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merce. That wrong our country endured during the Civil War, and for that wrong demanded compensation after the war was over, and it established before an impartial tribunal its right to such compensation. The precedent pursued by the Lincoln Administration in 1861-65 is the one which should have been followed by the Wilson Administration in 1916.
The viciousness of the course pursued by our Congress in dealing with the blacklist is emphasized by the viciousness of the course pursued by our President in dealing with the German submarines. When Americans by the score were murdered on the high seas, in violation not only of the principles of international law but of the principles of humanity, we made a protest; but we did not venture on any reprisal. We continued to treat Germany as a friendly Power in our protests, and to say complimentary things to her, and up to the present time have taken no efficient measures to protect the rights of Americans to travel freely on the high seas. But when England interferes with our trade we do not stop at protest; we propose vigorous measures of reprisal. It is true that the Act of Congress does not require reprisal. It leaves the matter to the discretion of the President; and we hope that the President will have the discretion not to exercise the authority which the act confers upon him. But it is also true that the passage of the act has served to stimulate in at least one of the Southern republics a proposal to similar action, and to stimulate in this country the unfriendly feeling toward Great Britain already aroused by her blacklist. When our citizens are murdered, our Government protests and does nothing ; when our trade is interfered with, our Government not only protests, but prepares to hit back. It is not strange that satirists abroad think we care more for prop. erty than for life.
II. The attorney regards the nation as his client, and seeks only to defend her legal rights and possibly to instruct her in her legal duties. The statesman takes a larger view. He considers the future, and shapes the policy of his nation in such a way as will at least tend to secure honor for her now among the nations of the world, and in the future their friendship and their support in any international exigency which may arise. The Congressional policy of reprisal is the policy of an attorney, who thinks of the present and of his nation's legal rights, who
has no vision for the future and no consideration of what policy will promote the nation's honor and the nation's ultimate welfare. The official policy of the American Nation has been that of an attorney, not that of a statesman, and is full of serious peril to the Nation in the future.
Germany declares that she is fighting for her life. The German people very generally believe this declaration. There is much to warrant that belief. The war which she has herself provoked will not prove fatal to her existence, but will inflict upon her wounds from which she will be long in recovering. And we have officially declared to this people, from whom we have derived the literature of a Goethe, the philosophy of a Hegel and a Kant, and the religious freedom won for the world by a Luther, that whether she lives or dies is a matter which does not concern us. We could hardly have done more to make Germany our enemy if we had joined the Allies in the very beginning of the war. Indeed, we probably should have done less, because we should have abbreviated the war and not allowed time for hate to grow to its present proportions. Individual Americans have contributed to Germany through the German loan, and probably some scores or hundreds who returned to their Fatherland are fighting in her ranks; but America as a Nation has told her formally and officially that what she regards as a struggle for her life does not concern us.
On the other hand, the Allies believe that they are fighting to defend free government from a military despotism, that they are fighting the same battle which Americans fought in 1776 against Great Britain, and which England and her European allies fought a little later in the prolonged wars against French militarism under the lead of Napoleon the Great. And we have officially informed them that this war does not concern us, that we do not care to know what are the causes which have produced this war, that we are not interested in the question whether liberty shail live or die on the European continent. Individual Americans have done much to counteract this official declaration of not merely neutrality but indifference. Thousands of them have gone across the border to enlist in the Canadian army; thousands of them have gone across the sea, some to enlist in the French ranks, some to enlist in the aero plane service, the ambulance service, and the hospital corps.
And the American press,
THE FRENCH SPIRIT
with a remarkable approach to unanimity, change in administration and public policy, has interpreted the faith of the American we shall find at the end of the war that we people that the Allies are fighting on Euro- have sown for ourselves in all nations the pean soil the battle which our fathers fought seeds of disrespect, if not of open hostility, in 1776. But individual expressions of ap. and prepared for ourselves a possible harvest preciation and friendship and individual serv- of calamity in the not far-distant future. No ices, while they may modify, cannot counteract nation can stand alone. It is as true of nathe official expressions of the Government tions as of individuals that none can live for and the official action of Congress. It is a himself only. Unless the American people curious phantasy, incomprehensible to us, find a way to emphasize the truth that neuwhich leads any man to imagine that this trality is not indifference, that they are not attitude of supreme indifference to the life- unconcerned in the questions which concern and-death struggle in Europe will lead the their fellow-men, that they are not absorbed combatants, or any of them, to invoke our in their own National interests and do not good offices in settling the terms of peace think that National safety is more important when the end of the war comes. We have than National duty and National honor, won by our course neither the respect nor the should our own land be imperiled, we shall friendship of the battling nations.
have no right to expect anything but the same Nor have we done anything to unify neu- indifference to our welfare which we have tral sentiment, set an example to neutral officially expressed when other nations were nations, or secure co-operation in the protec- imperiled; and we shall be left to fight, not tion of neutral rights. We have in official only without aid, but without sympathy, the notes incidentally mentioned the rights of battle for our own protection, perhaps a neutrals, but we have made no attempt to battle for our own existence. protect those rights by action, and no attempt to organize the forces of neutrals in even so much as a protest in support of those
THE FRENCH SPIRIT rights. The only example we have set has been our apathy, if not our acquiescence, in A few years ago, at the Fourth of July the flagrant disregard of the neutral rights of reception given by the American Ambassador Belgium ; and the only action which we have in London, a boy of delightful face and proposed to take against the violation of neu- engaging manner said, as he took the trality has been this proposed reprisal, pur- Ambassador's hand, “ I came to salute the posed to protect, not the rights of neutrals flag, sir.”
In reply to questions by the Amthroughout the world, not even the rights of bassador, he gave his name, which was that Americans to their lives, but the rights of our of a noble French family, and said that his own trade threatened by unfriendly action. great-grandfather had served with Lafayette
We must also remember that our official during the Revolutionary War and that his indifference to the great issues involved in family always observed the Fourth of July. this war is the more perplexing to the Allies, The quick response of interest and affection since they cannot easily understand why, if a on the faces of the Americans about him was people have a common sympathy, it should the distinctive answer to the unspoken appeal not be reflected in their governmental action. to American gratitude. In England, France, and Italy government Among the brilliant figures who appeared changes with the changes in public sentiment. in the struggle of the American Colonies No administration can long survive in those two young men are especially conspicuous, countries a radical change in public opinion, Lafayette and Hamilton. Gallant in bearbecause that change is reflected in the legis- ing, brilliant in action, it was their special lative assembly, and the action of the legisla- distinction that Washington loved them. A tive assembly determines the life of the hundred and forty years after the Declaration administration. England, France, and Italy of Independence, on the birthday of Lafayette, have in effect, though not in form, the recall, who was born in 1757, flowers were placed on and only the very well educated Englishman, his statue and upon that of Washington, his Frenchman, and Italian can fail to believe great leader, in Union Square, New York, at that in a free government the policy of a na- the place where the tides of human life are tional administration reflects public opinion. always at the flood. Americans can take but
Unless the people should decree a radical little satisfaction in some of the dealings of this
country with France ; but we have nothing to come him as a comrade. At Lexington he regret in our treatment of Lafayette.
was met by fourteen of the seventy Minute The history of French settlement on this Men who had “fired the shot heard round continent has an epic quality, which Parkman the world.” has brought out in a series of histories which Lafayette's service was significant of the have the charm of romance; a charm which French spirit, and the affectionate enthusiasm is peculiarly and distinctively French. Wher- which greeted him in this country was evoked ever the fleur-de-lis was planted, from the by a French national characteristic. He has mouth of the St. Lawrence half across the become a national hero in this country becontinent to the mouth of the Mississippi, cause he rendered an international service. the French influence is still seen in gentle And France has always been in a conspicmanners and charm of social life.
uous degree the servant of the international national movement, the endeavor of France spirit ; the spirit, that is, which, consciously or to share with the English the control of the unconsciously, in making a path for itself continent failed, but as a contribution to the opens a way for humanity. France has civilization of the New World it has its own rendered notable services to science, and enduring quality.
especially in those fields of scientific activity It was inevitable that the celebration of in which the fruits secured are for the healLafayette Day this year should take on new ing of the nations; the fact that Pasteur has importance, for never in history has any become a popular hero shows that his work nation held the position which France holds appeals to the national imagination. But to-day in the thought of the world. Even France is associated in the thought of the her foes, intrenched on her soil and striking world with art rather than with science, and at her life, are free to confess their admira- , this is full of deep significance ; for art is an tion of her superb courage and her indomi- expression of the human spirit, and the inter: table spirit. Armed more completely than est of the French, even in their moments she was in the days of Napoleon, there seems of most passionate absorption in national to be no suspicion of her motives and no defense or national advance, has never left hatred of her successes.
the human spirit out of account. In a The reason is not far to seek, and it lies, peculiar sense France has been the protagoperhaps, unconsciously at the foundation of nist of the human spirit, and has incessantly the admiration of her foes. Lafayette wrote fought, sometimes in a kind of furious to his wife from the ship that brought him to blindness, for its liberation. this country that he regarded his service in The French are pre-eminently a social the Colonial Army as likely to be “a brevet · people ; the interest of the individual is subof immortality.” Such it has proved to be ; ordinate to the interest of society ; and no his name is not only written broadly across one can understand them who does not recthe page of American history, but it is writ- ognize the force and influence of the family ten everywhere over the face of the conti- and the state. To a Frenchman the state nent in the names of towns, streets, squares, has all the definiteness and reality of a person. colleges, and institutions of all kinds. It was A peasant woman was once noticed wanderhis happy fortune, in a life of many perils ing about that “ brilliant university ” which is and vicissitudes, to receive in person the the center of the Government buildings in most generous payment in gratitude and Paris. She carried a great bunch of flowers affection) for his services. He was twice the in her hands. To a gendarme who saw her guest of the Nation, and each visit took the confusion and asked what she was looking form of a triumphal procession. He was for, she replied: “I have brought these more widely known personally and by sight flowers for the Administration." In France in America than any other foreigner of his patriotism is a passion, and, while General time. Making long journeys by carriage, Joffre is husbanding the lives of " his chilthe people in many sections thronged the dren,” there is not a man in the trenches roadsides and welcomed him as a friend. He who would not lay down his life for France. drove under triumphal arches, groups of The country which gave us Lafayette, girls threw flowers in his way, cities greeted which rendered us invaluable aid in the strug. him with every kind of hospitality. When gle for independence, which gave us a definihe came a second time, in 1824, many men tion of rights in the Declaration, is "the counwho fought with him were still living to wel- try of Europe in which the people is most
THE RECORD OF CONGRESS
alive." In this sentence Matthew Arnold No, the fighting, the bleeding France of tohas given the world a definition and an ex day is the France of all time, that of yesterday planation of the French spirit. Served by a
and that of to-morrow; that of Joan of Arc, of quality of intelligence which plays over the
Bayard, Turenne, Hoche, Lafayette, the same whole surface of national activity like a light,
as that of Joffre. Some have wondered that
the French, pretty well known for their dash, and by a common sense which, in spite of
could show such endurance, but this was to many excesses, anchors French aspiration
forget that France fought a hundred years' war and idealism in reality, France is not only in and won it. intensity of feeling a nation, but, in a real Never in my country will the American volunsense, the nation among nations. With all teers of the great war be forgotten. There is the faults of her genius, she fights with a sword not one form of suffering among the innumerin one hand and with a light in the other, able kinds of calamities caused by a merciless always, consciously or unconsciously, bearing
enemy that some American work has not tried the fortunes of the human race with her.
to assuage in the hospitals, in the schools for There are many things which are humiliat
the maimed and blind, on the battlefields, in the ing to Americans in the attitude of our Gov
trenches, nay, in the air, with your plucky avia
tors. The American name is blessed in the ernment toward the great struggle between
trenches, where those kits named after the hero absolutism and democracy, the age-long of to-day, Lafayette, have brought comfort to fight for the liberation of the spirit, now going
so many soldiers. on in Europe ; but there is nothing to regret Serving in the ambulances, serving in the in the devotion to France in her hour of need Legion, serving in the air, serving liberty, obey. of many young Americans, nor in the finely ing the same impulses as those which brought conceived and finely organized service of
Lafayette to these shores, many young AmeriAmerican women to the suffering and sorrow
cans, leaving family and home, have offered to of France; and no
France their lives. Those lives many have one can read without
lost, and never was there shown such abnegagratitude and emotion the words of the
tion and generosity as that of men who, like French Ambassador spoken in New York on
Victor Chapman, died to rescue their American Lafayette Day :
and French co-aviators.
THE RECORD OF CONGRESS
The first session of the Sixty-fourth Congress has just adjourned; it convened at Washington December 6, 1915. It is proper, therefore, to review what the nine months' session did. The Sixty-fourth Congress is, of course, still in existence, and is Democratic in both branches. The members of the House and some members of the Senate were elected in 1914, the Representatives elected for a term of two years, while the Senators are chosen for terms of six years. The House has 435 members, the Senate 96. The ratio of representation in the House is one member to every 212,407 of the people; in the Senate there are two Senators from each State. WHAT WAS EXPECTED?
the free list or should be put back on the What did the members expect to do on dutiable list. Then there was the demand December 6, 1915? As to National defense, of farmers that the Administration finally one there were the Garrison and Daniels plans redeem its promise as to rural credits legislafor the increase of the army and navy—the tion. There was also the demand by shipfirst with its scheme of “ Continentals,” the owners to obtain a modification of the Sea. latter a "little navy” scheme disguised as man's Law, and there was much talk about a “big navy" programme. These original what Congress should do regarding the propropositions bear but remote resemblances to posed amendment to the Constitution grantthe mass of defense legislation finally en ing the vote to. women acted. As to revenue, there were questions in December, 1915, as to how money could be raised-whether by the sale of bonds, by
WHAT DID CONGRESS DO? tariff duties, or by direct taxation. As to
. We separate the accomplishments of Contariff duties in particular, there was the ques gress into Good, Bad, and Mixed Good and tion as to whether sugar should remain on Bad. Its inaction regarding certain things
expected was in some cases welcome and in propriating some $25,000,000 for fortificaothers unwelcome.
tions and other works of deiense and for their
armament. 1-GOOD ACTS
The Army Appropriation Bill, with its libThe Child Labor Law, forbidding inter- eral appropriations for the maintenance of State commerce in the products of mills or the reorganized army and militia and for supfactories in which children under fourteen plies and equipment. The bill also establishes years of age have been employed, and in the an embryonic Council of National Defense. products of mines or quarries in which chil- This is a commendable step in the right dren under sixteen have been employed. direction, even if it does not altogether satisfy
The Federal Workmen's Compensation Law, the demand for the complete co-ordination providing thirty-five per cent of her hus- of all our resources. band's wages during widowhood to the widow The Ratification of the Nicaraguan Treaty, of any workman employed by the Govern- providing for the right to construct a canal, ment and killed in the discharge of duty, if ever desirable, across Nicaragua, and for a and granting to a workman during total dis- naval base in the Bay of Fonseca, the conability a monthly two-thirds of his wages and sideration being $3,000,000. a less amount in the case of partial disability. The Ratification of the Haitian Treaty, es
The Postal Savings Bank Amendment to tablishing a financial guardianship similar to the Law of 1910. An amendment increas- ours in the Dominican Republic and creating ing the amount which individuals may deposit a Haitian constabulary, to be officered by in the Postal Savings Banks from $500 to Americans until the natives are fitted to take $1,000 with interest, and an additional $1,000 over the command. without interest.
The Ratification of the Danish Treaty, pay. The Federal Farm Loan Law. A step in ing $25,000,000 for the three Danish West the direction of rural land banks the prece- Indian Islands. Though the price is five dent for which has been set by Germany, times as much as was offered in 1902, it is France, and Denmark. Doubtless experience justifiable in view of the extinction of a poswill suggest amendments, but it is action in sible source of foreign complications which the right direction.
might lead to a war involving us, under the The Railway Regulation Resolution, pro- Monroe Doctrine. viding for an investigation of the efficiency The Ratification of the Migratory Bird of the present system of control, and also of Treaty between the United States and conditions which would attend Government Canada, providing that no bird important to ownership of all public utilities-railways, agriculture because it is an insect destroyer telegraphs, telephones, express companies. shall be shot at any time, and that the open
The Good Roads Law, appropriating season for game birds may be restricted to $80,000,000 during the next five years to be three months and a half. spent in making good roads, if the State involved puts up a dollar for every dollar given
II-BAD ACTS to it from the Federal fund. But the ad- The Widows' Pension Bill, passed at the last ministration of this law must be scientific and moment of the session for patent political reaefficient to save it from the dangers of the sons, and unwarrantably increasing both claims “pork barrel.”
to pensions and the amount of pensions. The Sugar Repeal Law, repealing the free The Ship Purchase Law, committing the sugar clause of the Underwood Tariff Bill, Government to $50,000,000 of absurd exthereby continuing the receipt of some penditure on the pretext of a Governmental $40,000,000 in customs revenue by the purchase of merchant vessels to aid trade and Treasury.
to act as naval auxiliaries. The Military and Naval Academies Law, The Rivers and Harbors Appropriation increasing the corps of cadets at the United Law. According to Senator Kenyon, of States Military Academy at West Point, and Iowa, "half of its $42,000,000 is to be poured of midshipmen at the United States Naval into waterless streams and dry rivers." CerAcademy at Annapolis, an increase of vital tainly the greater part is to be spent on projimportance to the plans that have been since ects of purely local interest, from which no adopted in enlarging the army and navy. permanent National benefit can result. Mr.
The Fortifications Appropriation Bill, ap- (Continued on page following illustrations)