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RICHES-not Wanting.

That's true plenty, not to have, but not to Chrysostom.

want riches.


See! The diff'rence 'twixt the covetous and prodigal ! The covetous man never has money, And the prodigal will have none shortly. Ben Jonson.

RICH AND POOR-Counsels to the. Rich, be not exalted; poor, be not dejected.

Cleobulus. RICH AND POOR-How to Rule the.

Those who are poor are sufficiently chastised by their poverty, and a sovereign's whole mind should be applied to relieve and protect them; their gratitude and support is certain, because they must always have so many despots to torment them, that it is their nature, as men. to cling steadily to the most powerful, while they are sure of his will and power to protect them. On the other hand, we see that nobles are generally bad; the rich have seldom any feelings of kindness, but have strong feelings of fear, and should treat the rich with severe watchfulness and rigour, and take every opportunity of striking at their purses. Let him make them poor, and he will make them grateful. Exalt the poor and abase the rich; the nearer you can bring them to a level the more easily can they be ruled; for it is clear that the more equally a pair of scales is balanced, the less is the weight required to give the preponderance to either side.

Sir Charles Napier.


When I compare together different classes, as existing at this moment in the civilized | world, I cannot think the difference between the rich and the poor, in regard to mere physical suffering, so great as is sometimes imagined. That some of the indigent among us die of scanty food, is undoubtedly true; but vastly more in this community die from eating too much than from eating too little, vastly more from excess than starvation. So as to clothing, many shiver from want of defence against the cold; but there is vastly more suffering among the rich from absurd and criminal modes of dress, which fashion has sanctioned, than among the poor from deficiency of raiment. Our daughters are oftener brought to the grave by their rich attire, than our beggars by their nakedness. So the poor are often overworked; but they suffer less than many among the rich, who have no work to do, no interesting object to fill up life, to


satisfy the infinite cravings of man for action. According to our present modes of education, how many of our daughters are subject to an ennui-a misery unknown to the poor, and more intolerable than the weariness of excessive toil. The idle young man, spending the day in exhibiting his person in the street, ought not to excite the envy of the over-tasked poor; and this cumberer of the ground is found exclusively among the rich. W. Ellery Channing.

Riches do not consist in having more gold and silver, but in having more in proportion, than our neighbours; whereby we are enabled to procure to ourselves a greater plenty of the conveniences of life than comes within their reach, who, sharing the gold and silver of the world in a less proportion, want the means of plenty and power, and so are poorer. Locke.

RIDICULE-Dangers of.

'Tis dangerous, too, in these licentious times,
Howe'er severe the smile, to sport with crimes;
Vices, when ridiculed, experience says,
First lose that horror which they ought to


Grow by degrees approved, and almost aim at praise. Whitehead.

RIGHT-is Might.

A man is right and invincible, virtuous, and on the road towards sure conquest, precisely while he joins himself to the great deep law of the world, in spite of all superficial laws, temporary appearances, profit-and-loss calculation; he is victorious while he co-operates with that great central law-not victorious otherwise; and surely his first chance of cooperating with it, or getting into the course of it, is to know with his own soul that it is-that it is good, and alone good. This is the soul of Islam; it is properly the soul of Christianity; for Islam is definable as a confused form of Christianity; had Christianity not been, neither had it been. Christianity also commands us, before all, to be resigned to God. We are to take no counsel with flesh and blood; give ear to no vain cavils, vain sorrows and wishes; to know that we know nothing; that the worst and cruellest to our eyes is not what it seems; that we have to receive whatsoever befalls us as sent from God above, and say, "It is good and wise-God is great! Though he slay me, yet will I trust in Him." Islam means in its way denial of self-annihilation of self. This is yet the highest wisdom that Heaven has revealed to our earth.



RIGHT-is Might.

O'tis excellent

To have a giant's strength! but it is tyrannous To use it like a giant. Shakspeare.

RIGHT-Practicability of.

It is common for men to say that such and such things are perfectly right, very desirable -but, unfortunately, they are not practicable. Oh, no. Those things which are not practicable, are not desirable. There is nothing really beneficial that does not lie within the reach of an informed understanding and a well-directed pursuit. There is nothing that God has judged good for us that He has not given us the means to accomplish, both in the natural and moral world. If we cry like children for the moon, like children we must

cry on.


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RIVERS-Geology of.

Streams and rivers-in fact, all watercurrents-act chiefly in a mechanical way, and their influence depends partly on the nature of the rocks over which they run, the rapidity of their flow, and the size or volume of water. If the rocks over which they pass be of a soft or friable nature, they soon cut out channels, and transport the eroded material in the state


of mud, sand, or gravel, to the lower level of some lake, to their estuaries, or to the bed of the ocean. Their cutting as well as transporting power is greatly aided by the rapidity of their currents; hence the power of mountaintorrents compared with the quiet and sluggish flow of the lowland river. It has been calculated, for example, that a velocity of three inches per second will tear up fine clay, that six inches will lift fine sand, eight inches sand coarse as linseed, and twelve inches fine gravel; while it requires a velocity of twentyfour inches per second to roll along rounded pebbles an inch in diameter, and thirty-six | inches per second to sweep angular stones of the size of a hen's egg. During periodical rains and landfloods, the currents of rivers often greatly exceed this velocity; hence the tearing up of old deposits of gravel, the sweeping away of bridges, and the transport of blocks many tons in weight-an operation greatly facilitated by the fact that stones of ordinary specific gravity (from 2.5 to 2:8) lose more than a third of their weight by being immersed in water. David Page.


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ROBIN-a Domestic Visitant.
The fowls of heaven,
Tamed by the cruel season, crowd around
The winnowing store, and claim the little boon
Which Providence assigns them. One alone,
The redbreast, sacred to the household gods,
Wisely regardful of the embroiling sky,
In joyless fields and thorny thickets leaves
His shivering mates, and pays to trusted man
His annual visit. Half afraid, he first
Against the window beats, then brisk alights
On the warm hearth; then, hopping o'er the floor,
Eyes all the smiling family askance,
And pecks, and starts, and wonders where he is!
Till, more familiar grown, the table crumbs
Attract his slender feet.

ROGUERY-Unhappiness of.

After long experience of the world, I affirm, before God, I never knew a rogue who was not Junius. unhappy.

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Loud Rumour speaks:

I, from the Orient to the drooping West,


Making the wind my post-horse, still unfold The acts commenced on this ball of Earth: Upon my tongues continual slanders rise; Upon which in every language I pronounce, Stuffing the ears of men with false reports. Shakspeare.

Hosts raised by fear, and phantoms of a day;
Astrologers, that future fates foreshow;
Projectors, quacks, and lawyers not a few;
And priests and party-zealots, numerous
With home-born lies, or tales from foreign

Each talk'd aloud, or in some secret place,
And wild impatience stared in every face.
The flying rumours gather'd as they roll'd,-
Scarce any tale was sooner heard than told;
And all who heard it made enlargements too;
In every ear it spread, on every tongue it


Thus flying east and west, and north and south, News travell'd with increase from mouth to mouth :

So from a spark, that, kindled first by chance, With gathering force the quick'ning flames advance,

Till to the clouds their curling heads aspire, And towers and temples sink in floods of fire. Pope.

RUMOUR-an Evil Messenger.

Rumour was the messenger Of defamation, and so swift, that none Could be the first to tell an evil tale. Pollok.


The art of spreading rumours may be compared to the art of pin-making. There is usually some truth, which I call the wire; as this passes from hand to hand, one gives it a polish, another a point, others make and put on the head, and at last the pin is completed. John Newton.


SABBATH-Blessedness of the.

Sunday, that day so tedious to the triflers of earth, so full of beautiful repose, of calmness and strength for the earnest and heavenlyminded. Maria J. M'Intosh.


SABBATH-Hallowing of the.

Now on earth the seventh Evning arose in Eden, for the sun Was set, and twilight from the east came on, Forerunning night; when at the holy mount Of heaven's high-seated top, th' imperial throne Of Godhead, fix'd for ever firm and sure, The Filial Power arrived, and sat him down With his Great Father, for He also went Invisible yet staid (such privilege Hath Omnipresence), and the work ordain'd, Author and End of all things; and from work Now resting, bless'd and hallow'd the seventh day.


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the lofty palm-trees, and dips his vessel in the waters of the calm, clear stream, and recovers his strength to go forth again upon his pilgrimage in the desert with renewed vigour and cheerfulness. Reade.

SABBATH-Observance of the.

Life and blessing will attend the man who observes the Sabbath. The Sabbath of rest is a continual lesson to him to turn his eye from all created objects, and look to that heavenly rest into which God is entered, and which is promised to man.

J. Milner.

Measure not men by Sundays, without regarding what they do all the week after.


He that remembers not to keep the Christian Sabbath at the beginning of the week, will be in danger to forget before the end of the week | that he is a Christian. Sir Edmund Turner.

The importance of the religious observance of the Sabbath is seldom sufficiently estimated. The violation of this duty by the young is one of the most decided marks of incipient moral degeneracy. Religious restraint is fast losing its hold upon that young man, who, having been educated in the fear of God, begins to spend the Sabbath in idleness or in amusement. And so also of communities. The desecration of the Sabbath is one of those evident indications of that criminal reckless-, ness, that insane love of pleasure, and that subjection to the government of appetite and passion, which forebodes that the "beginning of the end" of social happiness, and of true national prosperity, has arrived.

Hence we see how imperative is the duty of parents, and of legislators, on this subject. The head of every family is obliged, by the command of God, not only to honour this day himself, but to use all the means in his power to secure the observance of it by all those committed to his charge. He is thus not only promoting his own, but his children's happiness; for nothing is a more sure antagonist force to all the allurements of vice, as nothing tends more strongly to fix in the minds of the young a conviction of the existence and attributes of God, than the solemn keeping of this day. And hence, also, legislators are false to their trust, who, either by the enactment of laws, or by their example, diminish, in the least degree, in the minds of a people, the reverence due to that day which God has set apart for Himself. Wayland


SABBATH-Uses of the.

The Sundays of man's life,
Threaded together on Time's string,
Make bracelets to adorn the wife
Of the eternal, glorious king.

On Sunday, heaven's gate stands ope,
Blessings are plentiful and ripe,
More plentiful than hope.

that which prevails in Syria. At New Guinea the fashion is certainly picturesque; for they place upon their hands the leaves of trees as symbols of peace and friendship. An Ethiopian takes the robe of another and ties it about his own waist, leaving his friend partially naked. In a cold climate this would not be Herbert. very agreeable. Sometimes it is usual for persons to place themselves naked before those whom they salute as a sign of humility. This custom was put in practice before Sir Joseph Banks when he received the visit of two Otaheitan females. The inhabitants of the Philippine Islands take the hand or foot of him they salute, and gently rub their face with it, which is at all events more agreeable than the salute of the laplanders, who have a habit of rubbing noses, applying their own proboscis with some degree of force to that of the person they desire to salute. The salute with which you are greeted in Syria is at once most graceful and flattering; the hand is raised with a quick but gentle motion, to the heart, to the lips, and to the head, to intimate that the person saluting is willing to serve you, to think for you, to speak for you, and to act for you.

SABBATHS-like Way-marks. →
Sabbaths, like way-marks, cheer the pilgrim's

His progress mark, and keeps his rest in view.
In life's bleak winter, they are pleasant days,
Short foretastes of the long-long spring to come,
To every new-born soul each hallowed morn
Seems like the first, when everything was


Time seems an angel come afresh from heaven;
His pinions shedding fragrance as he flies,
And his bright hour-glass running sands of

Charles Wilcox.

SAGACITY-Perceptions of.

Sagacity finds out the intermediate ideas, to discover what connection there is in each link of the chain, whereby the extremes are held together. Locke.

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SALUTATION-Various Modes of.

Of all the different modes of salutation in various countries, there is none so graceful as

SALVATION-Simplicity of the Plan of.
Oh! how unlike the complex works of man,
Heaven's easy, artless, unencumber'd plan :
No meretricious graces to beguile,

No clustering ornaments to clog the pile :
From ostentation as from weakness free;
It stands like the cerulean arch we see,
Majestic in its own simplicity,
Inscribed above the portal, from afar,

Conspicuous as the brightness of a star,
Legible only by the light they give,
Stand the soul-quickening words-Believe and

SARCASM-Language of.

Sarcasm I now see to be, in general, the language of the devil; for which reason I have, long since, as good as renounced it. Carlyle.


There was a laughing devil in his sneer,
That raised emotions both of rage and fear;
And where his frown of hatred darkly fell,
Hope, withering, fled, and Mercy sigh'd fare-


SATAN-Ambition of.

Here we may reign secure; and in my choice
To reign is worth ambition, though in hell.
Better to reign in hell than serve in heaven.

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