that of those whom have stood hesitant and afraid while every THE RAILWAY PROBLEM

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real issue of the day. Do they prefer Belgium or Greece? Do they believe that a life saved by cowardice is worth saving? Do they put safety first or duty first ? For ourselves, we think that the man who would rather be a living coward than a dead hero is dead already and does not know it. He is a peripatetic corpse, and the sooner he is buried the better for the world. We do not believe that he represents the spirit of America. We believe there is in this Nation a conscience and a courage which will respond to such words as those of Mr. Roosevelt's Maine speech. If the Republican Campaign Committee will put as clearly and vigorously before the American people as he has done the issue between the courageous fulfillment and the cowardly evasion of the Nation's duty, we cannot doubt what the answer of the people will be. It will be, as Mr. Roosevelt points out, the same which they have always given to the cry, “ Safety first ;" the answer which they gave to the Tories in 1776, to the compromisers in 1860, and to the antiimperialists in 1900.

principle of international law and every right of neutral and non-combatant were violated on land and at sea by the German policy of terrorism. It would have protested against the invasion of Belgium, against the murder of Miss Cavell and Captain Fryatt, against the torpedoing of merchant vessels and the dropping of bombs on unfortified cities and peaceful women and children. It would have done whatever was necessary to emphasize the condemnation of this unwarlike degradation of war. It would have invited the other neutral nations to join it in such condemnation. “ America could and should have put itself at the head of all the neutral nations, by its example if not by direct diplomatic agreements, in demanding that the war should be conducted in accordance with the usage of civilized nations, that international law should be observed, that the rights of neutrals and non-combatants should be respected. If this spirit had animated our Administration, there would probably have been no invasion of Belgium, no fears of a like fate to terrorize other smaller nations, no torpedoing of merchant vessels, no bombarding of churches and hospitals, no massacring of women and children, no murder of Miss Cavell and Captain Fryatt, no attempted extermination of the Armenians.”

What the Republican party will do next March, if it is in power, of course, Mr. Roosevelt does not say. He cannot say. No one can say. For no one can tell what will be the world conditions and what the American duties in March, 1917. But he can and does say in what spirit he believes the Nation ought to meet the issues as they arise, and why he believes that Mr. Hughes can meet those issues in that spirit. " We cannot undo what has been done. But we can repudiate what has been done. We can regain our own self-respect and the respect of other nations for this country. We can put in power an administration which will throughout its term of power protect our own citizens and live up to our National obligations.” And he sees in “ Mr. Hughes's rugged and uncompromising straightforwardness of character and action in every office he has held" the guarantee of such an administration.

A correspondent in the New York - Tribune " the other day quoted a friend of his as saying that he would rather be a living coward than a dead hero. This cynical remark puts before the American people the

THE RAILWAY PROBLEM

As we go to press Congress is considering the President's plan, recorded on another page, for dealing with the threatened railway strike. Both the railway trade unions and the railway executives are apparently of the opinion that the issue can now be settled only by war. The railway executives assert that the men are acting in the spirit of highwaymen who threaten a " hold-up." Whether it is better for the Nation to endure the humiliation of yielding to a threatened hold-up or to endure the tragical consequences which the abandonment of its great highways for a season would involve is a question I need not here discuss, since that question will have been determined by Congress, the custodian of the Nation's honor and welfare, before this issue of The Outlook can reach its readers. I here simply repeat certain fundamental principles which I believe should govern the Nation in dealing with its railway problem, the principles often affirmed in these pages in times past.

The Outlook has long urged the adoption of cight hours as the standard for a day's work in mines, factories, railways, and all other forms of organized labor. And I

believe that the railway managers might well Formerly the owners recognized no right in have accepted the eight-hour day as the the employees to be consulted as to hours standard and trusted to the American people, and wages; now the employees recognize no under the President's lead, to provide for the right in the employers to be consulted ; and inevitable expense by permitting an increase neither then nor now does either party recogin freight and passenger rates. Neverthe- nize any right of the public to be consulted. less, I believe that the country will hold the It is true that both sides have acceded to labor unions, and especially their four chiefs- the President's request and consented to conMessrs. A. B. Garretson, W. S. Stone, W. G. fer with him. But he was not elected to Lee, and W. S. Carter-responsible for the settle such a controversy ; he has no other almost tragical results of a general rail legal power in the premises than any other way strike, if one takes place. The world private citizen, and there is no reason to holds Austria and Germany responsible for suppose that he possesses the necessary in- . the present world war, not because it is con- formation or the necessary qualifications to vinced that the Servian Government had no represent the public in such an issue between responsibility for the assassination of the the owners and the employees. Austrian Crown Prince, but because Servia : If the apparently official figures reported in. proposed to leave the question of her guilt the daily papers can be trusted, the direct ownto an impartial tribunal, a proposal urged ers of the railways are one and a half times as upon Austria and Germany by Italy, France, many as the striking employees ; those who England, and Russia, and by Austria and Ger- are indirectly interested in the property are many refused. The country will hold the probably at least as many more; and the railway unions responsible for the railway entire population, with praetically not an exstrike, if there is one, not because the people ception, are vitally interested in keeping the are convinced that an eight-hour standard is railways in operation. Under these circumeither unjust or impracticable, but because stances, it is evident that it is neither just nor they deem it is unjust for the railway unions democratic to allow either the 400,000 strikto refuse to submit the justice and practica- ing employees or the 600,000 owners to decide bility of an eight-hour standard to the decis- the question. It is clear that both justice ion of a disinterested and impartial trit- and democratic principles require that we unal. And I hoped that the railway managers should find some method by which the queswould accede to the eight-hour day because tion, On what terms and conditions shall the I think it is often wiser to submit to an railways be operated ? can be determined by unjust demand than to become the innocent a body in which owners, employees, and means of inflicting a greater injustice upon general public all have a representative. others.

The Outlook is very much in sympathy Some forty or fifty years ago Senator with the workers' demand for an eight-hour Booth, of California (the grandfather, I be standard day. It is prepared to advocate lieve, of Booth Tarkington), put the railway making it the standard day by legislative problem in a sentence : Formerly the means enactment, and providing for whatever addiof transportation were poor, but the high- tional cost that change makes unavoidable by ways were public property; now the means increased freight and passenger charges. of transportation are admirable, but the high- But it is neither just nor democratic for the ways are private property. The railway cor railway employees, or a portion of them-for porations acted on the assumption that the only a portion of them are in the four railway highways were private property which they unions—to determine how many hours the could control as they pleased. They deter- employees should work, and then say to the mined what wages they would pay and what Nation, You must accept our decision, or get services they would require, and told the along without any railways. That is the workers to accept the terms or leave the em- worst kind of bureaucratic government. ployment. Now the conditions are reversed. The European war has put an end to all The railway employees, apparently, have de- hope of securing international peace by voltermined for what hours and wages they are untary arbitration. Leading statesmen both willing to work, and they say to the owners : in Europe and in this country are seriously You can accept our terms or let your prop considering the organization of an internaerty stand idle.

tional league to enforce upon any warlike The one attitude is as unjust as the other. nation the submission of its demands to 1

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