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10. Roads = places where ships ride at anchor. A. S. rad, road. 11. Wealthy Andrew dock'd in sand richly freighted ship stranded. The name is probably taken from Andrea Doria, a famous Genoese admiral. 12. Vailing lowering. A headless form of the Fr. avaler, from Lat. ad vallem, to the valley.

13. Straight = at once, immediately. A. S. streccan, to stretch.

14. Worth this refers to some expressive gesture.

15. Bottom

merchant vessel.

16. Janus = a Latin deity represented with two faces looking in opposite directions. January is named after him. See Webster.

17. Peep through their eyes, because half shut with laughter.
others; frequently used as a plural in Shakespeare.

18. Other =

19. Nestor = the gravest and oldest of the Grecian heroes at the siege of



20. Prevented = anticipated. This is the old sense; from Fr. prevenir, Lat. prae, before, and venire, to come.

21. Exceeding strange

exceedingly strange-like, quite strangers. Exceeding is often used as an adverb by Shakespeare.

regard, consideration for.

22. Respect upon 23. Play the fool act the part of the fool, as seen in old comedies. His function was to show the comic side of things.

become covered, as with a mantle.


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24. Mantle

25. Do has who understood as its subject. The whole line may dered thus: And who do maintain an obstinate silence.


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26. Opinion of wisdom reputation for wisdom. 27. Conceit = thought. In Shakespeare this word is used for thought, conception, imagination, but never in the sense of vanity.

28. As who should say = as if one should say; who being indefinite.

29. A reference to Matt. v. 22. "Whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in danger of hell fire." If these silent persons should speak, they would provoke their hearers to say "thou fool," and thus bring them into danger of condemnation.


30. Gudgeon = a small fish that is easily caught. See Webster. 31. Moe = more.

32. Gear matter, business, purpose. In Act II, Scene 2, we find: "Well, if Fortune be a woman, she's a good wench for this gear."

33. Something somewhat. This use is common in Shakespeare.
34. Swelling port = great state, ostentatious manner of living.
35. Rate
manner, style.

36. Gag'd engaged, pledged.

37. Still constantly. See note 9.


be ren

38. Within the eye of honour = within the range of what is honorable. 39. Self-same flight = made for the same range, having the same length, weight, and feathering.

40. Advised

careful, considerate.

= to find the other out.

41. To find the other forth
42. Childhood proof: = test or experiment of childhood.

43. Wilful = obstinate in extravagance. Owing to the obscurity, "witless" and "wasteful" have been suggested for wilful.

that same way. This use of self is frequent in

44. That self way Shakespeare.

45. Circumstance = circumlocution. 46. In making question, etc. utmost for you.


47. Prest ready. O. Fr. prest, now prêt, ready. 48. Richly left with a large inheritance. 49. Sometimes formerly. Sometimes and sometime were used indifferently by Shakespeare in this sense.






= in questioning my readiness to do my

50. Nothing undervalued:

not at all inferior.

51. Brutus' Portia. See Shakespeare's Julius Cæsar, in which Portia is a prominent character.

52. Colchos' strand. Colchis was situated at the eastern extremity of the Black Sea. Thither, according to Grecian mythology, Jason was sent in quest of the golden fleece, which, though it was guarded by a sleepless dragon, he succeeded in obtaining. The Argonautic expedition is referred to again in Act III. Scene 2: "We are the Jasons, we have won the fleece." 53. With one of them as one of them.

54. Thrift success.

55. Commodity = property, merchandise.

56. Presently instantly, immediately.

57. Of my trust, etc. on my credit as a merchant or as a personal



I. Troth =

truth, of which it is an old form.

2. Nor refuse none. We should now say, Nor refuse any. But the double negative had not yet disappeared from English in Shakespeare's day.

3. Level at guess, aim at.

4. Coll= wild, rough youth

5. Appropriation credit.
6. County Palatine · Count Palatine.

7. Weeping philosopher Heraclitus; so called because he wept over the follies of mankind. Democritus, who laughed at them, was called "The laughing philosopher."

8. By

of, about, concerning

-a not unfrequent use of the word. 9. Say to is here playfully used in a different sense from that which

Nerissa meant.



10. Proper
II. Suited = = dressed.

12. Doublet: = a close-fitting coat, with skirts reaching a little below the girdle.

13. Round hose

to coat and breeches. 14. Bonnet

hat have changed places.



coverings for the legs. Doublet and hose is equivalent

Since Shakespeare's day bonnet and

15. Sealed under, that is, as surety he placed his name under that of the principal. There seems to be a sly hit at the constant assistance which the French promised the Scotch in their quarrels with the English.

16. An if. 17. Should would. Shakespeare.

These words were not fully differentiated by

18. Contrary wrong. So in "King John,” IV. 2: “Standing on slippers which his nimble haste had falsely thrust upon contrary feet." 19. Sort

= manner; or, possibly, lot, as in "Troilus and Cressida,” I. 3: "Let blockish Ajax draw the sort to fight with Hector."


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hat or head-dress.

20. Imposition = imposed condition.

21. Sibylla is erroneously used as a proper noun. A sibyl was a woman supposed to be endowed with a spirit of prophecy. The reference here is to one to whom Apollo promised as many years of life as there were grains of sand in her hand.

22. Four is probably an oversight, as there were six of the strangers. 23. Condition disposition, temper. This is a common meaning of the

word in Shakespeare.

24. Shrive

to administer confession and absolution.


1. Ducats coins first issued in the duchy of Apulia. From O. Fr. ducat = Ital. ducato Low Lat. ducatus, duchy. So called because when first coined, about A.D. 1140, they bore the legend, "Sit tibi, Christe, datus, quem tu regis, iste ducatus.” — SKEAT. The Venetian silver ducat was worth about one dollar.


2. May you stead me = can you help me. May originally expressed ability.

3. A good man = a solvent man, one able to meet his obligations.
in doubtful form, being risked at sea.


4. In supposition
5. Rialto

the Exchange of Venice. From rivo alto, higher shore. The name was originally applied to the chief island in Venice.

6. Squandered = scattered, dispersed; this was the original sense of the



7. Referring to the permission given the devils to enter into the herd of swine. Matt. viii. 32.

8. Usance = interest.

9. Catch upon the hip to get into one's power; a phrase used by



10. Interest was a term of reproach in Shakespeare's day, as usury is now. It was held disreputable to take compensation for the use of money, inasmuch, as it was said, "it is against nature for money to beget money." 11. Rest you fair = may you have fair fortune. 12. Excess: = that which is paid in excess of the sum lent. 13. Ripe wants = wants that require immediate attention. 14. Possess'd informed. 15. Methought it seemed to me. To think comes from A. S. thencan.


16. The third, counting Abraham as the first. Gen. xxvii.

17. Compromis'd = agreed.

18. Eanling: lamb just brought forth. the word. From A. S. eanian, to bring forth.



From A. S. thincan to seem.

Yeanling is another form of

19. See Gen. xxx. 31-43.

20. Inserted, that is, in the Scriptures.

21. These lines are spoken aside, while Shylock is occupied with his calculations.

22. Beholding = beholden, indebted. Shakespeare always uses the form

in ing, beholden occurring not a single time in his writings.

= a coarse smock-frock or upper garment. come; a phrase of exhortation.

interest, money bred from the principal.

23. Gaberdine
24. Go to
25. Breed:

26. Who is here without a verb. mentary pronoun was not uncommon. forbear to note any deficiencies."- BACON.

27. Doit = a small Dutch coin, worth about a quarter of a cent.

28. Condition agreement.

29. Equal = exact, equally balanced.

This use of the relative with a supple"Which though it be not true, yet I

30. Dwell

continue, abide.

31. Teaches is usually regarded as a mistake, having the plural subject dealings. But Abbott regards it as an old Northern plural, which ended in es. 32. Break his day fail to fulfil his engagement.


33. Fearful guard = protection to be feared.

34. Hie = haste.

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1. Mislike: dislike, which Shakespeare commonly uses. Mislike is found only three times.

2. Whose blood is reddest. — Red blood was regarded as a sign of courMacbeth calls one of his frightened soldiers a lily-livered boy."


3. Fear'd terrified. Fear was often used transitively in this sense. 4. Best-regarded = most esteemed. 5. Nice fastidious, fanciful. She intimates that judgment has something to do with her choice.

6. Scanted

limited, restricted.




7. Wit wisdom. A. S. witan, to know.

gested as an emendation.

8. Stood would stand.

9. Sophy = a common name for the emperor of Persia.

10. Sultan Solyman.

from 1520 to 1566.

II. Lichas was the servant of Hercules.

12. Alcides

dant of Alceus.


"Will' has been sug

Probably Solyman the Magnificent, who reigned

another name for Hercules. So called because a descen

13. Advised

deliberate, careful.

14. Temple church, in which the prince was to take the oath just spoken of.

1. Via == away!
2. For the heavens



Italian, from Lat. via, a way.
for Heaven's sake.

3. Grow to "a household phrase applied to milk when burnt to the bottom of the saucepan, and thence acquiring an unpleasant taste." — CLARK AND WRIGHT.

4. God bless the mark: = a parenthetic apology for some coarse or pro

fane remark.

5. Incarnal: incarnate; intended as a ludicrous blunder. A number of others occur in this scene.

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