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“ O Author of all Days! There lived a youth,
the flush of liberty as of a sun strangely rising not setting—in the West, and putting aside place and position as unworthy of ambition, he associated himself with the lowly and oppressed of the New World. When I heard your cause, my heart enlisted.” But, although he came single-handed, as it were, offering his services without rank and without pay, and his life a sacrifice, if need be, yet through him and his devotion to that cause France and the United States fought shoulder to shoulder at Yorktown, and through their co-operation the independence of struggling colonies was realized and the liberty of a whole continent assured.
N the sixth day of September, in the
year 1757, a day honored by the
peoples of two republics, and destined to be a day set apart in the history of mankind, a child was born, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the realization of political freedom. By birth a subject of France, by Act of Congress an American citizen, his name is “sweet as honey on the lips of men.”
Of proud and ancient lineage, reared in the lap of luxury, he discerned across an ocean
I An address delivered at the celebration of Lafayette's birthday in the City Hall of New York, on September 6, 1916.
At this great and crowning moment Lafayette and Rochambeau stood shoulder to shoulder, and to-day they stand shoulder to shoulder in the city which bears the name of their great companion in arms, facing the White House, and reminding by their presence the successors of Washington in the Presidency of that perpetual alliance of two peoples, evidenced, indeed, by no scrap of paper, but inscribed in the hearts of every American. ...
When the independence of the United States was formally proclaimed on the 4th of July, 1776, Lafayette was less than nineteen years of age. On the 26th day of March, 1777, he sailed from Bordeaux in a vessel of his own furnishing, but his departure was delayed by royal command. He escaped to Spain, whence, on the 20th of April, with De Kalb, later to fall in the cause they espoused, and some other chosen companions, he put to sea in his vessel, aptly called the “ Victory." Still a youth of nineteen, he reached the coast of South Carolina the 13th day of June. He made his way under difficulties to Philadelphia, then the capital of the country, where he arrived on the 27th day of July. The little city swarmed with adventurers, eager for high commands in return for real or alleged experience. Commissions to foreigners meant lack of commissions to deserving Americans, and the reception of Lafayette was, as he himself said, “ more like a dismissal than a welcome ;” but Lafayette had come in the interests of a cause, and he was not to be deprived of the opportunity of serving it. He addressed the Congress, setting forth his circumstances and the reasons which had impelled him to cross the ocean to offer his services to the young country.
He felt that he had earned the right to serve, say. ing that, “ After the sacrifices that I have made in this cause, I have the right to ask two favors at your hands : the one is, to serve without pay, at my own expense ; and the other, that I be allowed to serve at first as a volunteer." Congress could not resist such an appeal. It therefore resolved that “his service be accepted, and that in consideration of his zeal, illustrious family, and connections he have rank and commission of major-general in the army of the United States." The commission, however, was meant by Congress to be honorary, leaving it to Washington to avail himself of Lafayette's services or to appoint him to such command as events should justify.
His zeal for the cause was -sincere ; his courage, shown at Brandywine, was unques. tioned; his tact was even greater than either. Upon his arrival at camp Washington had said: “It is somewhat embarrassing to us to show ourselves to an officer who has just come from the army of France." To which delicate compliment Lafayette finely replied: "I am here to learn, not to teach.”
He not only felt his youth and inexperience, but the embarrassment that his presence in high command might create. He overcame every difficulty.“ I read,” he said, " I study, I examine, I listen, I reflect, and upon the result of all this I make an effort to form my opinion and to put into it as much common sense as I can. I am cautious not to talk much, lest I should say some foolish thing, and still more cautious in my actions, lest I should do some foolish thing, for I do not want to disappoint the confidence that the Americans have so kindly placed in me."
His conduct at Brandywine, and the further evidence of skill as well as courage in the affair of Gloucester, coupled with his faultless devotion to the cause in which his heart was enlisted, led Washington to recommend to Congress, within less than six months after his arrival in America, that he be appointed to the command of a Division, and Congress resolved that.“ General Washington be informed it is highly agreeable to Congress that the Marquis de Lafayette be appointed to the command of a Division in the Continental Army.” He was accordingly put in command of a Virginia Division, and he shared the hardships of defeat and the sweets of victory with his men. He went through the trying winter at Valley Forge, where, as he tells us, “the unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats nor hats nor shirts nor shoes ; their feet and legs froze until they grew black, and it was often necessary to amputate them.... The army frequently passed whole days with out food, and the patient endurance of both soldiers and officers was a miracle which every moment seemed to renew."
The recognition of the independence of the United States by France, and the de fensive alliance on the 6th day of February, 1778, due in no small measure to Lafayette's influence, put an end to gloom and despond ency. Great Britain declared war against France for its support of the cause in which not only Lafayette but France was now en listed, and the United Colonies found them
HUGHES AND THE PEOPLE OF THE WEST
selves possessed of an ally as powerful as it free institutions from the imposition of a was sympathetic, generous, and high-minded. theory of government in the hands of a The wants of Valley Forge were made good. dominant sovereign will, just as, on an OctoClothing and equipment came for the men, ber day in the year 732, Charles, surnamed ammunition and supplies for the troops. A Martel, halted an invading army at Tours, French army under Rochambeau was landed; thus preserving France and western Europe a French fleet stationed itself in American from an alien and militant civilization. The waters. The Virginia Division under Lafayette Battle of the Marne, fought and won by outmaneuvered Cornwallis. The allied armies Lafayette's countryman Joffre, on Lafayette's of Washington and of Rochambeau marched birthday, makes of the 6th day of September south to join Lafayette. The French fleet a date memorable not only in the history of under De Grasse cut off escape by water our country, but in the annals of civilization. from Yorktown, and, besieged alike by land In commemorating the services of Lafayand sea, Cornwallis, on October 19, 1781, ette, the friend of liberty, the friend of surrendered his army to Washington, and the America, and the friend of Washington, our independence of the United States, thanks to hearts go out to France in her struggle for the kindly aid of our first, our great, and our mankind, for ideals—for our American ideals ; only ally, became a fact.
and, as Rochambeau said to Washington in To-day, as we celebrate the birth of Lafay- 1781, so to-day I say to you, sir [turning to ette, his devoted country is taking part once M. Jusserand), the Ambassador of the glorimore in a war of independence, a war which ous country of Lafayette and of Rochambeau : will save, has already saved, civilization and Entre vous, entre nous, à la vie, à la mort !1
HUGHES AND THE PEOPLE OF THE WEST
BY FREDERICK M. DAVENPORT
STAFF CORRESPONDENT OF THE OUTLOOK
Mr. Davenport's first article on Mr. Hughes's Western trip was published in The Outlook of last week, September 13, under the title "Across the Continent with Hughes.”—THE EDITORS.
UGHES was a political liberal before sabotage, that wrought the Republican havoc
he started West. But if he had not and destruction of these later years. And
been, and had retained his normally the Hughes tour through the West has open mind, he would have been a political brought to light so many evidences of the liberal before he came back. The most rising tide of Republican liberalism in the significant thing about the rejuvenation of midst of the process of party reconstruction Republicanism in the real West—that is, in now going on there that the wayfaring man, the Mountain and Pacific Coast States—is though a fool, need not err in discerning that that the party in that section of the United the only hope of National Republican peace States, in spite of the momentary political and success lies in the determination upon bewilderment which besets the whole coun- the part of the Republican leaders and States try, is irrevocably committed to further and of the East to accept generously the spirit of rapid political advance. The clouds of reac- liberalism and aid in guiding it into deep and tion that were clearly on the horizon after the useful channels of National progress. Any election of 1914 are passing away. The greater other course now will injure the Republican part of the States through which we have party beyond recovery. passed have long been for the most part As I go on to unfold some of the popular naturally Republican States, and the furnace political phenomena which the Hughes tour power of the party is still here. It was the brought to light, I think what I have in mind attempt of the Oid Guardsmen of the party will be clear. And I will just tell the story in the East in 1910 and 1912 to slow down without attempting all the time to adduce the machinery by throwing in a monkey
I As for you and us, we stand united in life and in wrench, by the employment of reactionary death!
what I say as proof. Michigan and Minne- do, as in the old days when railway regulasota, which we first visited, are under the tion began in the West, certain things by State grip of liberal forces, but these States are too power which ultimately must be done by Nanear the East to be really called Western. tional power, if we should once get a National Let us begin with North Dakota. In North administration sufficiently wise and far-seeing Dakota there has just taken place within the and strong. The spirit of this new movement Republican party one of the most remarkable found itself in full sympathy with the liberalrevolutions in the history of National politics. ism of Hughes. Its followers didn't inquire It would take a whole article to set forth what his views were on the State grading and even the important details, but here is the warehousing of grain, but they recognized in substance of it. Whether rightly or wrongly, him a true yokefellow who had had to fight the farmers of the Northwest have long been in New York narrow and dogged legislators dissatisfied with the system of distribution of and party bosses just as they had in North their great product-wheat and have believed Dakota. The new gubernatorial nominee that too great a share of the profit has gone to presided, and he and Governor Hughes exthe Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce, the changed public compliments, and my judgrailways, and the great terminal warehouse ment is that the State of North Dakota is corporations in that part of the country. safe for Hughes and the whole farmer North Dakota has taken the initiative, and Republican ticket. But look out, Repubtwice by referendum the people have voted for lican party, and do your duty with National a terminal warehouse of their own, and a Re- power if once more you gain control at publican Legislature, under the alleged influ- Washington, or there will be a developence of powerful lobbies, has failed to respond ment of State socialism in the West that to the popular will, has refused the appropri- will wake us all up and tangle us all up in a ation desired. And this year, in the summer hurry. primaries, there was a revolution. Scores of One of the most interesting characters we Ford cars, full of plain farmer organizers of ran upon in the Northwest was Louis W. shrewd and vigorous mind, went through Hill, son of James J. Hill, and the present North Dakota from end to end in the interest head of the Great Northern. James J. Hill, of a Republican ticket that would be respon- who has recently died, was a rough, brusque sive to the will of the people of the State. pioneer who, especially in the later years of And although on primary day floods filled his life, realized the value to his railway of the rivers and had already carried away the spreading in a democratic way enlightenment bridges, the farmers of the State got to the among the people along his road. And he polls, some swimming streams and many spent large sums in developing sentiment for going far around to get to the polling places, pure seed, diversified farming, and dual catand they overwhelmed the ruling recalcitrant tle—that is, animals which are both good Republican machine. They nominated a full milkers and good beefers. The son Louis Republican ticket of their own by an immense combines a good measure of the shrewdness majority, and it was freely predicted when of his father with a natural democracy of we were there that the candidate for Gov- great charm. Modestly and inconspicuously ernor, Lynn J. Frazier, of Hoople, a genuine he went along with us in his private car while farmer all of his life, but a graduate of the we were on the Great Northern line. And it University of North Dakota, would poll eighty was a pleasure to see the farmers delight in him. per cent of the entire vote of the State. They would crowd around him in the hotel There are nearly forty thousand farmers in lobbies and at the stations and say, “ Hello, North Dakota in this league of popular de Louis, you're going to stay a day or two, ain't fense who pay nine dollars apiece a year, you ?” And Louis, while talking to one man, and their ably edited organ at Fargo, the would involuntarily grasp the hairy hand of “ Non-Partisan Leader,” boasts already fifty another ; and once I heard him say,
My, I thousand farmer subscribers. And this new thought I had hold of a jack-rabbit.” And movement is not confined to North Dakota. everybody laughed. Then I watched him go It is spreading rapidly through the surround around the corner out of sight of the crowd ing States.
and put Hughes caps of red, white, and blue In seeking a more honest inspection of the on the little girls and pin flugs or buttons on grading of grain, more just conditions in the the little boys. The time has come in the marketing of grain, they are attempting to Northwest when you can't even be an efficient
HUGHES AND THE PEOPLE OF THE WEST
and successful railway man without being a with a citizen, formerly of Pennsylvania, but democrat and a liberal. And you don't have for forty years a resident of the State of to be for any class to get along with those Wyoming. After he had been in Laramie folks. If you start in by being on the square five years he went back East for a visit. and just, that is all they ask. But so much And they said to him there, “ Why don't you they will have. They will get it from the stay here with your folks ? Why do you go Republican party, if they can. But they will out again into that God-forsaken country ? get it. They are husky citizens ; they have Don't you like your folks ?” And he said, their fine systems of education, their colleges “Yes, I like my folks—some of them. But and their universities, and no clever Eastern some of them seem different. I like to live political or business reactionary can put any- out there with simple, honorable people that thing over on them one minute longer. But don't fool you.” He said to me,“ Stranger, they are for Hughes.
sympathy means a good deal out here. You Out here you are in the Roosevelt coun- see that young man walking along there ; he try. Just before we crossed the Little Mis- is running for County Clerk. He'll be elected, souri in North Dakota we stopped at Me- easy, over the older man who is running dora. This is the station for the old Roose
You see, he's got a crippled velt Ranch, seven miles to the south, on the hand, and he limps a little. People have got Red Trail from St. Paul to the Coast. sympathy for him and he'll win hands down.” There is a brand-new bridge over the Little Of course sympathy needs regulation and Missouri at this point, and at one end of it is control, but it is one root of about everything a great legend with these words : “ Theodore that is worth while in human life and human Roosevelt once ranched in this valley." Said society. an old man to Hughes in the crowd of rough In Wyoming you may come upon a natural and simple and homely folks at the station : reason and original source for woman suffrage “We like you all right in this country because in this country. Wyoming has always had Roosevelt likes you.” And another elderly equal suffrage from the territorial days. And man said: “I wish you had brought him I tried to find out why. I was talking about along with you." “ I wish I could have," it with two of the most distinguished Repubresponded Hughes ; “ he is well and in fine licans of the State. And one of them said fettle.” “ I know he is,” said the old man, to the other : “Why, don't you remember • I had a letter from him last week." As I Rob Morris's mother, Esther Morris, who swung on the train, I overheard a knot of
was the biggest personality in the South Pass men discussing their hero—" He
mining camp in the early days? They made good one, you bet he was,” said one of them. her justice of the peace. You see,” he said, They are rough, simple, homely folk, but “there were only a few women in this counthey know that once a great soul dwelt among try at that time, and they did about everythem and became greater and stronger as he thing just as well as, or better than, the men. dwelt. He laid bare in his country a subtle And the equality idea just kind of naturally tyranny, more dangerous than the open and started around here, especialiy with Esther brutal autocracy of Russia. And he extended Morris about. They didn't think about poliimmensely the boundaries of the domain of tics at all. It was just naturally human, that's freedom in the United States. So successful all. The first territorial legislature was for was he that one of the chief obstacles now it, and the State legislature ratified it at once. to the quick reconstruction of the Republi- And so we have had it for more than forty can party to meet a National need is the
years. Oh, no, we will never have any other newly acquired and widely spread sense of system.” freedom and independence on the part of Both Republican factions in Wyoming are four and a quarter millions who followed him for Hughes, both the Roosevelt and antiin 1912, and who will never wear the collar Roosevelt. The re-election of Republican of habit and machine oppression again. United States Senator Clark is not so sure.
Across the line in Wyoming we ran into The Democratic Governor Kendrick is young the same kind of simple, prosperous, sturdy and wealthy and able and very popular, and he human nature which is everywhere character- is the Democratic candidate for United States istic of the Northwest. In Laramie, where Senator, with the likelihood of powerful support Bill Nye lived and founded the '' Boomerang from the Progressives. There is no trouble in 1881, I rode out to the meeting in the park for Hughes in any of these formerly Republi