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Having, therefore, no sympathy with those the public executioner, who had the care of who, regarding them as the excrescences of a them.

Sharpe. tree, or the tumours of disease, would raze our cities to the ground, I bless God for CITIZENS-of London. cities.


There are some of these gay clerks who go CITIES–Paving of.

down to their offices with roses at their

button-holes and with cigars in their mouths; Before the eleventh century none of the there are some who wear peg-top trowsers, great cities of the present day were paved, chin-tufts, eye-glasses, and varnished boots. except Rome and Cordova. Paris did not

I observe-to return to the clerks who are enjoy this advantage, according to Rigord, wending citywards—that the most luxuriant physician and historian to Philippe-Auguste, whiskers belong to the Bank of England. I #bo relates that the king, being at the window believe that there are even whisker clubs in of his palace which commanded a view of the that great national institution, where prizes Seine, perceived that the carriages passing in the mire diffused a most offensive odour, without macassar.

are given for the best pair of favoris growu

You may, as a general which induced bim to issue an order for the rule, distinguish government from commercial paring of the streets, notwithstanding the clerks by the stern repudiation of the razor, expense of it; the dread of incurring which,

as applied to the beard and moustaches, by be was aware, had hitherto deterred his pre. the former; and again, I may remark, that decessors. Since that period the city took the prize for the thinnest and most dandy the name of Paris, instead of Lutetia, which looking umbrellas must be awarded, as of originated in the number of its sloughs. Even right, to the clerks in the East India HouseLondon was not paved at that time; many of mostly themselves slim, natty gentlemen, of its principal streets were not thus improved jaunty appearance, who are all supposed to till the fifteenth century. Holborn was done have had tender affairs with the widows of in 1417.

East India colonels. You may know the Dijon commenced the paving of the streets in 1391. In 1285 an order from Philippe-le- their white hats and buff waistcoats; you

cashiers in the private banking houses by Hardi commanded the citizens of Paris to

may know the stockbrokers by their careering pare and sweep the street before their houses

up Ludgate-hill in dog-carts, and occasionally at their own expense; but this mandate was

taudems, and by the pervading sporting apso badly executed, that, in 1309, the city was

pearance of their costume; you may know swept at the public cost, under the inspection the Jewish commissiou agents by their flashy of the police. Till the fourteenth century the broughams, with lapdogs and ladies in crinoinhabitants of Paris were suffered to throw line beside them; you may know the sugar every nuisance from their windows, provided bakers and the soap boilers by the comfortable they cried out three times, " Take care !” double-bodied carriages with fat horses in This license was interdicted in 1372; and still which they roll along; you may know the more strictly in 1395. An order was also Manchester warehousemen by their wearing issued to prevent pigs running through the streets, in consequence of the accident which gaiters, always carrying their hands in their

pockets, and frequently slipping into recondite happened to the young king Philippe. That city taverns up darksome alleys, on their way prince, returning from Rheims, where he went

to Cheapside, to make a quiet bet or so on to be crowned, while passing Saint Gervais, a

the Chester Cup or the Liverpool Steeplepig dashed between his horse's legs, and chase ; you may know, finally, the men with a threw him down. The king fell backwards; million of money, or thereabouts, by their and, in a few days, died of the injuries he had being ordinarily very shabby, and by their Eustained in the fall. It is rather remarkable, that the monks of seemingly never been brushed, on the back of

wearing shocking bad hats, which have the Abbaye de Saint Antoine, having pre- their heads.

Sala. tended that they could not-without failing in the respect due to their patron saint--keep CITY-in Early Morn. their pigs from running about the streets, it was decided that these animals should con- The city now doth like a garment wear tipge to wallow in the mire, provided they The beauty of the morning. bad each a little bell round their necks !

Never did sun more beautifully steep It appears that cleansing the streets was In his first splendour, valley, rock, or hill. regarded as the most degrading occupation. Ne'er saw I, never felt, a calm so deep; It was generally poor Jews, or attendants on the river glideth at its own sweet will.




Dear God! the very houses seem asleep, CLASS-Representation. And all that mighty heart is lying still.


The popular idea is, that class representa

tion would produce class legislation. The truth CIVILITY-Definition of.

is exactly the reverse. The idea seems to be Civility is a desire to receive civility, and to that by distributing a class in fragmentary be accounted well-bred. La Rochefoucauld. portions among a number of constituencies

you neutralise its power, and make it harmless CIVILITY-a Hint respecting.

by dilution; just as bas been sometimes done Whilst thou livest, keep a good tongue in with a mutinous regiment. But, in point of thy head.

Shakspeare. fact, it is this very distribution which gives it

such an enormous power of obstruction. Few CIVILITY-Value of.

menibers in these days hold their seats with A good word is an easy obligation ; but not such certainty as to be able to disregard the to speak ill, requires only our silence, which wishes of any tolerably influential section of costs us nothing.

Tillotson. their constituents. The section may be a small

one, but it may be strong enough to turn a CIVILIZATION-Effects of.

close election; and therefore its behests must With a perfect bighway disappear bighway- be obeyed. A small section thus wields the men, crawling beggars, dirty inns and extor

power of the whole constituency; much in the tionate charges, lazy habits, ignorance, and way in which, some six or seven years ago, waste lands. Our shops, our horses' legs, our the Irish members tried to wield the power of boots, our hearts, have all benefited by the in- the English government. No one can have troduction of Macadam; and the eighteen watched the utter impotence of Parliament to modern improvements mentioned by Sidney raise its hand against the attorneys or the Smith can all be traced, directly or indirectly, licensed victuallers, or the extreme difficulty to the time when it fortuitously occurred to with which even so small a body as the ecclethe astute Scotchman (Where are his Life and siastical lawyers have been dealt with, without Times, in twenty volumes ?) to strew our path perceiving how effectively these tactics operate. with pulverized granite. I am convinced that Now, if any such class had a number of memour American cousins would be much less bers proportioned to its importance wholly given addicted to bowie-kniving, revolvering, ex- over to it, and were debarred from any other pectorating, gin-slinging, and cow-biding the suffrage, their power in the House of Commons members of their legislature, if they would only would be limited to that number of members. substitute trim, level, hedge-lined highways for Whereas, now they command, or at least the vile corduroy roads and railway tracks, greatly influence, the vote of every member, thrown slovenly anyhow, like the clothes of a of whose constituency some of them form a drunken man, across prairies, morasses, half- part; and from this position it is impossible to cleared forests, and dried-up watercourses, by dislodge them, until some popular ferment means of which they accomplish their thousand. arouses the inert mass of the electors to overmile trips in search of dollars. What a dread. bear the active and interested few. ful though delightful place was Paris when I

Lord Cecil. knew it first !-foul gutters rolling their mudcataracts between rows of palaces; suburban CLEANLINESS-Advantages of. roads alternating between dust-beaps and sloughs of despond; and boulevards so badly With what care and attention do the paved, that the out-patienced population were feathered race wash themselves and put their continually tearing them up to make barri- plumage in order; and how perfectly neat, cades with. There have been no émeutes in clean, and elegant do they appear! Among Paris since boulevards were macadamized. the beasts of the field we find that those which Much of the ribbonism, landlord-stalking from are the most cleanly are generally the most bebind hedges, and Skibbereen starvation of gay and cheerful, or are distinguished by a Ireland, may be attributed to the baleful roads certain air of tranquillity and contentment; of bygone days, which were full of boles, and singing birds are always remarkable for known as curiosities, and on which the mile- the neatness of their plumage. So great is the stones were so capriciously distributed, that effect of cleanliness upon man, that it extends whereas every squire (of the right way of even to his moral character. Virtue never thinking) had one on each side of his park. dwelt long with filth ; nor do I believe there gates, unpopular localities, and villages where ever was a person scrupulously attentiv tithe-proctors dwelt, were left without mile- cleanliness who was a consummate villain. stones altogether. Dickens. 1



CLEANLINESS-Definition of.

The crows and choughs, that wing the midway Cleanliness may be defined to be the emblem air, of purity of mind, and may be recommended Show scarce so gross as beetles : half-way down under the three following heads; as it is a Hangs one that gathers samphire; dreadful mark of politeness, as it produces affection,

trade! and as it bears analogy to chastity of senti- Methinks he seems no bigger than his head: ment. First, it is a mark of politeness, for it The fishermen, that walk upon the beach, is universally agreed upon, that no one un- Appear like mice; and yon'tal anchoring bark, adomed with this virtue, can go into company Diminish'd to her cock; her cock a buoy without giving a manifold offence; the diffe- Almost too small for sight; the murmuring rent nations of the world are as much distin- surge, guished by their cleanliness, as by their arts

That on the unnumber'd idle pebbles chafes, and sciences; the more they are advanced in

Cannot be heard so high :—I'll look no more; civilization the more they consult this part of Lest my brain turn, and the deficient sight politeness. Secondly, cleanliness may be said Topple down headlong.

Shakspeare. to be the foster-inother of affection. Beauty commonly produces love, but cleanliness pre- From the dread summit of this chalky bourn, serves it. Age itself is not unamiable while it Look up a-height; the shrill-gorged lark so far is preserved clean and unsullied; like a piece Cannot be seen or heard.

Ibid. of metal constantly kept smooth and bright, we look on it with more pleasure than on a new vessel cankered with rust. I might further These things seem small and indistinguishable, observe, that as cleanliness renders us agree.

Like far-off mountains turn'd into clouds. able to others, it makes us easy to ourselves,

Ibid. that it is an excellent preservative of health ; and that several vices, both of mind and body, As from a steep and dreadful precipice are inconsistent with the babit of it. In the The frighten'd traveller casts down his eyes, third place, it bears a great analogy with And sees the ocean at so great a distance, chastity of sentiment, and naturally inspires It looks as if the skies were sunk beneath him. refined feelings and passions; we find from ex

If then some neighb'ring shrub, how weak perience, that through the prevalence of cus

soever, tom, the most vicious actions lose their horror Peeps up, his willing eyes stop gladly there, by being made familiar to us. On the contrary, And seem to ease themselves, and rest upon it. those who live in the peighbourhood of good

Dryden. examples, fly from the first appearance of what CLOCK-A. is shocking; and thus pure and unsullied A clock! with its ponderous embowelments thoughts are naturally suggested to the mind, of lead and brass, its pert or solemn dulness of by those objects that perpetually encompass communication.

Lamb. us when they are beautiful and elegant in their kind


Was I deceived, or did a sable cloud

Turn forth her silver lining on the night? Eren from the body's purity, the mind

Milton. Receives a secret sympathetic aid. Thomson.

CLOUD-An Evening.

A cloud lay cradled near the setting sun, Let thy mind's sweetness have its operation Long had I watch'd the glory moving on,

A gleam of crimson touch'd its braided snow: upon thy body, clothes, and habitation.

O'er the still radiance of the lake below. Herbert.

Tranquil its spirit seem'd, and floated slow! CLEMENCY-Virtue of.

Even in its very motion there was rest;

No attribute While every breath of eve that chanced to blow, So well befits th' exalted seat supreme,

Wafted the traveller to the beauteous west. Add power's disposing hand, as clemency. Emblem, methought, of the departed soul ! Fach crime must from its quality be judged; To whose white robe the gleam of bliss is Add pity there should interpose, where malice

given; Is not th' aggressor.

Sir William Jones. And by the breath of mercy made to roll

Right onward to the golden gates of heaven, CLIFF-Gazing from &.

Where, to the eye of Faith, it peaceful lies, How fearful

And tells to map his glorious destinies. And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low !

Professor Wilson.

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CLOUD- & Summer.

still discernible that neatness and propriety That look'd

of person, which is almost inherent in an As though an angel, in his upward flight, Englishman. He enjoys great consequence Had left his mantle floating in mid-air. and consideration along the road ; has frequent

Joanna Baillie. | conferences with the village housewives, who CLOUDS.

look upon him as a man of great trust and Who cap number the clouds in wisdom? or dependence; and he seems to have a good who can stay the bottles of heaven, when the understanding with every brighteyed country dust groweth into hardness, and the clods lass. The moment he arrives where the horses cleave fast together?

Job. are to be changed, he throws down the reins

with something of an air, and abandons the

cattle to the care of the ostler ; his duty being Those playful fancies of the mighty sky.

merely to drive them from one stage to another. Smith. When off the box, his hands are thrust in the

pockets of his great-coat, and he rolls about Bright clouds,

the inn-yard with an air of the most absolute Motionless pillows of the brazen heaven, lordliness. Here he is generally surrounded Their basis on the mountains—their white by an admiring throng of ostlers, stable-boys, tops

shoe-blacks, and those Dameless hangers-on Shining in the far ether—fire the air

that infest inns and taverns, and run errands. With a reflected radiance, and make turn

These all look up to him as an oracle, treasure The gazer's eye away.


up his cant phrases, echo his opinions about

horses, and other topics of jockey lore; and CLOWN-Characteristics of an.

endeavour to imitate his air and carriage. A clownish mien, a voice with rustic sound,

Washington Irving. And stupid eyes, that ever loved the ground;

COCK-Crowing of the. The ruling rod, the father's forming care,

I have heard, Were exercised in vain on wit's despair; The cock, that is the trumpet of the morn, The more inform'd, the less he understood, Doth with his lofty and shrill-sounding throat And deeper sunk by flound'ring in the mud. Awake the god of day; and, at his warning, His corn and cattle were his only care,

Whether in sea or fire, in earth or air,
And his supreme delight a country fair. The extravagant and erring spirit hies
A quarter-staff, which he ne'er could forsake, To his contine.
Hung half before and half behind his back.

Some say, that ever 'gainst that season comes
He trudged along, unknowing what be sought, wherein our Saviour's birth is celebrated,
And whistled as he went, for want of thought. This bird of dawning singeth all night long ;

Dryden. And then they say no spirit dares stir abroad; COACHMAN-Characteristics of an The nights are wholesome, then no planets

He has commonly a broad full face, curiously strike, mottled with red, as if the blood had been No fairy takes, no witch hath power to charm, forced by hard feeding into every vessel of the So hallow'd and so gracious is the time. skin; he is swelled into jolly dimensions by

Shakspeare frequent potations of malt liquors, and his COLD-Drowsiness from. bulk is still further increased by a multiplicity Very striking and curious is the story of of coats, in which he is buried like a cauliflower, Dr. Solander's escape, when in company with the upper one reaching to his heels. He wears Sir Joseph Banks, among the hills of Tierra del a broad-brimmed, low-crowned hat, a huge roll Fuego. They had walked a considerable way of coloured handkerchief about his neck, know-through swamps, when the weather became ingly knotted and tucked in at the bosom ; suddenly gloomy and cold, fierce blasts of and has, in summer time, a large bouquet of wind driving the snow before it. Finding it flowers in his buttonhole; the present, most impossible to reach the ships before night, probably, of some enamoured country lass. they resolved to push on through another His waistcoat is commonly of some bright swamp into the shelter of a wood, where they colour, striped, and his small-clothes extend might kindle a fire. Dr. Solander, well ex. far below the knees, to meet a pair of jockey perienced in the effects of cold, addressed the boots which reach about half-way up his legs. men, and conjured them dot to give way to All this costume is maintained with much pre- sleepiness, but at all costs to keep in motion. cision ; he has a pride in having his clothes of “Whoever sits down," said he, “will sleep, excellent materials, and notwithstanding the and whoever sleeps will wake no more. seeming grossness of his appearance, there is Thus admonished and alarmed, they set forth

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same manner.

odce more; but in a little while the cold Grateful as fanning gales to fainting swains, botame so intense as to produce the most And soft as trickling balm to bleeding pains, oppressive drowsiness. Dr. Solander was the Such are thy words.

Gay. first who found the inclination to sleep-against which he had warned the others so emphatically I would bring balm and pour it into your . -too irresistible for him, and he insisted on wound, being suffered to lie down. In vain Banks Cure your distemper'd mind and heal your entreated and remonstrated; down he lay fortunes.

Dryden. upon the snow, and it was with much difficulty that his friend kept him from sleeping. One COMFORT-Deprivation of. of the black servants began to linger in the Comfort—'tis for ease and quiet : When told that if he did not

It sleeps upon the down of sweet content, go on he would inevitably be frozen to death, In the sound bed of industry and health. be answered that he desired nothing more

Havard. than to lie down and die. Solander declared himself willing to go on, but said he must first

Your comfort take some sleep. It was impossible to carry Comes, as in droughts the elemental dew these men, and they were therefore both suffered Does on the earth; it wets, but leaves no to lie down, and in a few minutes were in a pro

moisture, found sleep. Soon after some of those who To give the sear'd plants growth. Glapthorne. bad been sent forward to kindle a fire returned with the welcome news that a fire awaited them COMFORT-Derived from God. & quarter of a mile off. Banks then happily I pray Thee let Thy merciful kindness be for succeeded in awaking Solander, who, although my comfort.

David. he had not been asleep five minutes, had almost lost the use of his limbs, and the flesh God comfort him in this necessity. Shakspeare. Tas so shrunk that the shoes fell from his feet.

Of all the created comforts, God is the He consented to go forward, with such assistsace as could be given ; but no attempts to lender ; you are the borrower, not the owner. roase the black servant were successful, and

Rutherforil. be, with another black, died there.

Sir Joseph Banks. Oh, Thou ! that dry'st the mourner's tear, 1 COLD-BLOODED.

How dark this world would be, A man, whose blood If, when deceived and wounded here, is very show-broth.


We could not fly to Thee ! COLLISION-Moral Necessity of.

But Thou wilt heal the broken heart,

Which like the plants that throw Collision is as necessary to produce virtue in Their fragrance from the wounded part, med, as it is to elicit fire in inanimate matter;

Breathes sweetness out of woe. and ebivalry is the essence of virtue.

Lord John Russell. Then sorrow, touch'd by Thee, grows bright COYET-The.

With more than rapture's ray, Stranger of beaven, I bid thee hail !

As darkness shows us worlds of light Shred from the pall of glory riven,

We could not see by day.

Moore. That flashest in celestial galeBroad pennon of the King of Heaven !

COMFORT-Hope of. What'er portends the front of fire

Thy words have darted hope into my soul, And streaming locks so lovely pale;

And comfort dawns upon me,

Southern. Or peace to man, or judgments dire, Stranger of heaven, I bid thee hail! Hogg. A beam of comfort, like the moon through

clouds, COMETS-Ancient Notions respecting.

Gilds the black horror, and directs my way. Comets, importing change of times and states,

Dryden. Erandisb your crystal tresses in the sky, COMFORT-Cheering Influence of. And with them scourge the bad revolting stars !

Comfort, like the golden sun, COMFORT-Balm of.

Shakspeare. Dispels the sullen shade with her sweet influSweet as refreshing dews or summer showers, And cheers the melancholy house of care. To the long parching thirst of drooping flowers;



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