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CARE-Origin of.

Cares, both in kind and degree, are as innumerable as the sands of the seashore; and the fable which Hyginus has so pleasantly constructed on this subject, shows that man is their proper prey. "Care," says he, "crossing a dangerous brook, collected a mass of the dirty slime which deformed its banks, and moulded it into the image of an earthly being, which Jupiter, on passing by soon afterIwards, touched with ethereal fire, and warmed into animation; but, being at a loss what name to give this new production, and disputing to whom of right it belonged, the matter was referred to the arbitrament of Saturn, who decreed that his name should be MAN, Homo ab humo, from the dirt of which he had been made; that care should entirely possess his mind while living; that Tellus, or the earth, should receive his body when dead; and that Jupiter should dispose of his celestial essence according to his discretion. Thus was man made the property of care from his original formation; and discontent, the offspring of care, has ever since been his inseparable companion." Burton.

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CARICATURE-Evil of Drawing.

The great moral satirist, Hogarth, was once drawing in a room where many of his friends were assembled, and among them my mother. She was then a very young woman. As she stood by Hogarth, she expresed a wish to learn to draw caricature. "Alas, young lady," said Hogarth, "it is not a faculty to be envied ! Take my advice, and never draw caricature; by the long practice of it, I have lost the enjoyment of beauty. I never see a face but distorted: I never have the satisfaction to behold the human face divine." We may suppose that such language from Hogarth would come with great effect; his manner was very earnest, and the confession is well deserving of Bishop Sandford.


CASTE-Ill Effects of.

Up to the present time, each caste among the Hindoos has not only been self-governed, and separately organized, but may be looked upon as a separate nation, unconnected by lation around it. Hence it is that there is no blood, pursuits, or sympathies, with the popusuch thing as Hindoo public opinion. So long as a man preserves the good opinion of his caste, he may commit the gravest crimes against the general public, the grossest perjuries or frauds that would demand exclusion from society; still, if his caste is uninjured by him, he is not deemed to bear any blot on his escutcheon. Perry.

CASTLE-in Ruins.

All ruin'd and wild is their roofless abode, And lonely the dark raven's sheltering tree;

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Censure, says an ingenious author, is the tax a man pays to the public for being eminent. It is a folly for an eminent man to think of escaping it, and a weakness to be affected with it. All the illustrious persons of antiquity, and, indeed, of every age in the world, have passed through this fiery persecution. There is no defence against reproach but obscurity; it is a kind of concomitant to greatness, as satires and invectives were an essential part of a Roman triumph. Addison.

CENSURE-of the World.

O that the too censorious world would learn This wholesome rule, and with each other bear; But man, as if a foe to his own species,


Takes pleasure to report his neighbour's faults,
Judging with rigour every small offence,
And prides himself in scandal. Few there are
Who, injured, take the part of the transgressor,
And plead his pardon, ere he deigns to ask it.

CEREMONY-Insincerity of.

Ceremony was but devised at first

To set a gloss on faint deeds, hollow welcomes,
Recanting goodness, sorry ere 'tis shown;
But where there is true friendship, there needs
their Furniture.


With three of the four rooms we have no

thing to do. Two were bed-rooms, and in the third and dreariest snuffled a restless boy, something proud of his dignity of clerk, something interested in the last number of the "Avenger of Blood," yet something pining for the undignified pitching and tossing, carried on by mere boys, who were not clerks, in a yard behind. Sometimes the clink of the copper and the instant clamour of the antagonists were too much for him, and he left the Avenger roasting his father's murderer, and went sulkily to the window to gaze on the plebeians, and to wish that he had not risen from the ranks. Then nobler thoughts came over him; he remembered his salary, and the occasional order for the Adelphi, from his good-natured masters, and he went back to the half-cooked assassin who was being so signally served out by filial retribution. But the principal chamber was a pleasant one, handsomely carpeted, pictured from various collections, and not without its easy chairs for its owners, and similar accommodation for any friend. Philip Arundel's tastes were a little in the way of the Epicurean's above-mentioned; but anything like fastidiousness had been corrected in Philip at College; and though there were some engravings, statuettes, and knick-knacks which the elegant gentleman would not have disdained, they were interspersed with articles that he would have removed with a pair of tongs via the window. Pipes of all kinds hung about, or littered the mantelpiece, which was further encumbered with quaint tobacco jars, in which terriers' heads, and even the feminine form, were profaned into receptacles for the maligned weed. There was, against a wall, a noble stag's head; but on its branches hung a travelling cap, a shot flask, a Highland dirk, and other disfigurements, that made it resemble a stern Christmas tree. A Gothic bookcase was not ill furnished; but between a Lucretius of 1511 and the "Pickwick Papers" was a cigar cabinet; and the last volume of "Boswell"


would have fallen as flat as Jemmy himself did on the pavement of that assize town where he got so terribly tipsy, but that a pair of fencinggloves buttressed the book, and made you look round for foils and masks. These you sought not in vain, for they were set as an appropriate halo around a bracket, from which, and from the sea, rose Venus Anadyomene. Shirley Brooks.

CHANCE-Argument against.

Can that which is not, shape the things that are?

Is chance omnipotent-resolve me why
The meanest shell-fish, and the noblest brute,
Transmit their likeness to the years that come?
Dilnot Sladden.

CHANCE-Characteristics of.

Chance is but the pseudonyme of God for those particular cases which He does not choose to subscribe openly with His own signmanual. Coleridge.

CHANCE-a Double.

In my school-days, when I had lost one shaft,
I shot another of the self-same flight,

The self-same way, with more advised watch,
To find the other forth.


Ships, wealth, general confidence,—
All were his :

He counted them at break of day;
And when the sun set! where were they?


unhappy, alas! to imagine that a deep and heartfelt grief can either be eradicated, or even assuaged, by change of place or scene, is but to mock a sorrow, the intensity of which we are incapable of comprehending.

Mrs. Maberley.


Gather the rosebuds while ye may,

Old Time is still a-flying;

And that same flower that blooms to-day,
To-micrrow shall be dying.


Our bodies are at all times like the fire which was shown to the hero of the Pilgrim's Progress in the Interpreter's house, which had water poured on it on one side of the wall against which it blazed, and oil on the other. Here one tissue is burning like fuel, and there another is becoming the depository of combustible matter. We have, as it were, millions of microscopic wind-furnaces, converting into carbonic acid, water-vapour, and other products of combustion, all the combustible elements of the body; and millions of blastfurnaces, reducing the starch and sugar of the food, and the sulphates and phosphates of the body, into inflammable oils and other fuels, which are finally transferred to the windfurnaces, and burned there. Burning, and, what we must call in contradistinction, unburning, thus proceed together; the flame of life, like a blowpipe flame, exhibiting an oxidizing and a reducing action, at points not far distant from each other. Such is the human bodyever changing, ever abiding;—a temple always complete, and yet always under repair, a mansion which quite contents its possessor, and yet has its plans and its materials altered each moment;-a machine which never stops working, and yet is taken to pieces in the one twinkof an eye, and put together in the other; -a cloth of gold, to which the needle is ever adding on one side of a line, and from which the scissors are ever cutting away on the other. Yes. Life, like Penelope of old, is ever weaving and unweaving the same web, whilst her grim suitors, Disease and Death, watch for her halting; only, for her is no Ulysses who will one day in triumph return. Dr. George Wilson.

CHANGE-not always Curative.

It is too common an opinion that change of scene is the best restorative of an unhappy mind. With some temperaments it may succeed, but, surely, not with all: and yet, how universally is the remedy suggested for almost every species of mental ailment, notwithstand-ling ing its being so seldom productive of the effects attributed to it. What lasting amelioration of our condition can be rationally expected from yielding to what is but the mere impulse of the moment-a sensation of restlessness, arising from our own ill-regulated feelings, and a vain desire to escape from ourselves and our own thoughts, which is mistaken for an aversion to the places and objects that have been the unconscious witnesses of our sufferings? From CHANGES-The Mind accustomed to. whatever source our uncomfortable feelings may arise, they would perhaps be alleviated, or subdued, by a little firmness and determination on our part; and this, if we chose, could be easily summoned to our aid at home, instead of setting out on our travels to seek for consolation we know not where. And to the really

To the mind

Which is itself, no changes bring surprise.


The same stale viands served up o'er and o'er
The stomach nauseates.



Changing hands without changing measures, is as if a drunkard in a dropsy should change his doctors, and not his diet. Saville.

CHANGES-Social and Political.

The great trading companies were not instituted for selfish purposes, but to insure the consumer of manufactured articles that what he purchased was properly made and of a reasonable price. They determined prices, fixed wages, and arranged the rules of apprenticeship. But in time the companies lost their healthy vitality, and, with other relics of feudalism, were in the reign of Elizabeth hastening away. There were no longer trades

men to be found in sufficient number who were possessed of the necessary probity; and it is impossible not to connect such a phenomenon with the deep melancholy which, in those years, settled down on Elizabeth herself. For, indeed, a change was coming upon the world, the meaning and direction of which even is still hidden from us-a change from era to era. The paths trodden by the footsteps of ages were broken up; old things were passing away, and the faith and the life of ten centuries were dissolving like a dream. Chivalry was dying; the abbey and the castle were soon together to crumble into ruins; and all the forms, desires, beliefs, convictions of the old world were passing away never to return. A

new continent had risen up beyond the western sea. The floor of heaven, inlaid with stars, had sunk back into an infinite abyss of immeasurable space; and the firm earth itself, unfixed from its foundations, was seen to be but a small atom in the awful vastness of the


CHAOS-Description of.

Before their eyes in sudden view appear
The secrets of the hoary deep; a dark,
Illimitable ocean, without bound,

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Those who quit their proper character to assume what does not belong to them, are for the greater part ignorant of both the character

universe. In the fabric of habit in which they they leave and of the character they assume.


had so laboriously built for themselves, mankind were to remain no longer. And now it is all gone-like an unsubstantial pageant faded; and between us and the old English there lies a gulf of mystery which the prose of the historian will never adequately bridge. They cannot come to us, and our imagination can but feebly penetrate to them. Only among the aisles of the cathedrals, only as we gaze upon their silent figures sleeping on their tombs, some faint conceptions float before us of what these men were when they were alive; and perhaps in the sound of church bells, that peculiar creation of medieval age, which falls upon the ear like the echo of a vanished world. Froude.

CHARACTER-Decision of.

He who, when called upon to speak a disagreeable truth, tells it boldly and has done, is both bolder and milder than he who nibbles in a low voice, and never ceases nibbling. Lavater.

Decision of character is one of the most important of human qualities, philosophically considered. Speculation, knowledge, is not the chief end of man; it is action. We may, by a fine education, learn to think most correctly, and talk most beautifully; but when it comes to action, if we are weak and undecided, we are of all beings the most wretched. All mankind feel themselves weak, beset with infirmities, and surrounded with dangers; the acutest minds are the most conscious of difficulties and dangers. They want, above all things, a leader with that boldness, decision, and

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energy, which with shame they do not find in CHARACTER-Unsteadiness of. themselves. "Give us the man," shout the O perilous mouths, multitude, "who will step forward and take That bear in them one and the self-same tongue, the responsibility." He is instantly the idol, Either of condemnation or approof! the lord, and the king among men. He, then, Bidding the law make court'sy to their will; who would command among his fellows, must Hooking both right and wrong to the appetite, excel them more in energy of will than in To follow as it draws! Shakspeare. power of intellect. Burnap.

All thy virtue dictates, dare to do.


CHARACTER-Definitions of.
Character is a perfectly educated will. Novalis. CHARACTER (the Female)-Influence


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It is in the relaxation of security; it is in the expansion of prosperity; it is in the hour of dilatation of the heart, and of its softening into festivity and pleasure, that the real character of men is discerned. If there is any good in them, it appears then or never. Even wolves and tigers, when gorged with their prey, are safe and gentle. It is at such times that noble minds give all the reins to their good nature. They indulge their genius even to intemperance, in kindness to the afflicted, in generosity to the conquered; forbearing insults, forgiving injuries, overpaying benefits. Fuil of dignity themselves, they respect dignity in all, but they feel it sacred to the unhappy. But it is then, and basking in the sunshine of unmerited fortune, that low, sordid, generous, and reptile souls swell with their boarded poisons; it is then that they display their odious splendour, and shine out in the fall lustre of their native villainy and baseBurke.




Every man has in himself a continent of undiscovered character. Happy is he who acts the Columbus to his own soul. Sir J. Stevens.


A good name is better than precious ointment.

If mankind had been perpetuated without their milder companions, a strong and iron race would have inhabited the earth. There is something in the active spirits and powers of the manly portion of our common species which loves difficulties, enterprise, exertion, dangers, and personal display. These qualities and propensities would too often animate selflove and selfishness into continual strife, civil discord, and battle, if no softer and kinder companions were about such beings, to occupy some portion of their thoughts and attentions, to create and cherish milder and sweeter feelings, and to provide for them the more soothing happiness of a quiet home and a domestic life. Tenderness, sympathy, good humour, smiles, gentleness, benignity, and affection, can diffuse pleasures more grateful than those of irritation and contest, and awaken the sensibilities that most favour intellectual and moral cultivation. Turner.

CHARITY-Attributes of.

Charity suffereth long, and is kind; charity envieth not; charity vaunteth not itself, is not puffed up, doth not behave itself unseemly, seeketh not her own, is not easily provoked, thinketh no evil; rejoiceth not in iniquity, but rejoiceth in the truth; beareth all things, believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things. St. Paul.

Charity! decent, modest, easy, kind,
Softens the high, and rears the abject mind;
Knows with just reins and gentle hand to guide
Betwixt vile shame and arbitrary pride.
Not soon provoked, she easily forgives,
And much she suffers as she much believes.
Soft peace she brings wherever she arrives;
She builds our quiet, as she forms our lives;
Lays the rough paths of peevish nature even,
And opens in each heart a little heaven,
Each other gift which God on man bestows,
Its proper bounds and due restriction knows;
To one fixed purpose dedicates its power,
And finishing its act, exists no more.


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