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THE

AMERICAN LABORER,

DEVOTED TO THE CAUSE

OF

PROTECTION TO HOME INDUSTRY,

EMBRACING THE

ARGUMENTS, REPORTS AND SPEECHES

OFITHE ABLEST CIVILIANS OF THE UNITED STATES IN FAVOR OF THE

POLICY OF PROTECTION TO AMERICAN LABOR,

WITH

THE STATISTICS OF PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES,

&c. &c. &c.

In Monthly parts, and now for the first time published complete in one Volame.

NEW-YORK:

GREELEY & McELRATH, TRIBUNE BUILDINGS,

160 NASSAU-STREET.

1843.

PRICE $100.]

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CONTENTS

Tariff our Currency may be speedily and perma-
OF THIS (APRIL) NUMBER:

nently restored, our Laborers be universrlly em-
1. . INTRODUCTION-(To The Public.)..Page.. 1 || ployed and more amply remunerated, and our

11..MR. SLADE'S SPEECH-(EditoRIAL..)....... 2 Country again impelled on the high road of Pros-

III.. THE GREAT HOME INDUSTRY NA-

perity and Industrial Activity to perfect freedom

TIONAL CONVENTION, &c......

do

IV..RESOLUTION-(Passed at a Convention

from Foreign indebtedness and general prostra-

of the citizens of Bristol County, Mass.). ..do tion. These great truths will be calmly, earnestly

V..WHAT OF THE TIMES?.

.2, 3, 4

set forth in the calm language of persuasion, and

VI.. THE NECESSITY OF PROTECTION

TO THE FARMING INTEREST 4,5 in the sanguine hope of carrying conviction to every

VII..MR. SLADE'S SPEECH .... trom 6 to 23 inclusive | enlightened and candid mind.

VIII..AGRICULTURAL STATISTICS OF

We do not advocate Protection as a remedy for

THE UNITED STATES...

IX..THE NECESSITY OF A PROTECTIVE

all possible or actual evils ; we know right well

TARIFF TO A SOUND CURRENCY..26, 27, 28 that Extravagance, Idleness, Vice, Intemperance,

X..WHERE STANDS NEW-YORK ?. 28, 29, 30

XI..UNIVERSAL FREE TRADE..

and the like, may ruin a nation in de'sance of the

XII..MANUFACTURES AND IMPORTS?.. 31 most enlightened and beneficent Policy. But

XIII..SPEECH OF MR. MORRIS, or Pa...

.32

these evils Philanthropy is already combating

XIV..PROSPECTUS—(THE AMERICAN LABORER.)...32

with

energy and effect; the Pulpit, the Press, the

Forum, and the Lecture-Room are striving together

TO THE PUBLIC.

for their extermination. We heartily wish success

We present herewith the first number of a

to all efforts to ameliorate the Physical or elevate
Monthly Magazine or Journal, designed to em-
body in successive numbers the Facts and Argu. in these efforts whenever and wherever we may—

the Moral condition of Mankind-we will unite
ments sustaining the justice, sound policy, and but we shall devote the pages of The Laborer ex-
imminent necessity of PROTECTING AMERICAN |clusively to the great cause of Protection to Ame-
LABOR from depressing and disastrous foreign
competition, by countervailing, to a reasonable rican Industry, as essential to the general employ-
extent, the heavy import duties to which nearly

ment and just recompense of the Working Men of
every product of this country is subjected in the this Country, to their comfortable and independent
great markets of Europe. This work will de- subsistence, to the proper education of their chil-
monstrate, from unden iable documentary evidence, dren, to the steady improvement of their circum-
that such Protection has been recommended and stances, 10 the enlargement of their sphere of
advocated, as essential to our National Prosperity Intellectual existence, and to the ultimate estab-
and Independence, by every distinguished Ameri- lishment of all International relations and inter-
can Patriot and Statesman, from WASHINGTON course on a basis of perfect Equity and Universal
and Robert Morris down to John C. Calhoun Beneficence.
- that it has been steadily pursued by every emi-

THE LABORER will be rendered complete in a
nent practical Statesman of Europe when in pow- single full octavo volume, and not continued far-
er since the Science of Political Economy has ther unless the circumstances of the Country and
been known—and that the want of such Protec- the wishes of its patrons shall imperatively require
tion was one of the great impelling causes of our

it. It will form a large and closely printed volume

Revolution, and of our poverty, thriftlessness, and of 384 pages, (with Title-Page and Index,) equal

embarrassments under the Old Confederation, to four average duodecimo volumes, and will be

whereby the States were fairly driven into “ the afforded at the lowest possible price :-viz. To

formation of a more perfect Union," as essential single Subscribers, 75 cents; three do., $2; five

to their salvation from utter anarchy and wretch-do., $3; nine du., $5; and to twenty Subscribers

edness. It will demonstrate that the great fun- sending together, for Ten Dollars, or barely 50

damental cause of our present National embarrass-cents each for the entire volume. We ask the

ments, bankruptcies, and currency derangements, friends

. of American Industry every where to aid

is the want of efficient Protection to our own In-

us in procuring Subscriptions.
dustry by a Tariff, countervailing the depressing account of the Proceedings of the Home Industry Conven-
exactions and policy of our European rivals in tion, embodying the conclusions at which it arrives, with
Manufactures and the Arts ; and that with such a

the Reports, Resolutions, &c. It will be put to press as

soon as possible after the Convention shall have adjourned.
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D The next number of THE LABORER will contain a full

Mr. Slade's Speech.

What of the Times ? We earnestly comneend to the profound attention HARD Times again!" says some well-condiand enlightened judgement of every reader the able tioned, well-fed grumbler at other people's grumand convincing SPEECH OF Hon. Wm. SLADE of bling; “shall we never have an end of this incesVt. showing the absolute unanimity and zeal of sant cry of. Hard Times ?' "

Truly, we fear not every eminent Statesman whom our Country has | immediately. Our country is in debt Two Hunproduced in favor of Proteeting Domestic Indus- | dred Millions of dollars to Europe; this debt must try, the acquiesence and union of all parties which in good faith be paid, and its annual interest alone ever existed in this Country, (except the Tories of requires a drain of Ten or Twelve Millions a year, the Revolution) in support of this policy, and the upon the Industry of the country. Many of the imminent necessity which now exists for its re States are paralyzed and dishonored for the moadoption and maintenance as essential to all in- ment, yet their whole indebtedness will ultimately terests and all sections of the Country. Mr. | be paid, principal and interest. But neither can Slade's Speech is very long-longer than any | this be done, nor can our country extricate itself document we shall usually publish—but is in good from domestic embarrassments and resume its onpart made up of pertinent and forcible quotations ward march to greatness, without a decided change from WASHINGTON, JEFFERSON, Madison, and from the Public Policy of the last ten years. The the Sages and Patriots of our Revolutionary era, arguments of all thinkers, theorists, economists, as also from our more modern Statesmen, show- suppose this. One man traces all our evils to an ing the absolute necessity of Protecting Duties on inflated and vicious Paper Currency; another, to Foreign Products to our National Independence the overthrow of the National Bank; a third finds and welfare. Long as it is, there is not a para the cause in Speculation and Extravagance; a graph that we could consent to spare. We en fourth, in excessive Commercial Activity and treat the Farmers, Mechanics and Working Men Over-Production in particular branches of Indusof the Union to consider carefully its · argu- | try, &c. The clear-sighted observer perceives that ments, and compare them with the easy flip- these various causes are not discordant, as they pancy, the pert assurance, the irrelevant common seem, but essentially one; the only difference beplaces of the Free Trade theorists of our day. | ing as to which is fundamental and underlies the Only let both sides be heard by the toiling millions others. All see that the Currency as it is is unwhose interests are so deeply involved in the de- sound, deranged, and vicious; though some hold cision of this controversy, and we shall cheerfuily || that this state of things would have been avoided abide their verdict.

if the National Bank had been preserved, while T The great HOME INDUSTRY NATIONAL Con- others consider that Bank tainted with the inhe

rent vice of the Paper System, and as likely to ag. VENTION will assemble in this City on Tuesday, the

gravate as check the disorders which prevail. 5th inst. It will be attended by more than Two

All know that we—that is, a great many of us THOUSAND DELEGATES from all parts of the Union.

have bought too much and lived too high, and inWe earnestly entreat the Farmers of each County curred too much debt, and mistaken imaginary or Town, the Mechanics and Artisans of each City profits on speculative purchases for solid earnings and Village who may not have already done so, to -all know that we were once flourishing, are now hold meetings immediately and appoint one or more

prostrate, and need some decided change to reDelegates to this Convention. Momentous conse

store us to Prosperity. All will see, too, that quences to the interests

all hang upon its de

cursing what cannot be helped will not mend the liberations, and we trust that great and lasting

matter. We are in debt as a Nation, as States, good will result from them. It is important that all branches of American Industry be represented— tured rashly upon vast enterprises of Internal Im

and as People. Many of our States have adventhat all voices be there heard.

provement which they have not the means to comF A Convention of the citizens of Bristol plete ; whereupon they are deeply embarrassed, County, Mass. in favor of the Protection of Home their faith dishonored, and in debt increasing by inIndustry, was held at Taunton on the 17th-Silas

terest, to no good purpose, when perhaps those Shepperd, President. The following is one of the very works would be worth to them three times the Resolutions :

cost, and would pay interest forthwith, if comResolved, That the Protection we claim under a system of pleted. So of thousands of individuals, who are Revenue that shall at the same time meet the wants of an economical Administration of Government and those of an now reviled as bankrupt speculators for undertakindustrious, enterprising people, involves the vital interests of the whole Country-equally of the South and the North, ings which would have proves highly useful and of the West and the East; and ought to be considered with

lucrative, but for great and violent changes in the a gravity suited to its IMPORTANCE, and with a patriotism suited to its COMPREHENSIVENESS; and as being infinitely state of affairs, which they could neither avoid nor above the biases or prejudices of a local or party origin.

foresee. And the very men who now exult over Committees were appointed to collect and disseminate information, and Twenty Delegates ap- served, would have been the most eager to follow,

their misfortunes and pronounce them richly depointed to the Home Industry Convention in this

the loudest to huzza in their train, had the wheel City on the 5th of April.

but turned the other way, and brought them up it, then is it proved that every article of trilling winners! This is a base world of ours !

weight, in proportion to its cost, of which But the question still recurs—What shall be cost labor is the principal element, should be done to restore General Prosperity ? The in- || bought by us from the workshops of Europe, and stinctive, the inevitable answer is, We must work pot produced on our own soil. But is this a safe mere, produce more, earn more, and buy less, con- deduction? How are we to pay for these manusume less, spend less. We must all strive to get factures if we import them? In what is payment out of debt, where we have formerly seemed solicit- to be made ? Not in Cotton, Tobacco, or Rice, ous only to get in. We must export more than we surely; for we have already forced these upon the import, if we would honorably relieve ourselves from European markets till they are glutted, and the Foreign Debt; we must raise more Grain, make more price of our great Southern staple is now lower Cloth, wear less Silk and drink less Wine, if we would than ever before. Not in our Grain, Beef, Pork, remove our Domestic embarrassments. So far, all and other Free Labor products; for these are all must substantially agree. But it is idle to bid men substantially prohibited, except in times of famine, work, when they can get nothing to do to exhort by the Governments of Europe. How, then, are them to produce when they cannot sell their last we to pay for Fifty Millions' worth more of Foyear's products at a living price And this, brings | reign Manufactures ? us at once to the great, the momentous question : Let us glance one moment at the immediate efWhat change in our National Policy will best fects of our easy encouragement to Foreign Imporpromote the interest of the Laboring Mass, in-| tations. All through the winter European Manucrease the demand for and reward of their La- factures have been pouring in upon us on Foreign bor, and secure a ready market and fair reward account, rattled off at auction for what they would to the Products of American Industry?

fetch, and the proceeds a good part in specieThis inquiry comes home to the business and hurried off to London or Paris. This process has. fireside of every laboring man-of every citizen naturally depressed the value of all such Manufacwho is not shielded by wealth from the danger of cures so rapidly that many mercantile houses in embarrassment and want. On the 1st day of July this and other cities, who have been doing a brisk ensuing, a great change in the Tarifi' takes place, business, throughout have been rendered irretrievif not prevented by intervening action of Congress.ably bankrupt simply by the fall in price of their On that day, all the duties collected on Foreign goods. At the same time our sound Banks, laborGoods imported into this country are to be reduceding under a constant and irresistible drain of speto the uniform horizontal rate of 20 per cent. oncie, have been compelled to contract, and still the value thereof. On many articles this reduction contract their Circulation and Discounts, breakwill amount to one-third of the duty now collect-|| ing many business men by the mere reduction ed, Let us now state a few pertinent facts. of their accommodations. On all hands, we

Throughout the past winter and present spring, see bankruptcy, embarrassment, poverty. Such is Foreign Goods have been poured and are still pour a first effect of the reduction of the Tariff. ing into the country on Foreign account, to an ex Its effects on our Industry have not been less tent almost without parallel. This importation is disastrous. At the very time when our Domestic invited by the low and still decreasing rates of duty Trade is declining through the general decline of imposed by our Tariff, and stimulated by the de- prices and the anarchy in Exchanges, we see 5000 pression of Trade and Labor in Europe. While pair of French boots imported in one ship to Laborers are famishing for bare bread, they are Boston, the very metropolis of the American shoeThankful for any wages, even sixpence a day. trade. A French merchant tailor drops over in a With Labor so reduced, it is manifestly easy to steamship, picks up orders for six hundred coats manufacture articles which do not suffer by trans- | from the dandies of Baltimore, and is off in the portation, and of which the value is large compared | next steamer, to have the coats made in Paris from with the bulk, and sell them in our markets below French cloth, and at prices which an American the prices of our own similar products. For in- tailor could not live by. Meanwhile our American stance, let us suppose that the average earnings of Manufactories, undersold through the cheapness a shoemaker in this country are one dollar for a of British pauper labor, are preparing to give up full day's work, while in France shoemakers may business ; several have already stopped; others be hired for twenty-five cents, and leather-dressers will do so as soon as they have worked up their in proportion. Who does not see that it will be stuck on hand, and many more if the further reeasy to manufacture shoes in France, pay a duty of duction of duty on the 1st of July goes into opera 20 per cent. and sell them here below the money cost tion. We are assured that many of the principal of the American article ? As of this, so of other establishments of New-England have had a consulManufactures. If the fact that an article can be tation, and, finding that they must either stop busibought abroad for fewer dollars than would be ness, rush upon certain ruin, or reduce the wages charged for its production at home proves that it of their laborers, have very properly resolved to is the dictate of wisdom and sound policy to import || stop, as the least of impending evils.

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