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critical editions " which “sufficed for a contury.” But neither the number—fourof these editions, nor their careless printing, shows that Shakespeare's works were "little known or prized ; » for half that number of editions sufficed for every other dramatist of that
entury; and all, except those of careful Ben Jonson, were vilely printed.
Thus it will be seen that we do not, as the Reviewer asserts, by a gross petitio principii “take for granted the two chief points at issue, namely, that the first folio,
does contain the text of Shakespeare, and that the corrections of the MS. Annotator are mere guesswork." We have the direct and explicit testimony of Shakespeare's friends, fellow actors and principal partners in the theatre, that the first folio was printed from the text of Shakespeare, and, errors excepted, does contain that text: we have proved that the corrector did indulge in “mere guesswork, and therefore, as against the authorized edition, we must consider all his labors as merely conjectural, and only to be received when they consistently correct the palpable, accidental errors of that edition. But were this not so, we should reject nine tenths of those peculiar to him upon their own merits. They seem to be modelled upon the conjectural effort of the man who, not being able to understand the strong figure, “ strain at a gnat and swallow a camel," amended his New Testament to read, “ strain at a gate and swallow a saw-mill."
But after all, it is not improbable that Richard Perkins did make some of these corrections. We admitted, for the argument's sake, that he did make them; but now having shown that his making them gives them no semblance of authority, we acknowledge that it is even more than probable that he had a hand in them. It seems that this Richard Perkins was not only an actor but “also in some measure a poet, as he wrote a copy of verses prefixed to Heywood's Apology for Actors.” The murder's out! He was something of a poet!” This accounts for his turning speech after speech of blank verse into rhyme, for his making Hamlet bring up
with a jingle after first correcting the line to which he tacked his rhyme, for his submitting other plays to siunilar treatment, and for the insertion of entire lines in several cases, which, although two or three of them are not unlike what Shakespeare might have written in those particular passages, are not at all beyond the reach of any man who is "something of a poet' and has read the context.
It seems as if Master Perkins was about to bring out an edition of Shakespeare's works as he thought they should have been written and should be acted. He modernized the language, struck out whatever he thought uninteresting, added rhymes where he thought they were needed, added stage directions to conform to the custom of the day, which was to be very particular in that respect,* attended minutely to the punctuation, corrected even the turned letters, as Mr. Collier assures us, (not at all necessary for a stage copy). changed the old prefix of Beggar in the Induction to the Taming of the Shrer, to Sly (equally unnecessary for the stage), underscored the old rhymes and quotations (also entirely needless in a stage copy), and thought that he would have a very fine edition; and it would have been quite as good and of the same kind as Pope's and Warburton's. But the publishers of the next edition, in 1664, did not believe in “Shakespeare according to Perkins, and reprinted the old folios, adding even all the plays that had borne Shakespeare's name in his lifetime.
Now Perkins may have acted in Shake speare's plays while the dramatist was living, he was doubtless “ something of a poet," and he may have had some actors? parts which were “copies of copies of a part of a mutilated copy ;” but in spite of all this, when there is any question between what Heminge and Condell and our own souls tell us is Master Shakespeare's, and that which probability and our own souls tell us is Master Perkins's, we shall decide in favor of Master Shakespeare. For though the one was something of a poet, we believe that the other was a good deal more of a poet. And all the people say Amen!
* It is only necessary to look at the first editions of Shirloy's, Shadwell's, and Southerne's plays, the dates of which are from 1630 to 1690, to see how the custom of adding minute stage directions to the printed copies arose toward the middle of the century. Those printed about that time and thereafter have every movement indicated with the greatest particularity. The fact that the first folio has few stage directions sustains the evidence that most of it was printed from the author's manuscript and not from the stage copy or actors' parts, in which those directions would necessarily bo numerous; and this is agnin confirmed by the fact that the quartos, evidently printed from actors' parts, hayo mimny moro stage directions than the folio.
towards a favorable view of it; but a AMERICAN.—Uncle Tom's Cabin will writer, who endeavors to persuade us to have more to answer for, than the unjust such an extreme inference as this, cannot pictures of which our Southern friends be a reliable teacher. The mind rejects complain. It has suggested a number of the conclusion, and is inclined to imagine replies and defences, which are really a that the whole story is an attempt to degreater injury to the cause they espouse, ceive. Thus, the very purpose of the than the original assailant. They are book is defeated, and the cause it was written in such transparent ignorance of meant to serve, unintentionally injured. the questions at issue, give such false Mrs. Hentz is a skilful narrator, of exviews of life both at the South and North, cellent sentiments and a fine poetic vein; and advance such unsound arguments, but we would counsel her, patriotic as her that, in spite of their amiable intentions, purposes are, to leave the discussion of they must do good to few only, and inju- slavery to other persons, or to undertake ry to many. A novel is not an appropri it in some other form. As she is a Northate vehicle for the exposition of doctrine, ern woman, who has lived many years at at the best; and when it happens to be the South, her personal experiences on badly written, is an exceedingly inappro the subject would be more authentic and priate one. The object of it should be valuable, than the same views essentially to represent life and manners as they are, presented as fiction. and not to advance the cause of a party -Since the publication of the Marquis or sect, by caricatures of its opponents, de Custine's book on Russia, no more enor flattering likenesses of its friends; for tertaining or valuable work on that subit then loses its character as a work of ject has appeared, than “Russia As It art, and sinks to the level of a polemical Is,” by Count ADAM DE GUROWSKI. It pamphlet.
is, indeed, in many respects superior to These remarks are suggested to us by the celebrated French book, because, as it Mrs. CAROLINE LEEIIENTz's recent novel, seems to us, it is more reliable in its decalled “The Planter's Northern Bride," tails, and more philosophical in its spirit. not because they are applicable to it, in Custine, like other Frenchmen, loved to their whole extent, but because it is a tell a vivacious story, without being overtype of a large class of works which have particular about the truth of it; and thus, lately overwhelmed the press.
It is a
while he made a most entertaining narrastory of an accomplished and wealthy tive, he did not always impress the reader Southerner, who marries the daughter of with the perfect reliability of his statea New England abolitionist, and who, by ments. The famous "Revelations of Rusmeans of his own excellence, and the sia,” on the other hand, written, as they agreeable light in which his relations to are, with marked ability, betray too evihis slaves are placed, by actual experi dent a bias against the Czar and all his ence, converts the entire family into good people, to be accepted with the most enpro-slavery people. The intention is
, to tire confidence. But Gurowski, a Pole by do away with the Northern prejudices, birth, an exile, with no special reasons for which are supposed to exist, and to exhibit likiny Nicholas or his policy, possessed of society at the South in its true aspects. large experience, and accustomed to view But we object to the book, apart from our the political questions of the day, in the general objection to all novels having a light of a comprehensive theory of the set moral purpose, that it proves too much, destinies of races and nations, is peculiarand, consequently proves nothing. It ly fitted to give us a thorough, impartial, paints the South so entirely couleur de and sound judgment of the country which rose, that the reader, knowing that there is just now making so much noise in the are some and great evils in all societies, world. His book, therefore, is not only suspects it to be untrue. The relation of a timely, but a most important contribumaster and slave is made so agreeable, tion to our knowledge. It is no rehash that the only legitimate inference from it of the French and English publications on is, that it would be better for the work the East, no echo of the opinions of intering classes all over the world to be re ested parties, but an independent and oriduced to the same condition. Now, we ginal expression of the views of one who know that many gross misrepresentations has long been familiar with his theme, and have been given in respect to slavery, and who speaks entirely from his own standwo can easily pardon a little reaction point.
We do not mean to say, that the preju the Reign of Charles II. and James II., and dices of the Pole and the exile are not ap the final fall of the royal race of Stuart. parent in this work, or that we are ready Guizot has so long occupied a position to accede to all its principles; but what among the first historians of the day, that we do mean, is, that the book is written it is needless now to remark upon his in the most intelligent and earnest spirit, general qualities as a writer. We may by a strong-minded thinker, profoundly observe, however, that they are not of a acquainted with the past, observant of the kind to fit him, in any eminent respect, to present, and hopeful of the future. be the biographer of the greatest of the
The leading thought of Count Gurow English monarchs. He is too much of a ski, in his development of the history and doctrinaire, too much controlled by tracondition of Russia, is, what will be ditions and authorities, to enter completefound elsewhere expressed, in this num ly into the character of that remarkable ber, that Czarism, or autocracy, has been man, or of the unprecedented times in only a transitional necessity, while the which he acted. Cromwell was so wholnation at large is in the process of work ly sui generis, and tlie controversies amid ing out its own emancipation, as well
as a which he rose to power, so unlike any higher destiny for Western Europe. Rus that had before prevailed, both in their sia, at present, by her compactness and religious and political elements, that they force, powerfully sustains the conservative cannot be judged by the usual formulas or retrograde interests of the continent, of philosophy or politics. Any interprebut she contains within herself an abun tation of either, which confounds the one dance of fermenting elements, whose ebul with common tyrants and usurpers, or lition is becoming daily more intense and the other with common revolutions, must menacing. A social commotion is immi soon be involved in hopeless perplexity nent for her, and for all the Sclavic races; and trouble. On the other hand, any inand when it shall have once broken out, terpretation which requires an enthusiasand accomplished its ends, as 'it surely tic admiration of all that Cromwell did, will, the hour has sounded for the liber or an approval of all the movemeists of ties of all the rest of Europe. It is a pe the Puritans, is likely to lead into similar culiarity in the structure of Russian soci difficulties. Guizot is aware of this, and ety, that the whole controversy there is by a cautious balancing of authorities and between the Despotism and the People, statements, endeavors to steer a middle trained by their communal organization course ; yet we cannot add, with complete to some degree of self-government; and
In his very effort to be imparwhen the latter shall begin the revolution tial and just, he gets too cool, and, arary movement, they will not be obliged, rived at the end of his volumes, the readas in the rest of Europe, to meet the op er finds, after all, that he has no clearer posing combinations of royalty, nobility, views of the Protector and his times. A and burghership, but will simply apply satisfactory life of Cromwell has yet to themselves at once to the only enemy, be written. Carlyle's collection of docuCzarism. When that is toppled down, ments, with the commentaries, the best the People are all in all, for the aristocra memoir pour servir that we have, but cy is only nominally existent, while the can hardly be called a biography. peasants and the iniddle class are not sep The execution of Guizot's book is for arated.
the most part admirable: the narrative is We wish we bad space to extract from perspicuous and vigorous, the style simthis book the interesting details given of ple, without inflation or forced writing, the army and navy, and the general or and the groupings generally dramatic and ganization of the government; but we impressive. His picture of the great scene must content ourselves with referring our of the Dissolution of the Long Parliament, readers to the original.
is, perhaps, too much encumbered by de-An English translation of Guizot's tails, to be effective; but the several views "History of Oliver Cromwell.” has been of the obstructions raised to his governreprinted by Lea & Blanchard, of Phila ment by the squads of impracticables and delphia. It forms the second part of the fanatics, by whom he was surrounded, are history of the English Revolution, which full of animation. His sketch of the forthe distinguished author has projected. eign policy of the Protector, is strikingly The first embraced the reign of Charles just, too, and the various minor incidents I. and his conflict with the Parliament; of his career are artistically introduced. the second relates to the Commonwealth, Here is an anecdote, which the reader may summed up in Cromwell; the third will have seen before, but which seems to us comprise the Restoration, and the fourth well told :
“Being informed that Ilarrington was about to publish his republican Utopy, the Oceana, Cromwell ordered the manuscript to be seized at the printer's, and brought to Whitehall. After vain endeavors to obtain its restoration, Harrington, in despair, resolved to apply to the Protector's favorite daughter, Lady Claypole, who was known to be a friend to literary men, and always ready to intercedo for the unfortunate. While he was waiting for her in an ante-room, somo of Lady Claypole's women passed through the room, followed by her daughter, a little girl three years of 2ge. Harrington stopped the child, and entertained her so amusingly, that sho remained listening to him until her mother entered. Madam,' said the philosopher, setting down the child, whom he had taken in his arms, ''tis well you are come at this nick of time, or I had certainly stolen this pretty little lady.' 'Stolen her l' replied the mother; ‘pray, what to do with her?' 'Madam,' said he, though her charms assure her a more considerable conquest, yet I must contess it is not love, but revenge, that prompted me to commit this theft.' 'Lord!' answered the lady again, what injury have I done you, that you shoull steal my child?' 'None at all,' replied he, but that you might be induced to prevail with your father to do me justice, by restoring my child that he has stolen;' and he explained to Lady Claypole the cause of his complaint. She immediately promised to procuro his book for him, if it contained nothing prejudicial to her father's government. He assured her it was only a kind of political romance, and so far from any treason against her father, that he hoped to be permitted to dedicate it to him; and he promised to present her ladyslip with one of the earliest copies. Larly Claypole kept her word, and obtained the reg. titution of the manuscript, and IIarrington dedicated his work to the Protector. The gentleman,' said Cromwell, after having read it, 'would like to trepan me out of my power; but what I got by the sword, I will not quit for a little paper shot. I approve the government of a single person as little as any, but I was forced to take upon me the oflice of a high-constable, to preserve the peace among the several parties in the nation, since I saw that, being left to themselves, they would never agree to any certain form of government, and woulil only spend their whole power in defeating the designs or destroying the persons of ono another.'”
gy that has yet been printed, not excepting the voluminous essays of Prichard ; and, as the conclusions at which it arrives are not at all in accordance with the orthodox standards, we may look forward to considerable controversy in regard to it. The principal contents may be de scribed as follows: 1. A memoir of Dr. Samuel G. Morton, the distinguished naturalist, written by Dr. IIenry S. Patterson, and giving an extended account of the original and important researches of Morton in the various provinces of ethnology and natural history. 2. A paper by Agassiz, on the natural provinces of the animal world, and their relation to the different types of man, in which the eminent writer developes at great length, and with masterly ability, his views as to the coincident distribution of certain faune, or groups of animals, with certain permanent human species. 3. Essays by Dr. Nott, combatting the commonly received ideas of the unity of the human races, and going to show, by a vast variety of illustrations, that men were created in groups or nations, in different parts of the globe, and have not been propagated from a single pair, placed in a single centre of creation.
4. Excerpta from the unpublished manuscript of Morton, setting forth the same view's. 5. A contribution from Dr. William Usher on palæontology and geology, in connection with the origin of man. And 6. A variety of dissertations by Gliddon, on archeology, Biblical ethnography, and chronology. Thus, it will be seen that the work covers a vast and prolific field of scientific investigation.
The general results at which the authors arrive, may be summed up for the sake of brevity and clearness, under the following heads:
1. That the surface of our globe is naturally divided into several zoological provinces, each of which is a distinct centre of creation, possessing a peculiar fauna and flora; and that every species of animal and plant was originally assigned to its appropriate place.
2. That the human family offers no exception to this general law, but fully conforms to it; mankind being divided into several groups of races, each of which constitutes a primitive element in the fauna of its peculiar province.
3. That history affords no evidence of the transformation of one type into another, nor of the origination of a new and permanent type.
4. That certain types have been permanent through all recorded time, and
In the appendix to the volumes are several highly interesting documents, taken from the Spanish archives of Simancas, and from the archives of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, and various public libraries in Paris, relating mainly to the foreign relations of the Protectorate, which now appear for the first time. Among the rest, are two letters from Louis XIV. to Cromwell and Fairfax, interceding for the life of Charles, and also many State papers relating to the intrigues of Spain and France to secure the alliance and favor of the new king, as he was called.
- A work destined to produce a sensation in the religious as well as scientific world, is the one on Types of Mankinde” just published by Dr. J. Č. Nott and GEORGE R. GLIDDON. It is altogether the most elaborate treatise of Ethnolo