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of Nish, and ultimately Belgrade ; while the with the statement in the memorandum that British seem to be moving more to the east- “to-day, as on the 6th of August, the clear north along the Struma River, which is practi legal and moral principles governing the cally the only other available line of advance. situation remain the same. Each side beMeanwhile it is said that the Bulgarians have lieves it is standing for its rights, but the evacuated the seaport of Kavala. Altogether rights of both sides are subordinated to the there is a strong probability that before win- rights of the public, and it remains as ter comes the push on all the fronts in the true to-day as then that the public's right is Balkans by the Allies will embarrass Austria a right superior to the rights of either the greatly and may very probably end in the re- men or the company." occupation of Servia.

The specific recommendations made by the On the western front the gains of the week, Mayor and the Public Service Commission both by French and British, were valuable. are, in brief, as follows: The capture of the town of Ginchy by the The strike to be called off immediately. British forces was a fine bit of work. The The condition of affairs that existed before French all through the week made gains, and the break in negotiations to be restored. particularly on September 12 took important Arbitration to be used to determine whether positions which are of great value in the the Interborough individual working contractsprobable early attacks on Combles and later

the rock on which the union and the employers upon Péronne. They took fifteen hundred

split-constitute a breach of the peace pact of

August 7. prisoners in one day. The fighting in all

The same means to be employed to determine this section during the week was severe and

whether the Interborough obtained signatures the fatalities large.

to these contracts by fraud, misrepresentation, There had been no very important devel- coercion, or intimidation. opment on the Russian front up to Septem

It will be remembered that the strike in ber 13, although advances have been made in the Carpathians, and apparently a strong

early August on the surface lines belonging advance movement is preparing in the neigh

to the New York Railways Company was borhood of Kovel and Lemberg.

settled temporarily by an agreement which

has been summarized in The Outlook. That The long-expected resignation of the Zaimis Ministry in Greece again renews the

agreement included the consent of both par

ties to the arbitration of questions that might prediction that Greece is about to enter the

exist between them, and there was an implied war on the side of the Allies. The reports of the week indicate that her delay is due to

recognition of the union by the Company. the refusal of the Entente nations to promise

The Interborough Company, which controls

the subway and elevated lines, was not a at this late hour what Greece wants to have

formal party to this agreement. But, as the if the Allies win.

memorandum of the Commission points out:

Mr. Hedley informed Mr. Fitzgerald and his THE CARMEN'S STRIKE IN NEW YORK

associates that as the same men governed the

policies of the Interborough as governed the The memorandum and recommendations

policies of the Railways Company, they might issued by the Public Service Commission and

proceed upon the assumption that the principles Mayor Mitchel in New York City last week, and policies embodied in the Railways agreewhile they do not settle the strikes on the ment of August 6 would be regarded as consurface, subway, and elevated roads, will serve trolling in the case of the Interborough. It to clear the air, to give the public information was definitely agreed to by both that the prinas to the complicated issues, and perhaps to ciple of freedom to organize, the principle of offer a basis for possible agreement between

freedom from intimidation or coercion, and the the contending parties. This basis has been

principle of arbitration should govern. definitely rejected, as we write, by the officers Hardly, however, had the public begun to of the Interborough Company, but that does rejoice at the settlement of this strike when not necessarily mean that out of it may charges and countercharges began to be not grow negotiations which may avoid made by all the parties concerned, each alleg. further injury and inconvenience to the ing on the part of the other bad faith and public. The unions have accepted the

acts contrary to the spirit and letter of the proposal of arbitration, but with some condi- agreement. These charges have led to the tions. Every fair-minded citizen will agree existing strikes, and most emphatically they

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115

are accusations which ought to be arbitrated may be said that, fortunately from the point under the original agreement. On both sides of view of the public, it has been far from a spirit of antagonism and a desire to fight complete. There have been considerable rather than to conciliate has been manifested. delay and inconvenience, and on the surface

lines a shortage of cars, and in some of the CAUSES AND EFFECTS

more remote and detached districts of the OF THE STRIKE

city the inconvenience has been serious and The chief cause, among several, of the irritatir.g in the extreme. There has also existing trouble concerns the action of the been violence, but not on a large scale, and, Interborough Company in circulating two compared with some other great strikes of years' contracts among their employees for this character in other cities, so far the numindividual signatures, and the insistence of ber of serious attempts at violence has been the company that it will not deal with the small. Strike-breakers have been used, but Amalgamated Association of Street and Elec not to a large extent ; one serious accident, tric Railway Employees, which is a National in which two persons were killed and twelve Association in which the several unions con. injured, was caused by a trolley car manned cerned are united. The Interborough de by incompetent strike-breakers. The subway clares that it is willing that its men should and elevated lines have carried on their servbelong to a union of their own which has been ice without serious breaks or interruptions. formed under the name of a Brotherhood, Generally speaking, the public has been but declines to deal with any “outsiders," patient, and only quietly indignant at the sitalthough the agreement of August specifically uation, which has, however, given the people provides that the men in dealing with the of New York a partial demonstration of the companies may do so through any represent terrible condition which would arise should a ative they may choose, and they have appar strike on its main arteries of travel be comently chosen the Amalgamated to represent pletely effected. them. On the other hand, the Amalgamated There is at least a possibility of sympaAssociation leaders insist that the “ Brother thetic strikes in occupations, such as those of hood” is not a union at all in the proper the longshoremen and teamsters, which are sense ; that the contracts obtained from the of use by the transportation companies for men were signed under misapprehension or the furnishing of coal and in other ways. fear of dismissal, and that in refusing to arbi The number of men who may be called out trate the validity of these contracts the Inter on these sympathetic strikes, if their unions borough Company has forced the fight. decide so to do and secure the consent of the

The Interborough, in a statement issued National unions involved, is estimated at immediately after the Public Service Com from forty to seventy thousand men. Meanmission's memorandum, declares that over while some of the unions have urged ten thousand men have signed the contracts their men individually to show sympathy with and that the Company will protect the rights the strikers by declining to ride in any of the of those men under those agreements and cars-a difficult plan to be carried out under will not "submit to any person or body transportation conditions in New York City. of men the question whether those agreements should have been made.” The Com LAFAYETTE DAY pany denies all charges of fraud, threats, Lafayette, the French nobleman, general, coercion, or intimidation. The Amalgamated and patriot, is, next to Washington, perhaps Association, on the other hand, considers that the most distinguished military figure of the the Interborough, and perhaps to a less de American Revolution. What our forefathers gree the company controlling the surface thought of him is strikingly indicated by the lines, have entered into a campaign of war fact that there is in every State of the Union to the death to union organizations, and that either a city or county that bears his name. their utterances plainly show this intention. When he visited New York, at the age of The surface line employees, in addition to nearly seventy years, in 1824, he received a their interest in the Interborough questions, reception such as no other foreigner has ever, make specific charges on their own account, perhaps, received on American soil. and in turn are charged with breaking their A year or two ago a committee of AmeriAugust agreements.

can citizens was formed to celebrate LafayAs to the actual history of the strike, it ette's birthday, the 6th of September, and a

notable celebration was held week before last upon the title of one of Dr. Finley's books, in New York under the auspices of this com-, which is a charming example of French wit mittee. A distinguished group gathered in and French sympathy. “Dr. Finley," he the fine aldermanic chamber of New York's said, “ has written a distinguished historical beautiful City Hall in the afternoon. Judge work on the achievements of French explorers Alton B. Parker presided. The words of in the Mississippi Valley. The title may be welcome were spoken by Acting Mayor taken in a scientific sense or with a touch of Dowling, and addresses were made by Mr. sentiment. I like to ascribe to Dr. Finley a Sharp, our present Ambassador to France ; feeling of sentiment for France when he Mr. Bacon, our former Ambassador to France; chose for the title of his book, “The French Dr. John H. Finley, who is Commissioner of in the Heart of America.' I can only say Education of the State of New York, and a that when the war is over some Frenchman, recognized authority regarding the effect of gratefully mindful of all you and your comFrench civilization on the destinies of this patriots have done for France, will write a country; and, finally, by the French Ambas- book which he will entitle · America in the sador, his Excellency J. J. Jusserand. Am- Heart of France'!!! bassador Jusserand is peculiarly, among On the evening of Lafayette Day a banforeign diplomats, entitled to and possessed quet was given by the France-America Sociof American esteem. He has been longer in ety in honor of Ambassador Jusserand at the Washington than any other foreign Ambassa- Waldorf Astoria Hotel. Every one of the dor or Minister. His charming wife is an important Allied countries was represented at American. He himself has written in Eng- this banquet by either a consular official or a lish some remarkable books regarding the military or naval attaché. Ambassador Jusfundamental sources of American social insti- serand spoke again and read messages of tutions, such as “ The English Novel in the thanks to the Society and its friends from Time of Shakespeare," "English Wayfaring President Poincaré and Prime Minister Life in the Middle Ages,” “ Literary History Briand. Mr. James Beck, the distinguished of the English People," and finally, and only American lawyer, who has made an internarecently published, “ With Americans of Past tional reputation for his analysis of the illegal and Present Days.”

criminality of the invasion of Belgium, made Mr. Bacon, whose speech we print in a notable address. He has just come back full elsewhere, and Dr. Finley, whose from France and England, and visited effective poem written for the occasion will Verdun during the siege, and, among other be found on another page, both pointed out places, the great cathedral at Rheims. The the close relationship which has existed and most beautiful details of this monument of ought still to exist between France and the Gothic art, he says, have been irretrievably United States, the two greatest democracies ruined. He drew a moving picture of the of modern times. “ Here, in Lafayette,” faith of all Frenchmen, who, even down to the said Dr. Finley, “is the incarnation of the most humble soldier, believe that they are perpetual youth of France! Disinterested fighting in defense of liberty, independence, in purpose ! Thinking not of cost or sacri- and democratic freedom, which was, indeed, fice if the cause be just, even though it seems the fight of Washington and Lafayette. to be lost! Ever beginning again with unquenchable spirit !” And he added that in

GIFFORD PINCHOT this country and at this time “our supreme FOR HUGHES task is to make that spirit universal, as it is Next to Theodore Roosevelt, probably the in France to-day.” In his response Ambas- best-known Progressive in the country is sador Jusserand expressed his own gratitude Gifford Pinchot. As the representative and and that of his country for the aid and sym- leader of the Conservation movement during pathy which have come to France from a Mr. Roosevelt's Administration, he not only large and influential section of the American became widely known to the American public, people. He referred to the American ambu- but obtained an expert knowledge of the lance and hospital workers, and spoke of the administrative side of Government business. young aviators, like. Victor. Chapman, who His fine honesty and courage, combined with have gone from this country to the aid of the a notable kindliness and human sympathy, French Republic as American aerial Lafay- have won for him National leadership, which ettes. He concluded with a play of words

he still possesses.

His public attitude on the

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present National issues is therefore signifi. Prohibitionists, therefore, may justly claim cant and important. He has just made a his election as a triumph for their cause. statement of that attitude, in which he has The two newly elected United States Sendeclared himself to be an opponent of Presi ators are Colonel Frederick Hale, who is a dent Wilson and a supporter of Mr. Hughes. son of ex-Senator Eugene Hale, and ex-Gov“I am,” he says, “ neither Democrat nor ernor Bert M. Fernald. Mr. Fernald's oppoa Republican, but a Progressive. Yet, there nent was Professor Sills, of Bowdoin College, being no Progressive nominee, unless I while Colonel Hale's antagonist was Senator choose to support a candidate who cannot be Johnson, the present holder of the seat. elected, I must vote for either Wilson or Senator Johnson has been distinctively a perHughes."

sonal supporter of President Wilson, and in He bases his opposition to the present his campaign received Administration support Administration on President Wilson's failure in a marked degree.: His defeat by Colonel to protect American rights and honor in Hale is pointed to by the Republican manaEuropean and Mexican relations; on his gers, with reason we think, as indicating a vacillation and inconsistency with regard to loss of Administration prestige in the State National defense ; on his failure to make of Maine. This opinion is strengthened by his words effective by deeds with regard to the defeat of Congressman McGillicuddy, of the conservation of our natural resources ; Lewiston. He represents an industrial disand on the record of his Administration in trict in which there is a large so-called “ labor reintroducing the spoils system into the vari vote," has had a creditable record in Conous Government departments.

gress, and has introduced into that body some Mr. Pinchot has lived in Washington for excellent proposals in the interest of labor. many years and has himself been a distin In spite of this record and of the support of guished Government officer. For this rea Administration speakers of National promison the attention of those who are defend nence, he has failed of re-election. ing the Wilson Administration on economic The Maine voters, by a referendum ballot, grounds ought to be especially arrested by at this election ratified, despite strong corwhat he says in the following paragraph: poration hostility, the fifty-four-hour bill passed

“ I have known official Washington from by the Legislature in 1915. This act reduces the inside for six Administrations. In that the working week of women and minors from time the Government business has never fifty-eight to fifty-four hours. Maine is, we been so badly done and so inefficiently as it believe, the fifteenth State to adopt a measure is now done under Wilson."

of this kind. There has been considerable discussion as The total number of votes cast was the to whether the bulk of the Progressive vote largest in many years.

This increase in the of 1912 would go to Mr. Hughes or to Mr. total vote in a State of well-nigh stationary Wilson. Mr. Pinchot's statement, coupled population is significant of the great interest with the results of the Maine election, must taken in the election, and perhaps indicates be taken, we think, as an indication that the that the country is not so apathetic about Progressives of 1912 will very largely sup National questions as the quietness of the port Mr. Hughes.

Presidential campaign so far would seem to

suggest. The Governor was elected by a maTHE MAINE ELECTION

jority of approximately 14,000, and the other On Monday of last week the election in candidates by somewhat smaller majorities. Maine resulted in a clean sweep for the Re But the figures clearly lead to the conclusion publicans. They elected a Governor, two that the Progressives of Maine—and there United States Senators, all four of the Con was a large body of them, for Maine was the gressional Representatives from the State, only New England State to give in 1912 a and a large majority of both houses of the larger vote for Mr. Roosevelt than for Mr. State Legislature. The new Governor, Mr. Taft-have gone back to the Republican Milliken, has the confidence of the people party. and has proved to be an admirable candidate. He had the solid support of the anti-liquor OUR UNECONOMIC element, and in practically every speech he MILITIA SYSTEM declared himself for enforcement to the utter A letter has come to us from an army most of the present anti-liquor law. officer stationed on the border which points

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out, with a very graphic illustration, one of MR. ASQUITH INDORSES the many serious defects inherent in our INTERNATIONAL PEACE LEAGUE present military system. We will let him The International League to Enforce tell his story in his own words :

Peace has received a very important indorse. “An old company commander of mine ment in a recent address delivered by Mr. was recently showing me over the camp he Asquith, the Prime Minister of England, at had laid out for some militia brigades. He Queen's Hall, on the anniversary of Great stopped the car to inspect a drainage ditch. Britain's entrance into the war. Coming

56. When the Regiment came down from a man who is, in the best sense of that here,' he remarked, 'I asked for a detail to term, a representative of the people, this dig this ditch, and when they reported I care- speech may, in its prophetic hope, be acfully explained to the corporal in charge just cepted as representing the public sentiment what the ditch was to accomplish. Then I of Great Britain and an indication that when asked him whether he understood. He did. this war is over Great Britain will be ready to It turned out that he was a civil engineer who join with other civilized nations in an organic had been called away from the charge of a attempt to secure peace in the future by the five-million-dollar drainage contractin Florida.' only method by which lieace can be secured

"So it goes. We hear some militia blamed -an organization of peace-loving nations to for inefficiency, but that can be, and is being compel, by force where necessary, obedience remedied by border field service. Such arrant to international law by all peoples. One pareneconomic waste as the above incident illus- thetical phrase in this speech is worthy the trates can never be remedied under our present special notice of Americans. When Mr. Asindiscriminate system of obtaining militia sol- quith says that the hope of peace rests “ upon diers ; it is the first principle of that system. the common will of Europe, and I hope not op

"Morally, the corporal in question deserves Europe alone," it is impossible to doubt his credit for enlisting in the militia. All he had implication that the United States, perhaps all to guide him was patriotism, emotional con- the American states, would unite in this comsciousness of debt to country, the evaluation mon will to protect peace by the maintenance of his home. Enlistment and intelligent and enforcement of law. In his address he obedience were all that seemed to him neces- said, with notable clarity and force of expressary. But logically, economically, why should

sion : he waste the capabilities of an engineer officer By the victory of the Allies the enthronement in a position where they have the greatest of public right here in Europe will pass from chance of being wiped out, lost, in action on the domain of ideals and of aspirations into an infantry firing-line? Or, rather, what right that of concrete and achieved realities. What had the State to let him waste them? The does public right mean? I will tell you what I State saw nothing in him except a recruit.

understand it to mean—an equal level of op* There are many men in the militia to portunity and of independence as between small whom it is rather an incongruous lark to

states and great states; as between weak and serve in the ranks for fifteen dollars a month.

strong safeguards, resting upon the common

will of Europe, and I hope not of Europe alone; In some cases, no doubt, it is a very good

against aggression ; against international covetthing. But when we have fought our Battle

ousness and bad faith; against the wanion reof Mons and look about to renew the officers course, in case of dispute, to the use of force it will cease to be a joke. It will not be and the disturbance of the peace; and, finally, as satisfactory then to go up and down the a result of it all, a great partnership of nations, militia firing-line' calling for any engineers, federated together in the joint pursuit of a freer doctors, or railroad men present to stop

and fuller life for the countless millions who by shooting and begin different work."

their efforts and their sacrifice, generation after In the Swiss army, under a system of

generation, maintain progress and enrich the

inheritance of humanity. universal service, the capabilities of this engineer-corporal would have been utilized We do not believe that the American peoin a way to preserve for his country the ple will be prevented by any fear of “entanresources of his invaluable technical training. gling alliances” from entering into such an Possibly we are too optimistic in hoping that international federation, and we hope that the time may come when we shall handle our when the time comes for the organization of military problems as intelligently as the free such a federation our National Government citizens of the Swiss Republic.

will be of a character and possessed by a

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