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passed for filling the ranks of the army; authorizing the president to accept the services of volunteers, not exceeding forty thousand men; creating a navy board of three post-captains; authorizing the purchase of twenty vessels from eight to sixteen guns; prohibiting intercourse with the enemy, under the penalty of fine and imprisonment; and the like. Happily, however, our country was spared the necessity of continuing the contest with England, and the war measures were not called into active operation.
Late on Saturday evening, February 11th, the British sloop of war Favorite, under a flag of truce, arrived at New York, and was the bearer of
the treaty of peace. The whole city was soon in a state of joyous excitement, and the following Lord's Day gave fitting opportunity to thousands of pious hearts to offer their devout thanksgivings to the Prince of Peace for the happy return of that inestimable blessing. Every where the gladsome words of congratulation were offered one to another; illuminations lightened up the dark hours of the night; expresses rode with unabated speed in every direction; Peace! Peace! was the exulting cry; and the streaming banners floated on the breeze, the cannon roared, and the mirthful song was poured forth, to testify the universal joy which filled the hearts of all men, to know that the war was now at an end.
On the 20th of February, the president communicated copies of the treaty to Congress, with a message, in which he congratulated the members, and Vol. III.—37
their constituents, upon the event, terminating as it did "a campaign signalized by the most brilliant successes." The peace, as he said, was "peculiarly welcome" just then. He recommended the bestowal of * testimonials of approbation and applause" upon "the gallant men, whose achievements, in every department of the military service, on the land and on the water, had so essentially contributed to the honor of the American name, and to the restoration of peace." A gradual return to a peace establishment was deemed by the president most advisable, and it was suggested, that the wisdom of Congress should "provide for the maintenance of an adequate regular force; for the gradual advancement of the naval establishment; for improving all the means of harbor defence; for adding discipline to the distinguished bravery of the militia; and for cultivating the military art, in its essential branches, under the liberal patronage of government." Commerce and navigation were also recommended to the care lgl5 of Congress; and the manufactures which had sprung into existence, and had become so greatly matured, during the war, as a source of national independence and wealth, were placed under their prompt and constant guardianship. Having spoken in high terms of the measures which had been adopted for securing the public credit, the president exhorted them to use their best exertions to consolidate not only the peace with Great Britain, but also the harmony of the country; "and while we accord in grateful acknowledgments," he said, in conclusion, "for the protection which Providence has bestowed upon us, let us never cease to inculcate obedience to the laws, and fidelity to the Union, as constituting the palladium of the national independence and prosperity."
THE ARRIVAL OF PEACE.
Congress, in accordance wfth the president's recommendations, entered zealously upon the work before them. Less than two weeks of the session remained, and the members felt that no time was to be lost. Various acts relating to a state of war were repealed. A loan of $18,500,000 was authorized, for the purpose of retiring the outstanding and depreciated treasury paper; and $25,000,000 of r otes, part of which were to be for sums under a hundred dollars, and not to bear interest,—the rest for larger amounts in the old fashion; and both kinds might be paid for taxes, eta, or funded at the option of the holder, those without interest at seven per cent., and the others at six.
Besides these matters, the army and navy had to be reduced to a peace footing. And upon this, as was naturally to be expected, some discrepancy of opinion was expressed, the military committee of the House recommending ten thousand men, as the total of the regular army in peace, which the House itself desired to reduce to six; the Senate, on the other hand, recommending fifteen thousand; and the president be
ing in favor of twenty thousand. A compromise was effected, and ten thousand was the number finally agreed upon.
Provision was made for the progressive increase of the naval force, and a board for the conduct ana control of the maritime defences of the Union, under the presidency of the secretary of the navy, was created. The Algerine cruisers, notwithstanding the severe lessons of former years, having renewed their piratical attacks upon our commerce, and made slaves of a number of citizens, war was declared against the dey of Algiers, and the president was authorized to send a squadron into the Mediterranean to chastise afresh these freebooters on the sea. The president having been requested to recommend a day of thanksgiving for the return of peace, with its manifold blessings, on the 3d of March, Congress brought its session to a close.
At this point, we bring our narrative of the second war with England to an end; and we conclude this fifth book of our history with the greater satisfaction, inasmuch as the remaining portion of our work will be devoted to the telling of the triumphs of peace, and the progress of national prosperity, and of the increased and increasing blessings which it has pleased God so freely to bestow upon our beloved country.
UNITED STATES OP AMERICA.
Close Of Madison's Peesidenot.
Return of peace — Its effect upon the community — Chaugea oonsoquent upon the peace—The commercial Convention nnJ its results—The "Dartmoor massacre"—Renewal of war with Algiers—Tribute paid to the <ley — His course towards Americans—The squadron sent to the Mediterranean under Decatur and Bainbridge — Decatur's prompt and efficient measures — The dcy agrees to the treaty proposed — Congress in session — The president's message—Its statements and recommendations— Mr. Dallas's financial statements—The tariff arrangements — Letter of Mr. Dallas recommending a national bank — Debate on the question — The bill passed — Features of the new bank — Bill altering the mode of paying the members of Congress — Dissatisfaction — Other acts of the session — Caucus nominates candidates for president and Tice-president — Monroe and Tompkins selected — Result of the election — Course adopted by the secretary of the treasury in regard to paying government dues in specie — The Bank of the United States prepares to go into operation — Congress in session — The president's last annual message — Abstract of its contents—Act for paying off the national debt—The subject of internal improvements—Calhoun's views—Bill passed, but vetoed by the president — Other proceedings of Congress — Close of Madison's official career—Remarks on his character and place in American history.
Peace, which had come unexpectedly, but with universal welcome, was not without its trials as well as its blessings. Its effect upon the different classes of the community was very great and very various. On some it brought speedy ruin, while it raised others at once from gloomy forebodings to wealth and importance. Foreign commodities,
during the last year of the war, were