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No. I. THURSDAY, MARCH 1, 1710-11.

Non fumum ex fulgore, fed ex fumo dare lucem
Cogitat, ut speciosa dehinc miracula promat,

One with a flash begins, and ends in smoke;
The other out of smoke brings glorious light,
And (without raising expectation high)
Surprizes us with dazzling miracles.


next as


HAVE observed, that a reader seldom peruses a book

with pleasure, till he knows whether the writer of it be a black or a fair man, of a mild or choleric disposition, married or a bachelor; with other particulars of the like nature, that conduce very much to the right understanding of an author. To gratify this curiosity, which is so natural to a reader, I design this paper


my prefatory discourses to my following writings, and fhal, give some account in them of the several persons that are engaged in this work. As the chief trouble of compiling, digesting, and correcting, will fall to my share, I must do myself the justice to open the work with my own history.

I was born to a small hereditary estate, which, according to the tradition of the village where it lies, was bounded by the same hedges and ditches in William the Conqueror's time that it is at present, and has been deliyered down from father to son whole and entire, without the loss or acquisition of a single field or meadow,


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during the space of fix hundred years. There runs a story in the family, that when my mother was gone with child of me about three months, the dreamt that she was brought-to-bed of a Judge: Whether this might proceed from a law-fuit which was then depending in the family, or my father's being a justice of the peace, I cannot determine; for I am not lo vain as to think it prelaged any dignity that I should arrive at in my future life, though that was the interpretation which the neighbourhood put upon it. The gravity of my behaviour at my very first appearance in the world, and all the time that I suckeci, seemed to favour my mother's dream; for, as the has often told me, I threw away my rattle before I was two months old, and would not make use of my coral until they had taken away the bells from it.

As for the rest of my infancy, there being nothing in it remarkable, I shall pass it over in silence. I find, that, during my nonage, I had the reputation of a very sullen youth; but was always a favourite of my schoolmaster, who used to say, “ that my parts were folid, and would “ wear well." I had not been long at the university, before I distinguished myself by a most profound filence; for during the space of eight ycars, excepring in the publick exercises of the college, I scarce uttered the quantity of an hundred words; and, indeed, do not remember that I ever spoke three fentences together in my whole life. Whilft I was in this learned body, I applied myself with so much diligence to my studies, that there are very few celebrated books, either in the learned or the modern tongues, which I am not acquainted with.

Upon the death of my father, I was resolved to travel into forcign countries; and therefore left the university, with the character of an odd, unaccountable fellow, that had a great deal of learning, if I would but thew it. An insatiable thirst after knowledge carried me into all the countries of Europe, in which there was any thing new or strange to be seen ; nay, to such a degree was my curiousity raised, that having read the contro. versies of some great men concerning the antiquities of


Egypt, I made a voyage to Grand Cairo, on purpose to take the measure of a pyramid; and as soon as I had set myself right in that particular, returned to my native country with great satisfaction.

I have passed my latter years in this city, where I am frequently seen in most public places, though there are not above half a dozen of my select friends that know me; of whom my next paper shall give a more particular account. There is no place of general resort, wherein I do not often make my appearance; sometimes I am seen thrusting my head into a round of politicians at Will's, and listening with great attention to the narratives that are made in those little circular audiences. Sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child's, and, whilft I seem attentive to nothing but the Postman, overhear the conversation of every table in the room.

I appear on Sunday nights at St. James's coffee-house; and sometimes join the little committee of politicks in the inner room, as one who comes there to hear and improve. My face is likewise very well known at the Grecian, the CocoaTree, and in the theatres both of Drury-Lane and the Hay-Market. I have been taken for a merchant upon the Exchange for above these ten years, and sometimes pass for a Jew in the assembly of stock-jobbers at Jonathan's. In short, wherever I fee a cluster of people, I always mix with them, though I never open my lips but in my own club.

Thus I live in the world rather as a spectator of mankind, than as one of the species; by which means I have made myself a speculative statesman, foldier, merchant, and artisan, without ever meddling with any practical part in life. I am very well verted in the theory of a husband or a father; and can discern the errors in the economy, business, and diversion of others, better than those who are engaged in them; as standersby discover blots, which are apt to escape those who are in the game. I never espoused any party with violence, and am resolved to observe an exact neutrality between the Whigs and Tories, unlefs I thall be forced to declare myself by the hostilities of either side. In


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this paper.

short, I have acted in all the parts of my life as a look, er-on, which is the character I intend to preserve in

I have given the reader just so much of my history and character, as to let him fee I am not altogether unqualified for the business I have undertaken. As for other particulars in my life and adventures, I shall in. fert them in following papers as I shall see occasion. In the mean time, when I consider how much I have seen, read, and heard, I begin to blame my own taciturnity; and since I have neither time nor inclination to communicate the fulness of my heart in speech, I am refolved to do it in writing, and to print myself out, if poslible, before I die. I have been often told by my friends, that it is a pity so many useful discoreries which I have made fhould be in the políeffion of a silent man. For this reason therefore, I shall publish a sheet-full of thoughts every morning, for the benefit of my contemporaries; and if I can any way contribute to the diverSion or improvement of the country in which I live, I shall leave it, when I am fuinmonici out of it, with the secret satisfaction of thinking that I have not lived in vain.

There are three very material points which I have not spoken to in this paper; and which, for several in. portant reasons I must keep to myself, at least for some time: I mean, an account of my name, my age, and my lodgings. I must confcís, I would gratify my Reader in any thing that is reasonable; but as for these three particulars, though I am iensible they might tend very much to the embellishment of my paper, I cannot yet come to a resolution of communicating them to the Public. They would indeed draw me out of that obscurity which I have enjoyed for many years, and expofe me in public places to several falures and civilities, which have been always very disagrecable to me; for the greateft pain I can suffer is, the being talked in, and being stared at.

It is for this reason likewise, that I keep my complexion and dress as very great secrets; though it is


not impossible, but I may make discoveries of both in the progress of the work I have undertaken.

After having been thus particular upon myself, I shall in to-morrow's paper give an account of those Gentlemen who are concerned with me in this work ; for, as I have before intimated, a pian of it is laid and concerted, as all other matters of importance are, in a clubs. However, as my friends have engaged me to stand in the front, those, who have a mind to correspond with me, may direct their letters to the Spectator, at Mr. Buckley's in Little-Britain For I must further acquaint the reader, that though our club meet only on Tucidays and Thursdays, we have appointed a committee to sit every night for the inspection of all fuch papers as may contribute to the advancement of the public weal.


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Aft alii sex
Et plures uno conclamant ore-

Six more at least join their consenting voice.
THE first of our society is a Gentleman of Worces-

tershire, of ancient descent, a baronci, his name Sir Roger de Coverley. His great grandfather was inventor of that famous country-dance which is called after him. All who know that shire are very well acquainted with the parts and merits of Sir Roger. He is a gentleman that is very singular in his behaviour, but his fingularities proceed from his good sense, and are contradictions to the manners of the world, only as he thinks the world is in the wrong. However, this humour creates him no ememies, for he does nothing with fourness or obstinacy; and his being unconfined to moiles and forms makes him but the readier and more capable to please and oblige all who know hiin. When he is ia


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