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Tommy, (during heavy bombardment, to his musical pal): “Chuck it, Nobby! I can't get to sleep while you're making that awful noise

THE PETTY ANNOYANCES OF LIFE AT THE FRONT

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ARTICLE I

“Ay! Ay! Boatswain! Ready! O ready!" and fast racial or national lines. DistinThe old-fashioned Boatswain in our mess tells

guished publicists of Japan, Russia, Eng. me that we haven't got the terms just right; land, and the United States can be found that seamen never heard of a " Boatswain

who will aver in confidence that the Russiana “Coxswain,” but that the proper pronuncia

Japanese Treaty is aimed directly at England. tion is “Bos'n " and " Coxs'n ;" but it all sounds nautical to us of the Medical Corps, and, any

And just as distinguished men from all these way, we address each other by the titles 'of our

countries can be found who loudly protest ranks. ..

against this view of the convention. There has been considerable discussion in our This disagreement among experts is the mess as to the way the new law. will work. less remarkable when one considers that the Personally, I have always desired the title of

final text of the treaty has not yet been made " Boatswain,” and now that, practically, it is

public. But the text of the tentative agreelegally mine, I have proposed that all of us

ment as published in the semi-official Japanese Fharmacists, Machinists, and Carpenters-now staff Boatswains-should perform some of the

newspapers on July 8 is as follows: more public functions of the line Boatswains. The Imperial Government of Japan and the I don't mean that we should do any of the work Imperial Government of Russia, having resolved with the anchors and chains and such, but we

by united efforts to maintain permanent peace might “pipe the side " when the Secretary of

in the Far East, have agreed to the following: the Navy or the Chairman of the Senate Naval Committee comes aboard. Instead of the piping

Japan will not be a party to any agreement of one lone line Boatswain there might be ten

or poli:ičalcombination directed against Russia. or a dozen of us staff Boatswains all piping the Russia will not be a party to any agreement side together. It would make an appropriate

or political combination directed against Japan. reception for the civil functionaries, who always

ARTICLE II require the limit in military honors, and for Staff Admirals, even if the line Admirals would

In case the territorial rights or special internot stand for it. .:.

ests in the Far East of one of the contracting Some of my messmates do not take kindly

parties recognized by the other contracting to the changes required by the new legislation.

party are menaced, Japan and Russia will conThe old and philosophic Chief Machinist said: fer on the measures to be taken in view of the Well, I s'pose I'll have to stand for it, to be

support or co-operation necessary for the procalled 'Ensign;' though I ain't one an' don't

tection and the defense of these rights and look like one an' don't want to be one." ..

interests. The Gunner and the Carpenter growled

In faith thereof the undersigned, duly authorbecause they did not wish to be addressed as

ized by their respective governments, have " Boatswain."

signed this Convention and thereto affixed their The one line Boatswain in our mess, who is a

seals. taciturn and muscular person and an overbear

Done at Petrograd, the third day of the ing line officer besides, said: “As all you guys

seventh month of the fifth year of Taisho, corare going to be called what you ain't, I'm goin'

responding to the 3d of July (20th June), 1916. to be called “Judge' in this mess, an' don't you

MOTONO, fergit it."

SAZOSOFF. According to the" Navy," the blame for this: We are informed by responsible Japanese proposal cannot be put upon any legislator from in this country that the following arrangethe interior country. It was the work of a very ment has been tentatively agreed upon, the small group of men in the navy itself who final details to be adjusted within a few weeks, have coveted the military titles which belong when the Japanese delegates, Prince Kanin to the officers of the line.

and Dr. Adachi, arrive at Petrograd : This tempest in a teapot is a good illustra- First, a grant to Japan of the control of tion of the pettiness which sometimes creeps

the Eastern Chinese Railway between Chang. into the discussion of even large public issues. chun and the Sungari River. Japan had

asked for the railway concession from ChangJAPAN AND RUSSIA

chun to Harbin. The Sungari River is just It is not remarkable that on a subject of about half-way between those two points. which so little is known as the form and in- The tentative price which Japan is to pay for tended effect of the recent movement towards this concession is $7,000,000. Second, Japan a Russian-Japanese Entente there should be is to have a share with Russia in the navigita great deal of variety of opinion. This tion rights of the Sungari River. Third, variety of opinion seems to follow no hard freedom of trade, residence, and travel in

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Siberia, Mongolia, and Manchuria to be enjoyed equally by Japanese and Russians. Fourth, Japan to furnish munitions to Russia when to do so does not interfere with her own plans for defense.

All these concessions and the considerations to be paid for each are to be threshed out in Petrograd when the Japanese delegates arrive there.

On the other hand, ample reason for the agreement between Russia and Japan is found in the desire of both to be secure from the Far Eastern ambitions of any third Power and in the manifest political and economic advantage which the alliance offers to both Powers in present world conditions.

MOTIVES FOR
THE TREATY

So much for the little that we know of the actual arrangement between the two great Powers who were at war with each other only eleven years ago. When it comes to considering the conditions which have made such a treaty desirable for both Russia and Japan, we are on more solid ground. The desire of both Japan and Russia to keep the influence of any third Power at a minimum in China has been a principal factor in the arrangement of the treaty. Russia's desire to be protected by a strong ally in her rear while she is facing embattled Germany has been matched by Japan's desire to have the support of Russia for Japanese policies toward China. But, while military motives have been strong in bringing the two nations together, the entente has been mainly brought about by commercial factors. Japan's trade with Russia has increased enormously since the beginning of the war. As Mr. Alexander Znamiecki, Russian expert of the National City Bank of New York, has recently said to a representative of The Outlook, “Two very important factors in the Russian. Japanese rapprochement are Russia's need of foreign markets for her foodstuffs, materials, and half-manufactures, and again the value for the growing Japanese industries of the enormous neighboring Russian market." In this connection an article in the influential Russian newspaper

" Novoe Vremya” recently said : “ Japanese merchants, adapting their merchandise to the demands of the Russian traders, are studying the Russian household in every detail. A few days ago, for instance, some boots appeared on sale, of Russian shape, for the use of the populace, accompanied by a bottle of shoe polish."

As to the prediction that the RussoJapanese alliance means the end of the AngloJapanese alliance it can only be said that there is no proof that Russia and Japan are at present aiming at such a consummation.

THE CHURCH
IN MEXICO

Portsmouth, New Hampshire, which was the scene of the conferences which ended the Russo-Japanese War, has been assured of additional historical fame through its selection as the meeting-place for the members of the joint American Mexican Commission appointed to discuss the difficulties between the two countries. By the time this issue of The Outlook reaches our readers the date of the first formal conference will probably have been decided at a preliminary meeting in New York City. Portraits of the six commissioners appear elsewhere in this issue.

The greatest interest in the conferences lies in the possibility that they will be marked by a discussion of more fundamental questions than the withdrawal of our soldiers from Mexico and the patrolling of the border. Certainly it is to be hoped that the deeper questions of the economic and agrarian reconstruction of Mexico will be discussed, as well as the future status of the schools and churches in that country.

The religious question in Mexico has been a source of friction throughout the history of that country, and a careful and sane discussion of it by the Commission is to be desired. That this will be accomplished is the more probable in view of the fact that the leading Mexican member of the Commission, Señor Luis Cabrera, has had a powerful hand in the formation of Carranza's policy towards the Church. Señor Cabrera has recently published a pamphlet on this subject which is a highly interesting contribution. In defending the Constitutionalists from charges of injustice towards the Church Señor Cabrera says : “ We Constitutionalists are Catholics, the Villistas are Catholics, the Zapatistas are Catholics. Ninety-nine per cent of the Mexi can population is Catholic, and therefore the Constitutionalist party could not in the present struggle attempt to deprive the Catholics, who form the totality of the Mexican people, of their right to profess their religion or of their right to take part in political questions." He goes on to say that the aim of the Con

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stitutionalist Government toward the Catholic his fellow-artists as“ Papa " Corot, died Church has been merely“ to enforce the forty years ago, in his eightieth year. His strict observance of the laws known as laws friend and associate, Henri Harpignies, has of the Reform . .. because they form an just died, in his ninety-eighth year. Harintegral part of the Mexican Constitution, ... pignies was more than twenty years younger which [laws] up to the present time have than Corot, but the older man and the been disregarded.”

younger man were thrown together in the These laws provide for the separation of Barbizon colony, and the work of Harpignies the Church and State, the incapacity of the shows the influence of that relationship. Church to possess landed property, and the Corot and Harpignies made a journey toabolition of convents. In gist, the aim of gether into Italy in 1860. At that time the Constitutionalists in enforcing these laws Corot was sixty-four years old and Harpignies has been to keep the Church out of temporal about forty. It is easy to imagine how affairs, in which it has often wielded a most strong must have been the art sympathy beunwholesome influence in Mexico in the past. tween these two in order to bridge the dis

We Americans who also believe in freedom parity of their ages in such a journey to the of worship and in the absence of all Church land in which the art of painting, as we modpower in temporal affairs must sympathize erns understand it, had its birth. The effect with the Mexicans in so far as they pursue of that journey was immediate on Harpignies, these aims. We ought to congratulate the for on his return he scored his first great Catholics of the United States, therefore, for success in the Paris Salon. going on record at their recent convention in The group of painters who lived in the New York City as demanding in Mexico only little village of Barbizon, near Paris, and who “ liberty of conscience and freedom of wor- gave birth to what is now known as the Barship as they exist in our United States." bizon school of painting, were rebels against

If the Catholics of Mexico want only what the sentimental, subjective thecries which the Catholics of the United States profess to then dominated French art. They abanwant for them, they are asking for only what doned studio compositions, garlands of roses, the Constitutionalists profess to be willing to shepherds and shepherdesses of the Corydon give them. Any continuance of friction over and Phyllis type, and went directly to nature the religious question in Mexico would mean, for their inspiration. Rousseau found his in therefore, that either the Church authorities trees; Corot his in gentle landscapes suffused or the Constitutionalist leaders are insincere. with light; François Millet found his in the And if either party should prove to be insin- work and family life of the French peasant. cere, that party can expect to be condemned The sufferings and privations which this by the public opinion of the United States. group of disciples of a new art endured

Unfortunately, there is only too much evi- are most interestingly exemplified in the life dence of outrages and injustices committed of Millet, who had for most of his career the against Catholics in Mexico, but Señor Ca- greatest difficulty in keeping soul and body brera says that these are the deeds not of together. The story is told of CorotConstitutionalists but of bandits, who have whether it is apocryphal or not we do not sprung up from the disorganized condition. know—that when he sold one of his pictures But he adds that some Catholics in Mexico at what seemed to him and his friends to be have so conducted themselves as to produce a most generous price (but which was, in exasperation and disorder. All this makes it reality, trifling compared with the immense all the more clear that the Church in Mexico sums that his paintings command to-day), should be one of the subjects of considera- and when he was congratulated on this suction by the Commission.

cess by a colleague, he replied, whimsically:

" Well, I am not sure. It makes the collecA GREAT FRENCH PAINTER

tion of Papa Corot incomplete !" To those who are prone to think of Corot, Harpignies was the last survivor of this the greatest figure of the Barbizon school, great band of artists, but it is comparatively which has reflected such glory on French art, recently that his pictures have come to be as " an ancient” it will be a surprise to learn appreciated at their full value in this counthat one of his colleagues and intimate per- try, for his name and work have been oversonal friends lived, until only last week. shadowed by the greater fame of his BarbiCorot, who was affectionately known by zon colleagues. Harpignies has been espe.

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