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cially admired by artists and connoisseurs for knowledge of such subjects, but probably the vigor and beauty of his water-colors. The also because of the great power and influannouncement of his death recalls once more ence of his name among those miners who the incalculable debt which the world owes were of his faith. His appointment was to modern French art.

accepted as an eminently desirable one by

the public at large, and the parties to the disWILLIAM HAYES WARD

pute welcomed it without exception. There The death last week of Dr. William Hayes is no question that his efforts and personality Ward, in his eighty-second year, at his home had great influence in bringing about a satisin Maine, ends a long career of usefulness factory solution of that difficult problem. and accomplishment. Dr. Ward was eminent As priest and prelate Archbishop Spalding as scholar, as editor, and as a leader of was honored and beloved. Pope Pius X, at thought. His connection with the “Inde- the time of the Archbishop's retirement from pendent" extended for forty-eight years, and active work because of failing health some his influence as an editorial writer and con- eight years ago, said of him : “Few bishops troller was always in favor of that which was had so great an influence on the life of the liberal, progressive, and humane, whether in people, even outside of religion and outside the realm of religion or social progress. Per- of the Catholic denomination, as had Bishop sonally he was a man of marked kindliness Spalding.” He was consecrated Bishop of and sincerity.

the Diocese of Peoria, Illinois, in 1877, and .Dr. Ward was graduated from Amherst on his retirement because of ill health thirtyin 1856, and from the Andover Theological one years later was created titular Archbishop Seminary in 1859. He held several honor- of Scyphopolis. In the earlier part of his ary degrees. A short period of work as career Dr. Spalding was, at his own request, pastor in Kansas and as a teacher in Beloit assigned to a parish of Negroes in Louisville, College and elsewhere was followed in 1868 Kentucky, and by his own efforts secured for by his entrance into editorial work with the his colored parishioners a church and parish " Independent." For the last three years he house. His uplifting work among the Negroes had been honorary editor.

at this period was notable and unusual. As a scholar, and especially as an archæ- Archbishop Spalding wrote much upon ologist, Dr. Ward was everywhere recognized religious, social, and educational topics, and as of high rank. His best-known practical was the author of several books. He died work in this field was in connection with the at the age of seventy-seven. It is interesting Wolfe Babylonian Expedition of 1884. As to read that he was a descendant of one of a writer on Oriental antiquities and art he the English colonists who first came to Maryput forth many articles and books, and he had land, and that his family in England were the delightful faculty of talking on subjects noted for having preserved their allegiance before an audience with picturesque and to the Catholic faith all through the days almost dramatic effect. He lectured on As- troublous to Catholics of the reigns of Henry syriology at Yale, was for a time President VIII and Elizabeth. of the American Oriental Society, had been a trustee of Amherst College, and was active THE SISAL HEMP MONOPOLY in the American Bible Society and the We reported last week the Congressional American Missionary Society.

investigation into the alleged Mexican monop

oly of sisal hemp and the somewhat mysteriARCHBISHOP SPALDING

ous failure of the Congressional investigating The death of Archbishop John Lancaster committee, which held its hearings in FebruSpalding, of the Roman Catholic Church, ary and April last, to makc'any report. The will recall to the general public the very great Committee of the Senate which has this matservice rendered by Archbishop Spalding as ter in charge, and which consists of Senator a member of the Anthracite Commission, Ransdell, of Louisiana, Senator Gronna, of which brought together the coal-miners and Vorth Dakota, and Senator Wadsworth, of the coal-owners after the great strike of New York, has made the following statement : 1902. Bishop Spalding, as he then was, was

A report on our investigations of the sisal selected by President Roosevelt to serve on hemp industry and its principal manufactured that Commission, primarily because of his

product, binder twine, has been delayed by a interest in all labor questions and his special variety of causes which are unnecessary to

1916

THE WEEK

13

enumerate. Since our hearings closed about Russian Government in establishing this confour months ago there has been an increase in venience for its subjects in America has been the price of sisal of from 756 cents per pound the desire to attract to Russia more gold to at New York to 1038 cents—a rise of 234 cents

meet the exigencies of the war. This is per pound, or over thirty-six per cent. This very material and unexpected increase

indicated by the fact that the rate of interest in the price of a commodity which is so essen

paid by the Government savings banks has tial to the welfare of the American farmer as

been raised as an inducement for Russians sisal impresses the Committee with the neces

in America to send home their savings. sity of having additional information before

Another motive has probably been the hope rendering any decision. We have therefore of increasing the exchange value of the ruble asked the Federal Trade Commission to ascer. by the deposit of a large quantity of gold to tain the facts on several points relating to sisal Russia's credit in this country. and its substitutes ; and have also asked the But certainly a third motive has been to Secretary of State to approach the Mexican benefit the Russian subjects in this country. Government with the request to investigate the

Such Russians, in attempting to send money situation and see if some relief cannot be obtained for the users of sisal in this country.

home, have often been cheated by unscrupu

lous bankers who have arbitrarily raised the We are glad that the Committee has so rate of exchange and used other unfair far taken the public into its confidence. But means to "do” the ignorant immigrant here. is it not fair to raise the question whether The great Mother Russia now proposes to this brief report may not confirm the feeling protect her subjects, and incidentally to take which has been expressed by the sisal hemp to herself the strength which their massed importers in this country that the Washington savings constitute. Administration desires to hold this whole No fair-minded person ought to object to controversy in abeyance until after elec- this. Only the extreme protectionist maintion? The Senatorial Committee says that it tains that it is wrong for foreign laborers to is confronted with the necessity of having send home what they save from their wages. additional information before rendering any No one objects because the Russian dealer decision.” Why could it not have sought in furs or minerals here sends home the this information last April, or have approached product of his sales. And the Russian the Federal Trade Commission last April

, or laborer is as much entitled to do as he have asked the Secretary of State to confer pleases with the money which is the price of with the Mexican Government last April ? his labor as is the Russian merchant to disWe think the importers of sisal have a just pose as he pleases of the money which is the basis for their criticism that the Administra- price of his furs or minerals. tion has been dilatory in this matter. The original complaints were laid before the Gov

THE LOSS OF THE ernment in December, 1915.

MEMPHIS

The cruiser Memphis, stationed in the THE RUSSIAN IMMIGRANT

harbor of Santo Domingo City, on AuAND HIS SAVINGS

gust 29 was driven ashore by sudden and The Russian Government has recently unexpected seas. In the first despatch to the established here a virtual extension of the Navy Department from Rear-Admiral Pond Government savings bank system in Russia the loss of this cruiser is thus described : in order to permit Russians in this country to

Memphis driven ashore by heavy sea, Santo make a direct deposit of their savings without

Domingo City, west of lighthouse, at 4:30 P.M. resorting to the somewhat tedious and uncer- She is lying close under bluff, has lines ashore, tain method of sending their money home and is getting crew off. Heavy sea came up through the foreign exchange machinery of suddenly and ship was unable to get up steam private banks.

in time to save herself. Twenty men of iberty At the Russian Consulates in New York

party drowned on way back to ship. Castine City, Chicago, and Pittsburgh a Russian

(gunboat) dragged close in, but did not strike,

and got out to sea. may now turn in his savings in return for a

Memphis will be total loss. temporary receipt, which in turn is followed In a later despatch from Admiral Pond by a Government savings bank book sent further details of the disaster are given. It on from Russia.

appears that when the storm struck the There is no doubt that one motive of the cruiser Memphis her main steam line burst,

killing one enlisted man and injuring two he is sworn to protect ? Mr. Roosevelt's officers and seventy-seven members of her illustration will appeal to others than seacrew. Several other members of the crew faring folk : are reported missing in addition to those

I can illustrate what I mean about the use lost from the liberty party. The rest of the and abuse of the word safety by the life-saving crew were all taken from the ship, the cap- service. This is a service especially designed tain of the Memphis being the last to leave. to secure greater safety for ships' crews, and

The Memphis is better known to the pub. generally for persons whose lives are imperiled lic as the cruiser Tennessee. The Tennessee on the water. It is a service to secure safety. was the ship which was sent to Europe to

But the safety is secured only because some bring relief to Americans stranded by the

brave men are willing to risk their own lives in

order to save other lives. outbreak of the war.

They do not put "safety first as far as they themselves are concerned. If they did, no lifeboat would ever be

launched from a life-saving station. But the THEODORE ROOSEVELT'S

men on a sinking ship who crowd into the life

boats ahead of the women and children do put MAINE SPEECH

"safety first." I will say this for them, however: Mr. Roosevelt's Maine speech, delivered When they get ashore, they do not wear buttons at Lewiston on August 31, is an appeal to

to commemorate the feat-as some of our opthe chivalry and courage of the American

ponents in the present campaign do. people. We hope it will inspire with the Mr. Roosevelt does not outline the future wisdom of courage the rather sluggish Re- policy of the Republican party ; but he sugpublican Campaign Committee. It strikes gests what would have been its policy during with characteristic vigor the same note which

the last four years.

A Hughes AdministraMr. Root struck in his speech last February tion would not have recognized in our citibefore the New York State Republican Con- zenship any dual allegiance. It would have vention, and which Mr. Bacon struck in his prepared itself with strength “ so as to guarstatement to the voters of New York State, antee our own safety, and also to treat every reported in last week's Outlook. If this foreign nation, in any given crisis, as its campaign for a more courageous public pol- conduct in that crisis demands." It would icy is to be won at all, it must be won by the couple universal suffrage with “ a system of wisdom of courage, not by that of prudence. universal obligatory military training in time No campaign in such a crisis as the present of peace, and in time of war universal service can arouse an enthusiasm of support which in whatever capacity the man or woman does not provoke an enthusiasm of hostility. shall be judged most fit to serve the com

Mr. Roosevelt indicts the Democratic poli- monwealth.” It would either have recogcies and condemns the Democratic campaign nized Huerta as the de facto President of slogans.

Mexico, and held him responsible to protect “ Mr. Wilson has kept us out of war." life and property, or it would have gone into Has he ? A greater number of Americans Mexico with whatever force was necessary have been killed by Mexicans during these for their protection. It would not have sent years, when we are officially informed that the feet to Vera Cruz unless its presence we have been at peace with them, than were was required to protect Americans, and it killed by the Spaniards during our entire war would not have recalled the fleet until Amerwith Spain. Moreover, when the war with icans were protected. It would not have Spain was through, it was through. But allowed munitions of war to be sent into peace still continues to rage as furiously as Mexico with which to carry on a wholesale ever in Mexico.” Moreover, “ during these campaign of anarchy and massacre. It would three years of Mr. Wilson's 'peace' the not have recognized Carranza as the head of Mexicans themselves have been butchered a de facto government, and at the same time by their own bandits steadily and without indicted him, as President Wilson's Secretary intermission ; and Mexican women and chil- of State in an official statement indicted him dren have died by thousands-probably by on June 20 last, as responsible for anarchy, scores of thousands-of starvation, and of plunder, and murder in Mexico and unprothe diseases incident to starvation."

voked raids upon Americans in Texas. “ Safety first.” Yes. But whose safety ? Nor would a Republican administration That of the protector or that of those whom have stood hesitant and afraid while every

1916

THE RAILWAY PROBLEM

15

principle of international law and every right real issue of the day. Do they prefer Belof neutral and non-combatant were violated gium or Greece? Do they believe that a life on land and at sea by the German policy of saved by cowardice is worth saving? Do they terrorism. It would have protested against put safety first or duty first ? For ourselves, the invasion of Belgium, against the murder we think that the man who would rather be of Miss Cavell and Captain Fryatt, against a living coward than a dead hero is dead the torpedoing of merchant vessels and the already and does not know it. He is a peridropping of bombs on unfortified cities and patetic corpse, and the sooner he is buried the peaceful women and children. It would have better for the world. We do not believe done whatever was necessary to emphasize that he represents the spirit of America. We the condemnation of this unwarlike degrada believe there is in this Nation a conscience tion of war. It would have invited the other and a courage which will respond to such neutral nations to join it in such condemna words as those of Mr. Roosevelt's Maine tion. “ America could and should have put speech. If the Republican Campaign Comitself at the head of all the neutral nations, by mittee will put as clearly and vigorously its example if not by direct diplomatic agree before the American people as he has done ments, in demanding that the war should be the issue between the courageous fulfillment conducted in accordance with the usage of and the cowardly evasion of the Nation's civilized nations, that international law should duty, we cannot doubt what the answer of the be observed, that the rights of neutrals and people will be. It will be, as Mr. Roosevelt non-combatants should be respected. If this points out, the same which they have always spirit had animated our Administration, there given to the cry, “ Safety first;" the answer would probably have been no invasion of which they gave to the Tories in 1776, to Belgium, no fears of a like fate to terrorize the compromisers in 1860, and to the antiother smaller nations, no torpedoing of mer imperialists in 1900. chant vessels, no bombarding of churches and hospitals, no massacring of women and children, no murder of Miss Cavell and Cap

THE RAILWAY PROBLEM tain Fryatt, no attempted extermination of the Armenians."

As we go to press Congress is considerWhat the Republican party will do next ing the President's plan, recorded on another March, if it is in power, of course, Mr. page, for dealing with the threatened railway Roosevelt does not say.

He cannot say. strike. Both the railway trade unions and the No one can say.

For no one can tell what railway executives are apparently of the opinion will be the world conditions and what the that the issue can now be settled only by war. American duties in March, 1917. But he The railway executives assert that the men can and does say in what spirit he believes are acting in the spirit of highwaymen who the Nation ought to meet the issues as they threaten a“ hold-up.” Whether it is better for arise, and why he believes that Mr. Hughes the Nation to endure the humiliation of yieldcan meet those issues in that spirit. * We ing to a threatened hold-up or to endure the cannot undo what has been done.

tragical consequences which the abandonment can repudiate what has been done.

We can

of its great highways for a season would regain our own self-respect and the respect involve is a question I need not here disof other nations for this country. We can cuss, since that question will have been deterput in power an administration which will mined by Congress, the custodian of the throughout its term of power protect our own Vation's honor and welfare, before this issue citizens and live up to our National obliga of The Outlook can reach its readers. I tions." And he sees in “ Mr. Hughes's here simply repeat certain fundamental prinrugged and uncompromising straightforward- ciples which I believe should govern the ness of character and action in every office Nation in dealing with its railway problem, he has held" the guarantee of such an the principles often affirmed in these pages administration.

in times past. A correspondent in the New York - Tribune " the other day quoted a friend of his The Outlook has long urged the adoption as saying that he would rather be a living of eight hours as the standard for a day's coward than a dead hero. This cynical re work in mines, factories, railways, and all mark puts before the American people the other forms of organized labor. And I

But we

believe that the railway managers might well Formerly the owners recognized no right in have accepted the eight-hour day as the the employees to be consulted as to hours standard and trusted to the American people, and wages; now the employees recognize no under the President's lead, to provide for the right in the employers to be consulted ; and inevitable expense by permitting an increase neither then nor now does either party recogin freight and passenger rates. Neverthe- nize any right of the public to be consulted. less, I believe that the country will hold the It is true that both sides have acceded to labor unions, and especially their four chiefs- the President's request and consented to conMessrs. A. B. Garretson, W. S. Stone, W. G. fer with him. But he was not elected to Lee, and W. S. Carter-responsible for the settle such a controversy ; he has no other almost tragical results of a general rail- legal power in the premises than any other way strike, if one takes place. The world private citizen, and there is no reason to holds Austria and Germany responsible for suppose that he possesses the necessary in- . the present world war, not because it is con- formation or the necessary qualifications to vinced that the Servian Government had no represent the public in such an issue between responsibility for the assassination of the the owners and the employees. Austrian Crown Prince, but because Servia : If the apparently official figures reported in proposed to leave the question of her guilt the daily papers can be trusted, the direct ownto an impartial tribunal, a proposal urged ers of the railways are one and a half times as upon Austria and Germany by Italy, France, many as the striking employees; those who England, and Russia, and by Austria and Ger- are indirectly interested in the property are many refused. The country will hold the probably at least as many more; and the railway unions responsible for the railway entire population, with praetically not an exstrike, if there is one, not because the people ception, are vitally interested in keeping the are convinced that an eight-hour standard is railways in operation. Under these circumeither unjust or impracticable, but because stances, it is evident that it is neither just nor they deem it is unjust for the railway unions democratic to allow either the 400,000 strikto refuse to submit the justice and practica- ing employees or the 600,000 owners to decide bility of an eight-hour standard to the decis- the question. It is clear that both justice ion of a disinterested and impartial trit- and democratic principles require that we unal. And I hoped that the railway managers should find some method by which the queswould accede to the eight-hour day because tion, On what terms and conditions shall the I think it is often wiser to submit to an railways be operated ? can be determined by unjust demand than to become the innocent a body in which owners, employees, and means of inflicting a greater injustice upon general public all have a representative. others.

The Outlook is very much in sympathy Some forty or fifty years ago Senator with the workers' demand for an eight-hour Booth, of California (the grandfather, I be- standard day. It is prepared to advocate lieve, of Booth Tarkington), put the railway making it the standard day by legislative problem in a sentence: Formerly the means enactment, and providing for whatever addiof transportation were poor, but the high- tional cost that change makes unavoidable by ways were public property; now the means increased freight and passenger charges. of transportation are admirable, but the high- But it is neither just nor democratic for the ways are private property. The railway cor- railway employees, or a portion of them—for porations acted on the assumption that the only a portion of them are in the four railway highways were private property which they unions—to determine how many hours the could control as they pleased. They deter- employees should work, and then say to the mined what wages they would pay and what Nation, You must accept our decision, or get services they would require, and told the along without any railways. That is the workers to accept the terms or leave the em- worst kind of bureaucratic government. ployment. Now the conditions are reversed. The European war has put an end to all The railway employees, apparently, have de- hope of securing international peace by voltermined for what hours and wages they are untary arbitration. Leading statesmen both willing to work, and they say to the owners : in Europe and in this country are seriously You can accept our terms or let your prop- considering the organization of an internaerty stand idle.

tional league to enforce upon any warlike The one attitude is as unjust as the other. nation the submission of its demands to 1

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