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CH. I.]

THE GREAT BANK CONTROVERSY.

385

1832.

the hard fate of being carried one day, and means. On the 10th of February, and rescinded the next; forty-seven this committee reported in favor of a thousand seven hundred was finally set- renewal of the charter; the minority, tled

upon in May; and the Senate took however, presented a counter report. the subject into immediate considera- A motion was then made for a committion. That body undertook to fix the tee of inquiry into the affairs of the total of the House at two hundred and bank. The majority of this committee fifty-one members, leaving the ratio of was hostile to the bank, and so, having apportionment to be fixed in accordance entered into an examination of the therewith. But the House disagreeing, whole affairs of the institution, a report the Senate receded from its amendment, was presented, recommending the postand the arrangement settled by the ponement of the consideration of the House was finally adopted.

renewal of the charter, till the public The president having, in each of his debt was paid, and the revenue adjustthree annual messages to Congress an- ed to the expenditure of the governnounced, with tolerable distinctness, his ment. The minority also reported hostility to the Bank of the United (John Quincy Adams sending in a reStates, that institution thought it best, port in his own name alone,) in vindiat an early day, to apply for a renewal cation of the management of the bank,

of its charter; and so the great and recommended the renewal of the

bank controversy began. A charter. memorial was presented in the Senate The conflict was now removed to the by Mr. Dallas, on the 9th of January, Senate, where, in committee of the and referred to a select committee for whole, various amendments to the bill consideration. The opponents of the before them were proposed by the bank wished to postpone the subject, friends and by the opponents of the but were unsuccessful. On the 13th bank. But after a hot debate of three of March, the committee reported in weeks, the bill, without many alterafavor of renewing the charter for fifteen tions, passed, on the 11th of June, by a years, with certain modifications, by vote of twenty-eight to twenty.* The which it would seem, every reasonable bill was sent to the House, and taken objection would have been obviated. up there on the 30th of June. Mr. And a bill was brought in, conform- M’Duffie proposed an amendment, to able with the report; but in order to the effect that the provision limsecure the harmonious action of Con iting the number of branches gress, it was not pushed through, be in the several states, should not intercause the committee of inquiry appointed by the House had not yet reported. * Mr. Benton's statements and remarks on this sub

Mr. M’Duffie, of South Carolina, pre-ject are well worthy the reader's examination. He sented the memorial of the bank to was one of the most active, energetic, and uncomprothe House of Representatives, and it mising opponents of the bank, which have at any time

been in public life. See his “ Thirty Years' View," was referred to the committee of ways vol. i., pp. 158–9, 187–205, 220–265.

VOL. III.49

1832.

1832.

fere with existing branches; and others Mr. Webster and Mr. Clay addressed proposed other amendments, and a short the Senate earnestly on this subject, but sharp contest ensued, ending in the when the bill was returned with the adoption of M’Duffie's amendment, with veto of the president; and the question which the Senate also concurred, and of renewing the charter of the bank the rejection of all the others; and the was again discussed; but the bill not bill finally passed by a majority of a receiving a two-thirds vote, it was of hundred and seven against eighty-five. course rejected. This was on the 3d of July; for the The public lands occupied considerasession had been unusually protract- ble attention in Congress; but, owing ed; but Congress arranged its adjourn to the lateness of the time when they ment so as to leave ten clear days after were under discussion, nothing of mothe bill was put into the hands of the ment was accomplished. Internal impresident, lest it should be retained provements were warmly agitated, and till the next session, as other bills had several large appropriations were made been.

and sanctioned by the president, having Andrew Jackson was not unready to this object in view. The harbor bill, meet the questión. The bill was pre- however, was kept back by the sented to him on the 4th of July, and president, and was thus preon the 10th he returned it with his veto, vented from becoming a law. The a document of great length, in which tariff also came under the attention of the question is argued in full. The

The Congress, being distinctly recommended last paragraph is all that we have room by the president, and the progress of to quote.

the anti-tariff feeling in the south re“I have now done my duty to my quiring it. The subject was taken up country. If sustained by my fellow- by the two committees of the House on citizens, I shall be grateful and happy; ways and means, and on manufactures; if not, I shall find in the motives which and reports and bills were presented by impel me, ample grounds for content- both. That from the first committee, ment and peace. In the difficulties of which M’Duffie was chairman, (alwhich surround us, and the dangers though it originated with the secretary which threaten our institutions, there is of the treasury, and so was a governcause for neither dismay nor alarm. ment measure,) was negatived, on the For relief and deliverance let us firmly 1st of June; that of the other, of which rely on that kind Providence which, 1 John Quincy Adams was chairman and am sure, watches with peculiar care reporter, after some discussion, and a over the destinies of our republic, and few amendments, was carried by a vote on the intelligence and wisdom of our of one hundred and thirty-two to sixty. countrymen, Through His abundant five, some of the opponents of protec. goodness, and their patriotic devotion, tion even voting for it. The principle our liberty and union will be pre- of protection was maintained by this served."

bill, but the duties on many protected

Cs. IL]

RAVAGES OF THE CHOLERA.

387

articles of domestic manufactures were allay the existing excitement in South considerably reduced, and it was re- Carolina. ceived as a concession to the free-trade This unusually long session of Conparty, and with the hope (a most de

gress was closed on the 14th of July, lusive one, as it proved,) that it would | 1832.

CHAPTER II.

1832-1837.

JACKSON'S ADMINISTRATION: CONOLUDED.

The cholera and its ravages - Indian war in the north-west — Black Hawk - Movements in South Carolina against

the tariff law – Congress in session — Abstract of the president's message --Action in Congress on the tariff question — The enforcing bill — Calhoun's speech - Clayton's resolution — Henry Clay's “compromise tariff” bill - The land bill — Question on the deposits of the public money – Jackson's second inauguration - His corthern tour - The president determines to remove the deposits — Duane refuses to give the necessary order — Taney appointed secretary of the treasury - Deposits removed — Excitement in the community - Congress in session — Its proceedings— Resolution condemning the president for removing the deposits --- Jackson's protest Stormy debate - Commercial distress and embarrassments — Action of the House on re-chartering the bank, etc.

– Debate in the Senate — Taney's nomination rejected - The "whig opposition - Congress in session — Not much accomplished - Claims on France - Jackson determines to have a settlement - The result — Other claims on European powers settled — Texas and its affairs — Democratic convention at Baltimore — Van Buren nomi. nated — The twenty-fourth Congress - The message - Proceedings of Congress in regard to the deposits in the state banks - Distribution of the surplus revenue — Effect of this course —Speculation, gambling, fraud, etc. Slavery discussion -- The “specie circular”. Effect upon the country -- Van Buren elected president - Johnson elected vice-president by the Senate - Jackson's last message to Congress - The "expunging resolution". Attempt to rescind the specie circular unsuccessful - Close of Andrew Jackson's administration.

DURING the summer of 1832, the more, about six hundred; in Washingwhole country was greatly alarmed and ton, nearly two hundred; and other excited by the appearance of that ter-towns and cities suffered in about the rible scourge, as it proved, the Asiatic same proportion. But in New Orleans cholera. About the close of June, it | the cholera proved very malignant; for began its ravages; and partly in con- between the 28th of October and the sequence of terror and fright, and partly 11th of November, sixteen hundred and from ignorance

of the nature and mode sixty-eight deaths occurred. The naof the treatment of the disease, ture and peculiarities of this fearful extensively fatal in its effect. Over visitation excited universal attention, three thousand died in New York city, and gave rise to various contributions

between the 4th of July and the to medical literature, by eminent mem

1st of October. In Philadel-bers of the faculty. Among these, Dr. phia, nearly a thousand died; in Balti- Francis's letter is especially worthy of

it was

1832.

;

note; a brief quotation will not be out once resorted to the only practicable of place in the present connection. means of revenge-predatory and hos" Whether the materies morbi of chol. tile ravages in the frontier settlements; era claims a siderial or telluric origin, whilst he prepared for a more formidathe atmosphere is the medium through | ble retaliation. In March, 1832, he aswhich it operates. It prevails in all sembled his own tribes, the Sacs and climates, and at all seasons; it exists in Foxes, with Winnebagoes, to the numevery variety of soils; on mountains ber of about a thousand in all, and and in valleys, in marshes and on rocks, crossed the Mississippi into Illinois. in dryness, and in humidity. Unlike All was dismay; the settlers nearest influenza, and some other specific dis- the point of invasion fled, and a brigade eases, its ravages are independent of of militia, ordered out for their protecwinds and currents; neither the analysis tion, by no means appeased the alarm. of the gases of the atmosphere, nor bar- By June, however, the United States ometrical or thermometrical investiga- troops there, together with about three tion, solve the difficulty of its birth, thousand mounted volunteers, took the and we are baffled in reviewing its pro- field, and Black Hawk withdrew his gress, to ascertain the peculiar influence warriors into the swamps, which were of localities in producing it.

their fortresses, and trenches, and amWhen this formidable disease shall buscades, at the same time; and he exhave disappeared from among us, and tended his murderous incursions over its history be recorded by the faithful the whole of the most advanced northhistorian, the skill and humane exer western settlements. tions of the medical profession, the General Scott was thereupon ordered munificence of the affluent, and the dis- to lead eleven companies of infantry interested benevolence of all classes, and nine companies of artillery against will not be forgotten."*

the savages; and with the utmost In the north-west fresh troubles broke promptitude, undeterred by distance, out in the spring of the present year. and although his force suffered severely The Sacs and Foxes, who, by treaty had from cholera, he marched to Chicago. agreed to remove, showed much reluc- The same spirit actuated the army altance in doing so, and the governor of ready in the field; for, finding that they Illinois was disposed to hasten their de- could not be reinforced by Scott's troops, parture. He accordingly ordered the they penetrated into the lurking-places militia to use compulsion in carrying out of the Indians, on the 21st of the measure.

Black Hawk was leader July, inflicted a decisive defeat of the Indians at the time, and he at on them on the banks of the Wisconsin,

followed them up, and once more, and

yet more disastrously, routed them, near * Letter on the Cholera Asphyxia, now prevailing the mouth of the Iowa, on the left bank in the city of New York; addressed to Dr. Read, of Savannah.” By John W. Francis, M. D. New York,

of the Mississippi, on the 2d of August; 1832. Pp. 35.

and Black Hawk and his small band

1832.

CA. 11.]

JACKSON AND NULLIFICATION.

389

1832.

of survivors having surrendered, on the obedience. This, of course, brought 15th and 21st of September, treaties the question to an issue, and it remained were concluded with the Winnebagoes,

to be

seen, whether the executive would and the Sacs and Foxes, by which they take care to have the laws of the Unite agreed to the cession of the remainder ed States enforced, and whether South of their territory, and the federal gov- Carolina would be reduced to her propernment to pay $10,000 annually, for er place as one of the members of the twenty-seven years to the Winnebagoes, Union. and $20,000 for thirty years, to the The twenty-second Congress comSacs and Foxes, and to provide them menced its second session on the 4th of with the means of improvement and December, 1832. Hugh L. White, Sencivilization. And thus was peace re ator from Tennessee, was elected presstored again in the north-west. ident pro tempore; on the 28th, Mr.

Directly after the passage of the tar- Calhoun resigned bis post as iff act, mentioned on a previous page, vice-president of the United (p. 386,) the representatives of South States, and was immediately elected a Carolina addressed their constituents Senator from South Carolina, in place on the subject, and urged upon them of Mr. Hayne, who had been chosen to sustain the sovereign rights of that governor of the state. state, which, they said, were invaded In the message of the president, by the recent action of Congress. among other things, he pressed upon Meetings were accordingly held in Congress the necessity for revising the South Carolina, and much excitement tariff; both for the purpose

of adapting was manifested against the general gov- the revenue to the expenditure, and to ernment. The legislature was con limit the protection afforded by the imvened by Governor Hamilton, at Colum- posts to the counteraction of the probia, on the 22d of October, and the tective laws of other nations, and the tariff question was warmly discussed. securing of “a supply of those articles The result was, the calling of a state of manufacture essential to the national convention, which met on the 19th of independence and safety in time of November, at the same place. This war." He insisted, that perpetual proconvention proceeded to the length of tection, secured by a tariff of high recommending nullification, in the com duties imposed for that object specially, pletest sense of the term. The legisla- had entered into the minds of but few ture, which met on the 27th, passed or- American statesmen. “The most they dinances to carry into effect the recom have anticipated is a temporary and mendations of the state convention, and generally incidental protection, which South Carolina became thus arrayed in they maintain has the effect to reduce opposition to the laws of the United the price, by domestic competition, be. States, refusing to allow thc revenue low that of the foreign article. Expe. to be collected, and determining to re- rience, however, our best guide on this sist by force every attempt to compel as on other subjects, makes it doubtful

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