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THE REV. HUTCHENS C. BISHOP
Pastor of St. Philip's Church (see picture

on page 953)

JAMES RIESE EUROPE
Composer of modern dance music and leader of a

very successful Negro band; President of
the Tempo Club, a musical society that

occupies a handsome club house

LEADING CITIZENS OF “TIIE NEGRO CITY"

a yearly income of over $25,000. A study moderate spending money draws on the of the history of St. Philip's from its found- treasurer, who issues the money and keeps ing and establishment in Sullivan Street one, strict account of all expenditures. This famhundred years ago, and its steady growth, ily has accumulated a savings account of over reveals a system of business management of $46,000 and is buying property on Long which any religious community might well be Island. proud. In this Negro district there are eight The throughgoing business attitude of a other churches, some wealthy, all in good cir- majority of the community is witnessed in cumstances, and all with interesting histories the small percentage of saloons. The city of of growth and administration.

New York numbers its saloons at the ratio of Such success is not obtained without econ- one to every thousand of population, and in omy and well-directed saving. Indeed, as poorer class neighborhoods a much higher may be supposed from such a record as is average obtains. The Negro community has shown by this brief account of St. Philip's less than one to every two thousand of popu

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A CLASS IN THE MUSIC SCHOOL SETTLEMENT Church, thrift is encouraged and practiced by lation, and only five of these are owned or the more substantial element of the com- conducted by Negroes. munity to a very great degree. In many in- There are no very definite data on which to stances all members of a family are engaged base the per capita wealth of the community. in some definite form of work. One family Some statistics published three or four years representative of this class may be instanced. ago gave as the savings bank deposit of all The father is a chef in the Pullman service, Negroes in New York City the sum of fif. a son is a “red cap" in the Grand Central teen millions. Since three-fourths of the terminal, a daughter has charge of a theatri- Negro population of New York City and cal dressing-room, the mother makes appoint practically all of their prominent men now ments for hair-dressing among well-to-do live in this uptown community, it would seem people in white localities and acts as treasurer reasonable to estimate their savings deposits for the family. A younger daughter looks at least as high as ten million. Business men after the home. Each member of the family of the section, however, insist that this is too deposits his or her entire earnings with the low by at least fifty per cent, and point out treasurer, and when in need of clothing or that the Union Dime Savings Bank carries

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HOME OF A NEGRO NEWSPAPER The entire staff of the paper is composed of colored men. Among them are a cartoonist

and a Washington correspondent

ST. PHILIP'S CHURCH Built from the plans of a Negro architect. The land and building cost $225,000. The

church owns a block of apartment-houses worth $620,000

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alone one and a half per cent of Negro sav- living, is there no crime, no rioting or lawlessings.

ness? Indeed there is. But communities Of public institutions run for and by Ne- of ninety thousand people where there is no groes the community possesses an old folks' crime are not the most usual things in this home, a day nursery, a home for graduate world. Like white cities of equal size, this nurses, a house for boys which is the head- Negro settlement has its slums, in which the quarters for sixty Boy Scouts and their vicious element prevails ; but the citizens, major, a union rescue home for girls, and a through the medium of their civic organizamusic school settlement. Of these, perhaps

Of these, perhaps tions and groups of workers, try hard to cope the music school settlement deserves most with that element, and every illegal act comspecial attention. It occupies a fine double mitted in the “ black belt" is as much deplored brown-stone house, and is under the manage- by them as it would be in a similarly respectment of Mr. J. Rosamond Johnson, a Negro able and law-abiding white district. and member of the New England Conservatory. The sincerity and spirit with which this

Of clubs and organizations for social pur- Negro community is attacking the problems poses and civic betterment the Negro com- common to all cities and towns, irrespective munity has also its full share. The list of of the color and race of their inhabitants, these includes such familiar sounding titles as may be judged, perhaps, by a brief quotathe Business Men's League, the Civic League, tion from the programme of a meeting of the United Democracy, the Republican Club, Negro business men called to discuss certain and colored branches of the Boys' Camp and disorders in their district. Very clearly indeed Big Brother movements. There is a musical the leading Negroes of this New York comclub called the Tempo, of which James mittee have learned that civic disorder means Riese Europe, a composer of modern dance both a social and a financial loss, and that the music, is president. There is a theatrical city or organized society which permits and club known as the Frogs, of which no less a tolerates bad conditions is wantonly throwing person than Bert Williams, late of Williams and away its best assets. This is what these Negro Walker, and now known as one of the most business men have to say of civic betterment: popular of Broadway comedians, is the head. “The real estate agent should be inter

Among the opportunities available for the ested in such matters on account of his steady young Negroes of the district, Public School 89 income, if for no other reason. The minisplays a most important rôle. There are some ter should be interested because it helps him two thousand pupils in this school, and eighty in his profession, The newspaper man ought per cent are Negroes. One of the most to be interested because the better class of serious problems confronting Mr. Theobald, people read newspapers. The lawyer should principal of the school, is that of caring for be interested because he prefers civil rather the West Indian Negro children who have

than criminal cases. Every workingman come with their parents to New York. At should be interested because they are all in the age of eleven most of these children are favor of bringing up their families under the not sufficiently advanced to take a place in best conditions possible ; and certainly every the classes with Northern children of their tradesman should be interested because the own age. Of private stenographic and busi- better class of people carry better accounts, ness schools there is a great variety available. live better, and wear better clothes. Every Trades open to girls, such as hair-dressing, taxpayer should be interested because he pays manicuring, dressmaking, and millinery, are the salaries of the city officials whose business also taught by many competent teachers. It it is to see that law and order prevail.” is hoped, too, that a trade division will soon The progress made by the citizens of this be established in the public school.

Negro community in cosmopolitan New There is a branch public library in the York is well worth the attention and intervery heart of the community. Books on re- est of all those concerned with bettering the ligion, history, biography, and poetry are per- physical and moral conditions of Negroes haps in the greatest demand. The commu- throughout the entire country. Is it too nity as a whole, although this statement can much to hope that the time may come when hardly be taken as a proof of widespread to all Negroes may be offered the opportunity erudition or scholarship, is said to be a veri- for clean living and civic development such table mint for the subscription-book agent. as is apparently available in the black belt”

With all this progress in the art of modern of New York ?

REMINISCENCES

BY LYMAN ABBOTT

CHAPTER XII RECONSTRUCTION: EFFORTS FOR ITS SOLUTION

O

N the last Sunday in April, 1865, I went down to boat for Alexandria. Passed preached my farewell sermon in

within a stone's throw of arsenal, where conTerre Haute and started immedi- spirators are on trial. Governor Pierpont ately thereafter for the East. On our way had gone to Washington. Mr. C-, of we met the funeral cortège bearing the body Christian Commission, whom also we wished of Abraham Lincoln to its resting-place in to see, was non est. So we returned but Springfield, Illinois. As soon as my wife

little wiser than we went. ... I went to and children were settled in our temporary General Howard's. I had undertaken to home in the boarding-house in New York draw up a circular letter to the public to give where my father was living, and I had the outline of his policy. Obtained his ideas, acquainted myself with the details and with quietly insinuated some of my own, and took the workers at the office of the Commission, the draft home to draw up in form.

I like I started for Washington and Richmond. In General Howard very much. And, unless the former city I wished to see General 0. O. I greatly mistake, my stay in Washington Howard, the head of the newly constituted will pay in my future intercourse with the Freedmen's Bureau; in the latter city I hoped Government, though it has accomplished very to acquaint myself with conditions in Virginia

little now. and with the agent of our Society who was Thursday. Arose early this morning and already there engaged in the work. My let- drew up circular letter. After breakfast ters to my wife were briefer than they had submitted it to Dr. M —, made some alterabeen from Tennessee, but extracts from two tions at his suggestion, and at 10 A.M. went letters will give the reader a better idea of up to War Department. Met General Howmy work than I could do now from my faded ard there, and we all walked up to his quarrecollection.

ters together. He had just got in some

desks, but had no chairs, nothing yet in shape. * Tuesday. Started out early in the morn- Submitted the circular letter to him, which ing with the rest of the company. Waited he afterwards read to some representatives on the War Department, and were referred of Freedmen's organizations present, and to Freedmen's and Refugees' Bureau. Went later still to General Thomas, Adjutantto General Howard's hotel; he was out. General. It was adopted with no material Then to Postmaster Dennison, and received alteration, and, between you and me, as puba letter of introduction to Governor Pierpont. lished before now to the country, is a good Then with Dr. Thompson to the “ Chron- deal my work. It recognizes refugees as icle" office to tell the editor of our Commis- well as freedmen, which otherwise would not sion, and thence to Dr. Gurley's. I gave have been done. him your kind regards, and he wished to be Friday. Breakfast at seven, per agreeremembered to you.

Mrs. G. was quite ment. We waited over till to-day simply to sick. He gave me a very interesting account see Mr. Dana, Assistant Secretary of War, of the President's last hours—not so much and get a letter to General Halleck at Richfor what was new, as that it came with fresh- mond. Drizzly, foggy day. Engaged a carness from an eye-witness and participant. It riage, and Dr. M- and myself started for was very touching Remind me to tell you an inspecting tour. Of our ignorant driver, when I return. Then, via the theater where of Aqueduct Bridge, and Arlington Heights, President was killed, to dinner. We after- and the Arlington mansion (General Lee's ward called on Governor Pierpont and were old house), and the freedmen's village, told he was living at Alexandria.

and General Meade's headquarters, and the Wednesday. Breakfast at 7:30 A.M. Then Long Bridge, some account hereafter. Could Copyright, 1914 the Outlook Company.

not see Secretary Dana, and so I could not

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