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The little devotee clung rapturously to of the Empire of the Lilies seemed near, this stolen communion with heaven. She and France to be destined to become received her celestial guests upon her English, without any native sovereign. knees, with clasped hands; she kissed the Soon after, the feeble old king died, Henground which they touched ; she wept at ry V. of England was also taken away, their departure, and crowned their statues and his son, Henry VI., an infant of nine in the church. Before, she had taken months, was proclaimed Sovereign of pleasure in dancing with the villagers, France and England, under the regency every spring-time, about the old beech of his uncle. The north of France, with tree--the fairy beech near the chapel of Paris, the bourgeoisie, and the Burgundithe Lady of Vermont; but, after that visi an nobility, saw in the dominion of the tation, she forsook the old sports, and English the end of strife; but the south, would not sanction an amusement that the country people, and a part of the nohad grown out of a heathen superstition. bility, stood by the lineal heir, Charles No girlish love affair appears ever to have VII., and by the old nationality. It was touched her heart, although a subject so a dark day for France. A single fact is much talked of by the village maidens enough to state. The people of Paris was no stranger to her thoughts, and she broke into the prisons, murdered all the kept her virgin freedom only by the most prisoners, to the number of three thoudecided refusal of all overtures, maintain sand, and in one winter night the wolves ing that the two saints had received her came into the streets of the city and devow of virginity, and had promised to lead voured the carcasses. her to Paradise if she kept the vow.
At this time Joan d'Arc grew up, and Schiller has departed from the truth of shared all the loyalty so characteristic of history in ascribing a romantic passion to her village. There was only one villager his heroine, and the Duke of Weimar there who favored the Burgundian facpleasantly defended this fiction on the tion; and the Maid confessed afterwards ground that those gentlemen, the poets, that she would have liked to break his had a right, like the Creator, to make head, if it had pleased God. It is not something out of nothing. Hase well re clear at precisely what time she received plies that the Creator, who made all the call to devote herself to the nation; things from the beginning, understands but there can be no doubt of the remarkalso what poetry is, and that the real able character of the alleged communicaMaid of Orleans has fought a much tions which came to her. The archangel severer battle in her own heart than the told her, she thought, in the most explicit maiden of the romantic tragedy, and her way, that God has great compassion for fate is still more tragic.
the French people—that she was to be a Turn from this picture of rural inno good child, and to go to the aid of their cence, and look at the fearful strifes that king. Her saints also offered to open the were rending France. The storm that way. Weeping, she said: “I am but a swept over the nation was at last to reach poor maiden, and know nothing of riding the gentle lily that bloomed unseen in or of war.” The saints replied that she that quiet vale. A constant quarrel be was to go to Vaucouleurs, where she tween France and England had been kept would find a captain of the royal army, alive by the fact that the Kings of Eng who would lead her to the king. She land, as Dukes of Normandy, were vassals afterwards said that she did not speak of of the French crown, and were constantly these voices to any one in Domremy, altempted to solve the problem of sovereign- though it was not forbidden her. Enough ty by the sword. Driven from the very of what was going on in her mind, howfield of their noted victories, and crowded ever, escaped her lips to alarm her father, into a few strongholds on the sea-coast and probably to make him dream about by the rising spirit of French nationality, her going away with soldiers-an idea the English were led to revive all their which struck the old man with such horold hopes, at the beginning of the 15th ror, that he declared to his son, that he century, by the incapacity of the king, would sooner have her drowned. By and the discord of the royal family, of stratagem she at last succeeded in escapFrance. At last Paris was occupied by ing to Vaucouleurs with her uncle, under English troops; and before the judgment the pretence of taking care of his sick seat of the feeble old king the Dauphin wife. The uncle first, however, named was arraigned for the murder of the Duke her project to the king's captain there, of Burgundy, and excluded from the who told him to give the jade a couple of throne, which was made over to the King good boxen ears, and send her home to of England, as the rightful heir. The end her father. But she was not to be de
terred; and, following her uncle to the place, in the plain red dress of a peasant girl, she formally demanded of the captain his escort to the king, since the Lord would secure to him the throne. Still repulsed, she remained with a citizen's wife, with whom she went daily to mass. Her devout life and enthusiastic confidence gradually won believers within her little circle. She said—“I must to the Dauphin, although I would much rather sit with my poor mother and spin--for the King of heaven has intrusted me with this mission, and by Mid-Lent I must be with the Dauphin, even if I creep along on my knees.” Old legends of the salvation of France by a woman of Lorraine came to strengthen her conviction, and to add to the excitement, which went so far that, somewhat to her amusement, she was thought by some of the people to be a witch. Joanna, however, did not prevail upon the captain to attend her to the Dauphin; and she returned to her uncle, but found no peace. Again she came to Vaucouleurs, and again in vain. She induced her uncle to go with her on foot to the royal camp ; but it occurred to her on the way, that she could not be received at court without a letter of recommendation from home, and she went back to Vaucouleurs. The faith in her divine mission so grew, that the Duke of Lorraine sought her aid in a mortal sickness, when she said that nothing was revealed to her upon that point-yet she would pray for his recovery; and she demanded his son and troops to lead her to France. Finally, two noblemen volunteered to conduct her to the king, and the captain consented. “ Come what may !” he said as he took his departure. He had given her a sword, and her adherents had provided her with a horse and with the dress of a knight. She kept her calm confidence during the dangerous journey, through a hostile region ; wished to stop to hear mass; and on the eleventh day, shortly before reaching the camp, she heard three masses before the image of her saints, and sent word to the king, at Chinon, of her approach. It was doubted whether his Majesty could with propriety receive an adventurer like this girl; but his despair of human help forced him to rely upon preternatural aid; and Joanna, as soon as she reached the Loire, and entered the public street, was preceded by the cry that a young shepherdess, sent by God, had come to free Orleans, and to lead the king to Rheims. After three days' consultation and examination, she was admitted to the castle of Chinon, and knelt before the king. He
had stood aside to test her prophetic gift, and when she knelt before him he pointed to one of the lords in the great hall of audience, and said—“That is the king." She replied—“By my God, noble prince, you are he, and none other." Upon this, the king asked her name. “ Noble Dauphin, I am called Joanna the Maiden, and the Lord of heaven bids you, through me, to be crowned in the city of Rheims, and be a lieutenant of the King of heaven, who is the true King of France. God has pity upon you and your people, because Saint Louis and Charles the Great are upon their knees before Him, and pray for you."
Joanna stood bravely, and often answered very smartly the questions of the University, and Parliament of Poictiers, to whom the king referred her claims, and the very dignitaries who had pronounced the whole affair the merest fantasy, said after the interview that she was surely a marvellous creature of God. One eye-witness testifies that she appeared at Court as if born there, whilst another asserts that she seemed as humble as a shepherd girl. Both witnesses agree in the opinion that, respecting her mission, her speech was grand and noble; but otherwise it was that of a poor child of the people. She was eighteen years old at this time, and if we may venture to complete the traits drawn from authentic sources by the less authenticated testimony of an ancient statue, she was rather large for her sex, very strong, yet slender and delicate in shape, countenance pleasant, complexion uniform and very pale, eyes large and almond-shaped, the apple of the eye, light brown, with a greenish tinge, in expression somewhat melancholy, but unspeakably lovely, the forehead of moderate height, the nose straight and a little thin, the lips finely cut and red, the hollow between the lower lip and chin strongly marked, rich chestnut brown hair, put back over the temples, fell upon the white neck, but was cut rounding in the knightly fashion.
Such was the fair creature who went forth in mailed armor to fight the battles of France against an enemy whose hate had grown with centuries, and whose invading force was now strengthened by French factions. At Blois she unfurled her banner, and the great host there assembled were inflamed with new enthusiasm, as they saw upon its pure white folds the figure of the Saviour, two angels kneeling with lilies on each side, and underneath, the inscription, Jesus Maria. The way towards Orleans lay by the
banks of the Loire, through that garden and set down her story in the vulgar of France, in the very bloom of spring; annals of superstition. But the candor and preceded by chanting priests, and and good sense of our age seeks a worthiescorting large herds of cattle for victual er solution, and no fair-minded student of ling the city, the army had the appear history is willing to allow so interesting a ance of a peaceful pilgrimage. What poet chapter to pass by without connecting its could create a scene more expressive of lessons with some traits of our common whatever was noblest and fairest in those nature. The Maid of Orleans was a huold ages of chivalry and devotion! It was man creature like ourselves, and the mind but the faith of the times incarnated in which in her was so strangely moved was one whose sex and purity every Ave essentially the same organ that we posMaria had taught the people to adore ; it That she was an impostor no sane was the spirit of the prevalent Mary-wor thinker will now assert, for it would be ship carried from the sanctuary into the far more remarkable for an ignorant, sencamp, and stirring the fiercest of passions sitive girl to carry out such an imposture by the gentlest of affections. Need we in the camp and Court, at the altar, and say that this vision of light must go out even at the stake, than to have received in darkness, and that nothing but a per the supernatural commission which she petual miracle could keep a human crea claimed. Nor do we explain the chief ture upon the ethereal height where Joan- fact in her career when we ascribe her inna stood ? The story of her destiny is fluence over France to the force of relitoo familiar to repeat. Soon Orleans gious and martial enthusiasm, so inflamed called her its deliverer, and there, and in by her pretensions or her faith. She herother cities in quick succession, the lilies self is the great problem, and we cannot of France waved loyally from towers so settle it without some due recognition of lately insulted by the invader's flag. In the emotional powers of our nature in spite of all opposition, the Maid insisted connection with religious influences. Noupon pushing to Rheims; she stood with thing can be clearer than that she thought her banner by the altar at the coronation she saw visions and heard voices which of the Dauphin, and was first to kneel at moved her to her most conspicuous acts. his feet after he received the crown. This We do not mean to say that there were was the meridian of her glory. This external objects corresponding with those simple girl of Domremy was now the vows and visions; but that such impresforemost personage of France, and history sions as she insisted upon declaring were itself plays the artist in telling us that actually made upon her perceptive organs. her father, and brother, and uncle were Before her inquisitors, when severely witnesses of her honors, contrasting thus threatened, she sometimes wavered in asby their presence the splendors of the serting this; but her misgiving at last Court with the simplicity of her native wholly ceased, and in prison and at the home.
stake she maintained the reality of the As rapidly as her success her downfall communications. Now we do not feel came. Who does not know of her rash bound to explain all the strange experiattack upon Paris, the misgivings that ences of the soul any more than the strange began to question her inspiration, and the phenomena of Nature, and we are ready to series of disasters, ending in her capture allow that there are many dark nooks at Compiegne, and her execution in 1431. and corners in the human mind, in spite Never did grim inquisitors doom to death of the doctors and metaphysicians. We a fairer victim by baser arts; and never may nevertheless connect Joanna's visitadid a holier light shine out from the tions with those of a large class of minds crackling fires of a martyr's pile, than similarly constituted, and who are still to when this lily of France was cast into the be found. The old devotees thought little flames. The attendant priest heard her, of hearing voices and of seeing visions in as the fire was doing its deadly work, in the open day, and a man of exact science voke her saints—and her last word was like Swedenborg could be as familiar with her Saviour's name. The cross afterwards the people of his day-dream land as with planted upon the place of execution at his acquaintance in the street or social Rouen was a fitting memorial of her circle, noting down the words of Plato or self-sacrifice, and of the penitence of her 'Luther as readily as his own table-talk. murderers.
It is very clear that if, in the ordinary Never more interest was attached to state of the system, external objects are the character of Joan d'Arc, as a phi- needed to act upon the nerves of sight and losophical study, than now. It is very hearing, there may be an extraordinary easy to call her a half-crazy enthusiast. state of the system in which internal
convictions or emotions convey external phecy by securing the result indicated. impressions, or affect the organs of sense Hlase sagaciously remarks that this angel precisely like external objects. There is -this Saint Catherine-is her own high no more decided illustration of this fact soul unconscious of itself, like the dæmon than the case of the English artist, Blake, of Socrates; hence she was led by her who died in 1812. In youth his powers counsels, and she said very naïvely of her had been severely tasked, and through saints—- I am always of their opinion.” life his days were given to the most en We are not disposed to deny the many grossing labor. His ideal faculty, so little instances of wonderful presentiment which exercised by the drudgery of engraving history and biography record. With all and ordinary painting, would revel in a our explanation of Joanna's mission upon world of its own, and when the day's the ground of known principles, she rework was done, he hurried to the inter mains still a wonderful creature of God, view with his phantasmal guests, by the and an aureola of mystical light still linsea-shore, as cagerly as a bon vivant goes gers about her head. We understand to his boon companions. He met the enough of her to claim a place for her shades of Pindar, Virgil, Dante, and Mil among the daughters of men, and to diston, and so distinct was the impression cern in her, traits that are acting still upon his senses, that he frequently made upon the destinies of our race. Her sketches of their features. -and in one career proves how much stronger the case he wrote down a poem dictated to emotions are than the calculating underhim by Milton-a poem not extant in standing, and that still, as of old, “out of Milton's lifetime, and apparently bearing the heart are the issues of life.” She was the same relation to his muse that would not a perfect saint without human temper be expected by all who are familiar with and foibles. She had her little fits of the recent issue of poetry and prose from pettishness, and could sometimes scold, the mighty spirits that wait upon the like others of her sex, railing at the Engrapping conclave. In another instance he lish as a set of God-dams, as she usually saw the form of the hero Wallace, and called them, and threatening to kill the while sketching him, he was interrupted Hussites in a bunch if they did not return by the shade of Edward I., who disap to the true faith. It is precisely this napeared too soon to admit of a complete tural impulsiveness--this mingling of sketch, and allowed him to go on with childish naïveté with heroic inspirationthe Scotch hero's portrait. This artist's that gives her the chief hold upon our experience certainly illustrates a law of wonder and admiration. the human constitution, of which every Our idea would be fitly carried out by day-dreamer has some slight knowledge, adding to this sketch of the Maid of and it enables us to explain without mir Orleans some description of two characters acle Joanna's voices and visions of angels unlike her, and unlike each other except and saints. The thought that so haunted in the point of their reputation as prophetic her mind may have projected itself before leaders. We mean Savonarola, whose her senses in the form of the saint nearest
majestic presence so long saved Florence her affections. Bred up in one of the from aristocratic oppression and demostrongholds of ancient loyalty, her devo cratic license, and who under his monkish tion may have been influenced by the fa garb bore to the scaffold in 1498 the seeds miliar legend that a woman of Lorraine of religious liberty which Luther afterwas to be the deliverer of France ; and wards planted broadcast among the naher nerves, so delicate from her habits of tions; and to step forward nearly a half fasting, may have readily lent their service century in time and to descend infinitely to her fancy, like the chemist's silvered in the moral scale, we mean also John of plate presented to the play of the solar light. Leyden, the tailor prophet and king of She did not claim preternatural guidance the Anabaptists of Munster, who, amid upon all subjects; but only in what con his seraglio of sixteen wives, mingled a sincerned her main duty to France, and the cere fanaticism with the most monstrous salvation of her soul. If in many points self-indulgence, and like the Apostles of her alleged visitants left her in darkness, Mormonism, sent out disciples to summon it must be allowed that some of their pre the world to allegiance from a court rivaldictions and promises were remarkably ling the Turk's in licentiousness. But we fulfilled. Let us bear in mind, however, cannot enter into these subjects now withthe fact that their communications turned out going beyond our limit, and we have upon one commanding idea, and all the said enough to indicate our purpose and power of her contagious enthusiasm would illustrate its main idea. therefore tend to turn promise into pro
When we read these and the like pas
sages of history, we are very apt to con happy man whose mind at the outset of gratulate ourselves upon living in these his career is so possessed by a true, brave days of common sense, when the rule of purpose that it moves him to the last, and reason has set all such hallucinations beneath all his thoughts and plans, shapes aside. Let us not be too sure of our ex and exalts his whole future. That is the emption; we may have a madness of our best education which most duly recognizes own, even in the absorbing passion with this truth, and aims to train
not which our shrewd schemers pursue what merely to act truly but to be truly acted to them is the one thing needful, and we upon, by looking as well to the uncondoubt very much if one of our keenest scious motive springs as to the conscious money kings could, when tried by the and deliberate plans of conduct. A far standard of true wisdom, make out a higher place must be given to the emoclearer proof of sanity than any of the tions and imagination, those powers that mystical dreamers of the old days of have an almost prophetic function in our superstition. He, certainly, who is so destiny, and which can lift us to the busy with getting a living as
heavens or drag us to the dust. Preposto have time to live, whose imagina sessed by true ideals, the chamber of imtion is haunted with visions of gold agery filled with forms of beauty and and merchandise which exist merely in wisdom, the affections pervaded by a noble his fancy, whose soul is shut out from the love, and the whole soul trained in true great realities that sages have loved, has relations with the divine kingdom, our little right to make merry at his fellow rising youth may unite the fervor of those madmen who have made the noble mis oldi centuries with the keen science and take of losing sight of things present in the mighty art of our time. Sagacious their dreams of the worlds unseen. If men may have Savonarola's prophet-like we could catch a good specimen of the fire without any surrender of their reasonWall-street type of worldly wisdom, who able hope for humanity to wild dreams of lives among fancies of the financial kind, the fifth monarchy on earth, and fair and have his claims to sanity tried before women may keep all the sobriety of their Rhadamanthus, in comparison with one of judgment and the propriety of their sex the old monks who entertained angels without falling short of the high hearted or exorcised devils, we should be little enthusiasm and spiritual receptivity that disposed to bet on the Wall-street side. gave such fascination and power to Joanna Surely we have our own madness, and of Arc. If the guides of education who Mammon is the god who gives the afflatus hold the future of Christendoin in their to the new divination. We have not seen hands, do not make more account of the the end of it yet, nor can any man tell ministry of the emotions and the imaginahow far the hallucination of the dominant tion, it may be that the power of these materialism may go until the reaction faculties will be illustrated upon a grand begins, and perhaps some new age of scale in a much baser form, and some enthusiasm leads off the future of our John of Leyden catching the passions of race.
the age, may mingle war, lust, and avarice One thing is very certain, and with into a new fanaticism, of which the Morstating it, we end our prosing. He is a mon prophet is but the tame precursor.
CONFESSIONS OF A YOUNG ARTIST.
with a portrait of a gentleman-my uncle John-which hung in our parlor. This parlor was not often used, for we always sat in the kitchen, unless we had company; but I stole in there every day to gaze upon that interesting countenance. What particularly gratified me was the blueness of the eyes, the very long eyelashes, each one separately painted--just like life--and the way in which the dimple in the chin was shaded; so that it seemed
as if I could put my finger into it. I tried to do so several times, and ran some risk of making a serious hole in the can
In this portrait art first dawned upon me; but to iny boyish eyes it seemed to shine in its full glory, when I went one afternoon with my mother to take tea with her friend, Mrs. Brown, and I could scarcely pay any attention to the cakes and preserves placed before me, so bewildered with delight was I by a pic