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ECONOMY-Maxims of.

It is no small commendation to manage a little well. He is a good waggoner that can turn in a little room. To live well in abundance is the praise of the estate, not of the person. I will study more how to give a good account of my little, than how to make Economy is of itself a great revenue. Cicero. Bishop Hall.

ECONOMY-Worth of.

it more.


Let honesty and industry be thy constant companions, and spend one penny less than thy clear gains: then shall thy hide-bound pocket soon begin to thrive, and will never azain cry with the empty belly-ache; neither will creditors insult thee, nor want oppress, Dor hunger bite, nor nakedness freeze thee. The whole hemisphere will shine brighter, and pleasure spring up in every corner of thy heart. Now, therefore, embrace these rules and be happy. Banish the bleak winds of sorrow from thy mind, and live independent. Then shalt thou be a man, and not hide thy face at the approach of the rich, nor suffer the pain of feeling little when the sons of fortune walk at thy right hand; for independency, whether with little or much, is good fortune, and places thee on even ground with the proudest of the golden fleece. Oh, then, be wise, and let industry walk with thee in the morning, and attend thee until thou reachest the evening hour for rest. Let honesty be as the breath of thy soul, and never forget to have a penny, when all thy expenses are enumerated and paid: then shalt thou reach the point of happiness, and independence shall be thy shield and buckler, thy helmet and crown; then shall thy soul walk upright, nor stoop to the silken wretch because he hath riches, nor pocket an abuse because the hand which offers it wears a ring set with diamonds. Franklin.

ECONOMY-in the Use of Time.

Many people take no care of their money till they have come nearly to the end of it, and others do just the same with their time. Their best days they throw away, let them rau like sand through their fingers, as long as they think they have an almost countless number of them to spend; but when they find their days flowing rapidly away, so that at last they have very few left, then they will at once make a very wise use of them; but, unluckily, they have by that time no notion how to do it. Gotthelf.



ECONOMY-Virtues of.

Economy is the parent of integrity, of iberty, and of ease; and the beauteous sister of temperance, of cheerfulness, and health:

and profuseness is a cruel and crafty demon, that gradually involves her followers in dependence and debts; that is, fetters them with "irons that enter into their souls."


EDUCATION-Advantages of.

Virtue and talents, though allowed their due consideration, yet are not enough to procure a man a welcome wherever he comes. Nobody contents himself with rough diamonds, or wears them so. When polished and set, Locke. then they give a lustre.

EDUCATION — better than outward Beauty.

I cannot understand the importance which certain people set upon outward beauty or plainness. I am of opinion that all true education, such at least as has a religious foundation, must infuse a noble calm, a wholesome coldness, an indifference, or whatever people may call it, towards such-like outward And who has not gifts, or the want of them. experienced of how little consequence they are


in fact for the weal or woe of life? Who has not experienced how, on nearer acquaintance, plainness becomes beautified, and beauty loses its charın, exactly according to the quality of the heart and mind? And from this cause am I of opinion, that the want of outward beauty never disquiets a noble nature or will be a misfortune. It never regarded as prevent people from being amiable and beloved in the highest degree; and we have daily proof of this. Frederika Bremer. EDUCATION—a distinguished Blessing. Of all the blessings which it has pleased Providence to allow us to cultivate, there is not one which breathes a purer fragrance, or bears a heavenlier aspect, than education. It is a companion which no misfortunes can depress-no clime destroy-no enemy alienate -no despotism enslave-at home a friendabroad an introduction-in solitude a solacein society an ornament-it chastens vice-it guides virtue-it gives at once a grace and government to genius. Without it, what is man? A splendid slave! a reasoning savage? vacillating between the dignity of an intelligence derived from God and the degradations of passions participated with brutes, and in the accident of their alternate ascendancy, shuddering at the terrors of an hereafter, or hugging the horrid hope of annihilation.




Honour, honesty, firm will, truthfulness, advancing in spite of threatening wounds, endurance of misfortune (of the blows of fate), frankness, self-respect, self-equipoise, contempt of opinion, justice, and perseverance-all these and similar words denote only one-half of the moral nature-moral strength and elevation. The second half includes all that refers to the lives of the kingdom of love, gentleness, beneficence; these may be called moral beauty. Richter.

They who provide much wealth for their children, but neglect to improve them in virtue, do like those who feed their horses high, but never train them to the manage.



Teach a child there is harm in everything, however innocent, and, so soon as it discovers the cheat, it won't see no sin in anything. That's the reason deacons' sons seldom turn out well, and preachers' daughters are married through a window. Innocence is the sweetest thing in the world, and there is more of it than folks generally imagine. If you want some to transplant, don't seek it in the inclosures of cant, for it has only counterfeit ones; but go to the gardens of truth and sense. Coerced innocence is like an imprisoned lark-open the door, and it's off for ever. The bird that roams through the sky and the groves unrestrained, knows how to dodge the hawk and protect itself; but the caged one, the moment it leaves its bars and bolts behind, is pounced upon by the fowler or the vulture. Haliburton.


A college education shows a man how little other people know. Ibid. EDUCATION-of the Working Classes.

I have no sympathy whatever with those who would grudge our workmen and our common people the very highest acquisitions which their taste, or their time, or their inclinations, would lead them to realize; for, next to the salvation of their souls, I certainly say that the object of my fondest aspirations is the moral and intellectual, and, as a sure consequence of this, the economical, advancement of the working classes - the one object, which, of all others in the wide range of political speculation, is the one which should be the dearest to the heart of every philanthropist and every true patriot. Chalmers.


EDUCATION-Modern Cultivation of.

Of late years education has become a subject of general care and attention. But there may be excess even in so amiable a feeling as the devotion of a parent to a child; that very devotion may be productive of mischief to its object. No pains are spared in cultivating: talents, in giving graces, accomplishments, useful information, deep learning; but it may be a question whether the wholesome training of the feelings is as judiciously attended to as that of the understanding. May not the very importance attached to all concerning the young lead them to think too much of themUnless they are early taught to consider the feelings of others, is not one strong motive for controlling their own (that most difficult and most necessary of all lessons) utterly neglected? Mrs. Sullivan.



Precept must be upon precept, precept upon precept, line upon line, line upon line, here a little and there a little. Isaiak.

If our early years were passed in laying up store for futurity, in practising the affections within the circle of those whom God has given to be our nearest and dearest ties, in cultiva ting intellect, and acquiring useful knowledge, we should need no further security against the mistakes of after-life. Religion, virtue, wisdom, and good taste, would be our guides as well as our protectors. Mrs. Bruce.

I too acknowledge the all but omnipotence of early culture and nurture; hereby we have either a doddered dwarf bush, or a high-towering, wide-shadowing tree! either a sick yellow cabbage, or an edible luxuriant green one. Of

a truth, it is the duty of all men, especially of all philosophers, to note down with accuracy the characteristic circumstances of their education, what furthered, what hindered, what in any way modified it. Carlyle.

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Thelwall thought it very unfair to influence a child's mind by inculcating any opinions before it had come to years of discretion to choose for itself. I shewed him my garden, and told him it was my botanical garden. "How so?" said he; "it is covered with weeds." "O," I replied, "that is only because it has not yet come to its age of discretion and choice. The weeds, you see, have taken the liberty to grow, and I thought it unfair in me I to prejudice the soil towards roses and strawberries." Coleridge.

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EDUCATION-Mental Epochs of.

Intellectual education now, to be worthy of the time, ought to include in its compass elements contributed to it in every one of the great epochs of mental energy which the world bas seen. In this respect, most especially, we are, if we know how to use our advantages, inheritors of the wealth of all the richest times; strong in the power of the giants of all ages; placed on the summit of an edifice which thirty centuries have been employed in building. Whewell.

EDUCATION-and Self-Education.

The rich have not so great an advantage over the poor, in respect of education, as is commonly supposed. The ways of Providence are not so unequal, after all. The young oak that is nurtured in the greenhouse will never become the monarch of the woods on the exposed hillside. They are parasitical plants that stunt and choke the tree they seem to shelter. Men so brought up are too often deficient in elasticity of intellect; their minds have no spring; and they frequently want that moral quality which breathes life and vigour into all the intellectual faculties, the absence of which to others can compensate, even by their presence in excess; I mean that unflinching determination not to be borne down by difficulties-that enduring perseverance not to be overmastered by defeat. Booth.

EDUCATION-by the Eye.

I remember well that for many years of my life the only notion I had of the look of a Greek knight was complicated between recollection of a small engraving in my pocket Homer, and reverent study of the Horse Guards. And though I believe that most boys collect their ideas from more varied sources, and arrange them more carefully than I did, still, whatever sources they seek must always


be ocular; if they are clever boys they will go and look at the Greek vases and sculptures in the British Museum, and at the weapons in our armouries-they will see what real armour is like in lustre, and what Greek armour was like in form, and so put a fairly true image together, but still, in ordinary cases, a very living and interesting one. Now, the use of your decorative painting would be, in myriads of ways, to animate their history for them, and to put the living aspect of past things before their eyes as faithfully as intelligent invention can; so that the master shall have nothing to do but at once to point to the schoolroom walls, and for ever afterwards the meaning of any word would be fixed in a boy's mind in the best possible way. Is it a question of classical dress,-what a tunic was like, or a

chlamys, or a peplus? At this day you have to point to some vile woodcut, in the middle of a dictionary page, representing the thing hung upon a stick; but then you would point to a hundred figures wearing the actual dress, in liness or strength; you would understand at its fiery colours, in all actions of various stateonce how it fell round the people's limbs as they stood, how it drifted from their shoulders as they went, how it veiled their faces as they wept, how it covered their heads in the day of battle. Now, if you want to see what a weapon is like, you refer, in like manner, to a numbered page, in which there are spear heads in rows, and sword hilts in symmetrical groups; and gradually the boy gets a dim mathematical notion how one scimitar is hooked to the right and another to the left, and one javelin has a knob to it and another none; while one glance at your good picture would show him—and the first rainy afternoon in the schoolroom would for ever fix in his mind-the look of the sword and the spear as they fell or flew, and how they pierced, or bent, or shattered-how men wielded them, and how men died by them. But far more than all this, is it a question, not of clothes, or weapons, but of men; how can we sufficiently estimate the effect on the mind of a noble youth, at the time when the world opens to him, of having faithful and touching representations put before him of the acts and presence of great men,-how many a resolution, which would alter and exalt the whole course of his after life, might be formed, when in some dreamy twilight he met, through his own tears, the fixed eyes of those shadows of the great dead, unescapable and calm, piercing to his soul; or fancied that their lips moved in dread reproof or soundless exhortation. And if but for one out of many this were true,-if yet, in a few, you could be sure that such influence had indeed changed their


thoughts and destinies and turned the eager and reckless youth, who would have cast away his energies on the race horse or the gambling table, to that noble life race, that holy life hazard, which should win all glory to himself and all good to his country,-would not that, to some purpose, be "political economy of art?" Ruskin.


EDUCATION-Exalting Influence of.

In exalting the faculties of the soul, we annihilate, in a great degree, the delusion of the senses. Aimé Marten.

EDUCATION-Moral Influence of.

I think we may assert that in a hundred men, there are more than ninety who are what they are, good or bad, useful or pernicious to society, from the instruction they have re

ceived. It is on education that depends the

great difference observable among them. The least and most imperceptible impressions received in our infancy, have consequences very important, and of a long duration. It is with these first impressions, as with a river, whose waters we can easily turn, by different canals, in quite opposite courses; so that from the insensible direction the stream receives at its source, it takes different directions; and at last arrives at places far distant from each other and with the same facility we may, I think, turn the minds of children to what direction we please. Locke.

EDUCATION-of Ladies.

I have observed that most ladies who have had what is considered an education, have no idea of an education progressing through life. Having attained a certain measure of accomplishment, knowledge, manners, &c., they consider themselves made up, and so take their station they are pictures, which, being quite finished, are now put in a frame,-a gilded one, if possible, --and hung up in permanence of beauty!-Permanence-that is to say, till old Time, with his rude and dirty fingers, soils the charming colours. Foster. EDUCATION-an Intellectual Light.

Were it not better for a man in a fair room to set up one great light, or branching candlestick of lights, than to go about with a rushlight into every dark corner? Bacon.


Every man has two educations-that which is given to him, and the other that which he gives to himself. Of the two kinds, the latter is by far the most valuable. Indeed, all that is most worthy in a man, he must work out

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EDUCATION-Moral Principles of

A father inquires whether his boy can construe Homer, if he understands Horace, and can taste Virgil; but how seldom does he ask, or examine, or think whether he can restrain his passions; whether he is grateful, generous, humane, compassionate, just, and benevolent. Lady Herceg.


Costly apparature and splendid cabinets have no magical power to make scholars. As a man is in all circumstances, under God, the master of his own fortune, so he is the maker of his own mind. The Creator has so constituted the human intellect, that it can only grow by its own action: it will certainly and necessarily grow. Every man must therefore educate himself. His books and teacher are but helps; the work is his. A man is not educated until he has the ability to summon, in an emergency, his mental powers in vigorous exercise to effect its proposed object. It is not the man who has seen the most, or read

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the most, who can do this; such a one is in danger of being borne down, like a beast of burden, by an overloa led mass of other men's thoughts. Nor is it the man who can boast merely of native vigour and capacity. The greatest of all warriors who went to the siege of Troy had not the pre-eminence because nature had given him strength, and he carried the largest bow; but because self-discipline had taught him how to bend it. Webster.

EDUCATION-by the State.

0, for the coming of that glorious time,
When, prizing knowledge as her noblest wealth
And best protection, this imperial realm,
While she exacts allegiance, shall admit
An obligation, on her part, to teach
Them who are born to serve her and obey;
Binding herself, by statute, to secure
For all the children whom her soil maintains,
The rudiments of letters, and inform
The mind with moral and religious truth,
Both understood and practised-so that none,
However destitute, be left to droop,

By timely culture unsustain'd; or run
Into a wild disorder; or be forced

To drudge through a weary life without the



Of intellectual implements and tools;

A savage horde among the civilized, A servile band among the lordly free.



Real education is the formation and training of the mind. To train the mind, requires hard, patient, and independent thinking and work; the mere crude teaching a youth a bundle of facts, which he acquires with no labour, and, only retaining, neither digests nor assimilates, is no training at all; they no way nourish his mind, but, deposited there, are utterly as raw and undigested as he swallowed them. He may be a full man, but it is the fulness of a bottle, which will pour out what has been previously poured in, whether vinegar or claret; he may be a convenient depository of other men's thoughts, he may have sufficient capacity for holding them;-but to call such a man educated is a misuse of terms, and to trust men to his superintendence is a misuse of humanity; he plunges into the arena of politics, the sea of literature, or the fury of a revolution, unchecked by any glimmering suspicion of his own folly, and hurls thrones to the ground, sees the people massacred, and Europe in conflagration, without feeling compunction or remorse; he is as insensitive as a bottle, or a bag: take away what it is filled with, and what remains!



EDUCATION-Refining Tendencies of.

Whatever expands the affections, or enlarges the sphere of our sympathies, whatever makes us feel our relation to the universe, "and all that it inherits," in time and in eternity, to the great and beneficent Cause of all, must unquestionably refine our nature, and elevate us in the scale of being. Channing. EDUCATION-the Handmaid of Truth. Unless the people can be kept in total darkness, it is the wisest way for the advocates of truth to give them full light. Whately.


Every man is to himself what Plato calls the Great Year. He has his sowing time and his growing time, his weeding, his irrigating, and his harvest. The principles and ideas he puts into his mind in youth lie there, it may be, for many years, apparently unprolific. But nothing dies. There is a process going on unseen, and by the touch of circumstances the man springs forth into strength, he knows not how, as if by a miracle. But after all, he only reaps as he had sown. J. A. St. John.

EGOTISM-Selfishness of.

The more any one speaks of himself, the less he likes to hear another talked of. Lavater.

EGOTISM-Vanity of.

Egotism is more like an offence than a crime, though 'tis allowable to speak of yourself, provided nothing is advanced in favour; but I cannot help suspecting that those who abuse themselves are, in reality, angling for approbation. Zimmerman.

ELECTION-Doctrine of.

It is not by the rapture of feelings, and by the luxuriance of thought, and by the warmth of those desires which descriptions of heaven may stir up within us, that I can prove myself predestined to a glorious inheritance. If I would find out what is hidden, I must follow what is revealed. The way to heaven is disclosed; am I walking in that way? It would be a poor proof that I were on my voyage to India; that, with glowing eloquence and thrilling poetry, I could discourse on the palmgroves and spice-isles of the East. Am I on the waters? Is the sail hoisted to the wind? and does the land of my birth look blue and faint in the distance? The doctrine of election may have done harm to many, but only because they have fancied themselves elected to the end, and have forgotten that those whom Scripture calls elected are elected to the means. The Bible never speaks of men as

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