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there is likeness to the motive of a poem which twelve years before Freneau died permanently enriched English literature. This is John Keats's “ Ode to a Grecian Urn,” published in 1820:

“ Heard melodies are sweet, but those unheard

Are sweeter; therefore, ye soft pipes, play on;
Not to the sensual ear, but, more endear’d,

Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:
Fair youth, beneath the trees, thou canst not leave

Thy song, nor ever can those trees be bare;
Bold Lover, never, never canst thou kiss,

Though winning near the goal — yet, do not grieve;
She cannot fade, though thou hast not thy bliss,

For ever wilt thou love, and she be fair !"

Here, of course, is no such plagiarism as that of Campbell, who stole a whole line of Freneau's; no such plagiarism, either, as that of Sir Walter Scott, who stole another; nor yet such as that still more unprincipled one which Professor Tyler records, where an English lady printed as her own a poem of Freneau in full. It may fairly be doubted whether Keats ever saw a line of Freneau's, or ever heard his name. The contrast between Freneau's “ Indian Burying-Ground" and Keats's “Grecian Urn” is worth our attention only because both poets had a similar motive. Freneau expressed it simply, directly, and even beautifully ; Keats expressed it immortally. The contrast is one between good literature and great, between the very best that America had produced in the closing years of the eighteenth century and one of the many excellent things which England produced during the first twenty years of the century that followed. Taken by itself, “ The Indian Burying-Ground” may fairly excite our patriotic enthusiasm to an excessive degree; a comparison with the “Grecian Urn” may recall our patriotism to the limits of common-sense.

The literature produced in this country between the outbreak of the American Revolution and the close of the

eighteenth century may fairly be typified, if not precisely summarised, by what we have glanced at, — the writings of those orators and public men who reached their highest expression in the Federalist,” the conscious and imitative effort of the Hartford Wits, and the sporadic poetry of Philip Freneau.

IX

SUMMARY

We have now glanced at the literary history of America during the first two centuries of American existence. In the seventeenth century, the century of immigration, when Ameri

, cans felt themselves truly to be emigrant Englishmen, they expressed themselves only in such theological and historical work as may be typified by the “ Magnalia” of Cotton Mather. During the eighteenth century, the century of independence, when Americans felt themselves still Englishmen, but with no personal ties to England, America produced in literature a theology which ran to metaphysical extremes, such vigorous common sense as one finds in the varied works of Franklin, and such writings as we have glanced at since. These two centuries added to English literature the names of Shakspere, Milton, Dryden, Swift, Addison, Pope, Johnson, and Burns. To match these names in America we can find none more eminent than those of Cotton Mather, Edwards, Franklin, the writers of the “ Federalist,” the Hartford Wits, and Freneau. As we have seen, the history of England during these two centuries was that of a steadily developing and increasing national experience. In comparison, the history of America reveals national inexperience. There is no need for further emphasis on the commonplace that lack of experience does not favour literary or artistic expression.

BOOK III

THE NINETEENTH CENTURY

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