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CA. X.]




purpose of erecting a stockaded dépôt, advancing from East Tennessee in the to receive supplies and military stores same direction under General Cocke. for the use of the Tennessee troops, Mr. Ingersoll, in speaking of this matunder General Jackson, who were on ter, says, that the federal government the march, along the line of the Coosa. adopted the men thus raised and in acBefore the close of November, this was tive service, and reimbursed the money, done; and Fort Claiborne, with its pal. some $200,000, which the legislature of isades, block-houses, and half-moon bat- Tennessee had appropriated for the tery, presented a frowning front to all maintenance of the war against the unbidden navigators of the stream. Creeks; and he adds: “Riddance of

Georgia and Tennessee very actively the country from the savages, theretoseconded the efforts of Mississippi, and fore the terror, if not the masters of it, had General Flournoy been a more ef was mainly effected by local popular ficient commander, much effusion of and state action, consummated by opblood and waste of property would erations of the federal government. have been spared. On the western The part each one performed, the ap

edge of Georgia, about the mid- propriate function of each, are lessons

dle of October, was stationed of that conflict which cannot be too General Floyd, at the head of some two durably impressed on the American thousand five hundred men; and by the mind. While it is one of the most unbeginning of November, he had ad- questionable and gratifying demonstravanced with nearly a third of them, tions of the war of 1812, that the states and four hundred allied Indians, into saved the United States in several emerthe Creek country about the Tallapoosa gencies, it is equally true, that excessive and its tributaries. He very soon made state or popular action embarrassed and his presence known, as we shall see endangered the Union; and that it is presently.

by the harmonious adjustment of all But it was from Tennessee that the the elements, popular, state, and federal, main body of the forces, relied upon that national safety, dignity, and vindifor the effective discharge of the stern cation, are accomplished. If obliged to duty of repressing the armed Indians, wait the orders, forces, and contribuand chastising them for the outrage at tions of the federal government, the Fort Mimms, came. The legislature of Creek war would never have been that state, then in session, had author-crushed, as it was, in one victorious ized the governor to call out three campaign. Yet that campaign proved, thousand five hundred men in addition even without state or popular disaffccto those already under arms; and be- tion, that something more than six

fore many days of October had months militia and volunteers is indis.

passed, one column of two thou- pensable to general safety and welfare."* sand choice volunteers, under General Although it is somewhat in advance Jackson, set out from Nashville; another column, of about equal strength, * “ History of the Second War," vol. i., p.




of the progress of our narrative thus and had not two companies of militia far, it will be most convenient, we think, given way, whereby a space was left to relate the conclusion of the Creek open through which a considerable numwar, in the present connection. On the ber of the enemy escaped to the moun2d of November, General Coffee was tains, they would all have been taken detached, with nine hundred men, prisoners or destroyed. In the pursuit against Tallushatches, a Creek town, many were sabred or shot down. In and reached the place about daylight this action, the American loss was fifthe next morning. The Indians, aware teen killed, and eighty wounded. That of his approach, were prepared to re- of the Creeks was not much short of ceive him. Within a short distance of three hundred killed, their whole force the village they charged upon him with exceeding a thousand. “In a very few

unexampled boldness; and al- weeks,” wrote General Jackson, “if I

though repulsed, made a most had a sufficiency of supplies, I am thorobstinate resistance. They refused to oughly convinced I should be able to give or receive quarter, and were slain put an end to Creek hostilities.” almost to a man. Nearly two hundred Jackson had ordered General White of their warriors were killed in this af- to join him after Coffee's first success, fair. The women and children were intending to press forward and crush taken prisoners. The loss of the Amer- the Indians before they had time to reicans was five killed and forty wounded. cover from the panic produced by these

Four days later, having been informed blows. White, however, who was subthat Lashly's Fort, at the village of ordinate to General Cocke, was deTalladega, about thirty miles distant, tached by him, on the 11th of Novembelonging to the friendly Creeks, was ber, against the hostile towns on the in great danger from the hostile party, Talapoosa River, where the Hillabees Jackson set off with alacrity to relieve resided. At daylight, on the the place. At twelve o'clock the same 18th, White entered a Hillabee night, he took up his line of march, at town, and out of about three hundred the head of twelve hundred men, and and sixteen warriors killed some sixty, arrived within six miles of the fort the and took the rest prisoners. Having next evening. At midnight he again burnt several villages, which had been advanced, and by seven o'clock of the deserted by the Indians, he returned on following morning was within a mile the 23d, without the loss of a single man. of the enemy. He now made the most At the close of November, a signal judicious arrangements for surrounding victory was obtained by General Floyd, them; and approached, within eighty at the head of the Georgia militia, at yards, almost unperceived. The battle Autossee, on the Talapoosa. This was commenced on the part of the Indians “the Creek metropolis," and the very with great fury. Being repulsed on all ground was held to be sacred. It was sides, they attempted to make their es- defended with a spirit animated by cape, but found themselves enclosed; I every consideration that interest, re


CH. X.]




venge, and religion could present. ordered to march back to Tennessee. Warriors from eight towns were as- On the 14th of January, however, sembled to oppose the invaders there. Jackson was fortunately reinforced by But the well-directed fire of the artil- eight hundred volunteers, and soon aflery, added to the charge of the bayo- ter by several hundred friendly Indians. net, triumphed over all opposition. The Their term of service was only Indians lost at least two hundred, among sixty days, and the general dewhom were the Autossee king and an- termined to employ them at once against other, and their wounded were much the enemy. Having been joined by more numerous. The number of build- General Coffee, with a number of offiings burnt, some of a superior order for cers, Jackson, on the 17th of January, the dwellings of savages, and filled with with the view of making a diversion in valuable articles, was supposed to be favor of General Floyd, and at the same four hundred. The American loss was time of relieving Fort Armstrong, which eleven killed and fifty-four wounded. was said to be threatened, entered the That of the friendly Indians, who fought | Indian country, with the determination with them, and with great intrepidity, of penetrating still farther than had was never ascertained.

yet been attempted. On the evening In the month of December, Clai- of the 21st, believing himself, from apborne, with the Mississippi volunteers, pearances, in the vicinity of a large and a body of Choctaws, advanced into body of Indians, he encamped with the Creek country; and on the 23d, at- great precaution, and kept himself in tacked Ecchanachaca, “Holy Ground,” the attitude of defence. At daylight, a town on the Alabama, of about two the next morning, an assault was made hundred houses, not long built, with on the left flank; which, after being

many incantations, to serve as firmly resisted for about half an hour,

Weatherford's stronghold, and was successfully repulsed, and a furious fancied by the Indians to be impregna- charge of the cavalry, under General ble. Weatherford himself, Josiah, Fran- Coffee, completely routed the Indians, cis, and Sinquister, all of them "pro- and drove them nearly two miles from phets,” encouraged their followers to the field with great slaughter. Soon display the most furious bravery in de- afterwards, the camp was attacked on fence of the consecrated spot. Thirty the other flank, but with no better reonly were killed; the chief prophet sult; the remainder of the enemy's force fled; the town was burned, and all the being routed now, with the loss of forland round devastated.

ty-five of their warriors. The term of service of the Tennessee The next morning, a retrograde movevolunteers having expired, no persua- ment was made by General Jackson, sions of General Jackson were suffi-| under a belief that he had diverted the ciently strong to induce them to remain enemy from their designs against the longer away from their homes. Becom- Georgia troops, and could encounter ing uutinous, they were disbanded and them best nearer to his dépôt. On the

VOL. III.—27



24th, at the outset of the march, there States service, and was reinforced by lay a defile at the crossing of the Eno- the thirty-ninth regiment of United tachopes Creek. Here the Indians, who States infantry. Several dehad followed closely, (and against whom tachments of militia and volunpreparations had been made in the night teers soon afterwards joined him, so that for fear of a sudden attack,) fell upon the forces at his command amounted them, and threw them into disorder for to nearly four thousand men, besides a short time,-some companies taking Indian auxiliaries, numbering nearly anto flight. Very soon, however, they other thousand. He was now in a conwere rallied and brought into action, dition to bring the war to a close by an and the artillery, which was encum attack upon the last stronghold of the bered in the ford at the moment of at-Creeks. This was at the bend of the tack, took the lead against the swarms Talapoosa, called by the Indians Toho of the enemy. The conflict did not peka, and by the whites Horse shou last long, and the Indians were routed, Bend. Nature and art had rendered and fled in the greatest consternation; this a place of great security. A breasileaving twenty-six of their number dead work had been erected, from five to on the field. Jackson's loss, in these eight feet high, across the peninsula, fights, was twenty-four killed and sev- thus enclosing nearly one hundred acres enty-one wounded: the Indians' loss was

of ground.

This could not be apabout two hundred dead on the battle proached, without being exposed to a field, beside large numbers wounded. double and cross fire from the Indians

Notwithstanding these repulses, the who lay behind. About one thousand Creeks attacked General Floyd at Camp warriors had collected on this spot. Defiance, early in the morning of the Here General Jackson determined to 27th of January, and quite unexpect- attack them. edly. The sentinels were driven in, and On the 26th of March, he encamped a fierce contest took place within the within six miles of the place, and hav. lines; but Indian valor, weapons, and ing learned the shore was lined with tactics, here as elsewhere, proved no canoes, he sent General Coffee to the match for American discipline, grape opposite side of the river to surround shot, and the bayonet. Thirty-seven the Bend in such a manner that none of their warriors were left dead; but could escape by crossing the river. it was plain, from the number of head With the remainder of his force, he atdresses and war-clubs scattered about, tacked their fortifications in front. A and from the bloody trail they made brisk fire was kept up for two hours, in their retreat, that this was not the when General Coffee crossed to the whole of their loss. Seventeen Amer- peninsula to his aid, and commenced a icans fell, and a hundred and thirty-two spirited fire upon the enemy, who lay were wounded.

behind the breastwork; but they were Early in March, Jackson was ap- still unsubdued. General Jackson depointed a major-general in the United termined to storm their fortifications.

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The regulars, led on by Colonel Wil- cated peace; but my people are gone, liams and Major Montgomery, advanced and I now ask it for my nation and to the charge. An obstinate contest myself.” ensued, in which the combatants fought During the month of April, General through the port-holes, musket to mus- Jackson scoured the country on the ket. At this time, Major Montgomery, Coosa and Talapoosa Rivers. leaping on the wall, called to his men A party of the enemy on the to mount and follow him. Scarcely had latter river, on his approach fled to Penhe spoken, when a ball struck him on sacola; and a detachment of Carolina the head, and he fell lifeless to the militia, under Colonel Pearson, travground. Yet the Americans obeyed ersed the banks of the Alabama, and his command, and, following his exam- received the submission of a great numple, soon gained the opposite side of ber of Creek warriors and prophets. the works. Though the Creeks fought Finally, the Indians being now comwith a bravery which their desperate pletely at the mercy of the conquerors, situation alone could have inspired, yet a treaty of peace was dictated by Genthey were entirely defeated, and cut to eral Jackson to the Creeks, and signed pieces. Five hundred and fifty were early in August. The terms were sekilled on the peninsula, and many were vere, but probably necessarily so, in ordrowned or shot in attempting to cross der to insure future tranquillity. The the river. Jackson's loss, including the Creeks agreed to yield a large portion friendly Indians, was fifty-four killed, of their country as an indemnity for the and one hundred and fifty-six wounded. expenses of the war; they consented to

This decisive victory ended in the the opening roads through their counsubmission of the remaining warriors, try, together with the liberty of navi. and terminated the Creek war. Among gating their rivers; they engaged to those who threw themselves upon the establish trading houses, and to enmercy of their victors, was Weather- deavor to bring back the nation to its ford, who was equally distinguished for former state; they also stipulated to his talents and cruelty. “I am in your hold no intercourse with any British or power,” said he,“ do with me what you Spanish post or garrison, and to deliver please. I have done the white people up the property they had taken from all the harm I could. I have fought the whites and the friendly Indians. them, and fought them bravely. There General Jackson, on the part of the was a time when I had a choice. I have United States, undertook to guarantee none now; every hope is ended. Once their remaining territory to them; to I could animate my warriors to battle; restore all their prisoners; and, in conbut I cannut animate the dead. They sideration of their destitute situation, can no longer hear my voice; their | to furnish them gratuitously with the bones are at Tallushatches, Talladega, necessaries of life until they could proEmucfau, and Tohopeka. While there vide for themselves. was a chance of success, I never suppli It will be remembered, that during


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