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branches into the house, and tie on the suet there in comfort. Then, if we drive a couple of wire nails part way through each branch, we can carry it out and quickly nail to any tree we like.

If we wish to go to just a little more expense, we can make suet-pockets of halfinch wire netting and staple them to the trunks of trees instead of tying the suet itself to the branches.

The simplest way to feed the seed-eating birds is to scatter the food on the ground. If there is soft, deep snow, the food should not be thrown upon it. Seed and most other foods quickly sink into soft snow, and, besides, most birds do not like to founder about in the snow-drifts in order to get a bite to eat. The snow may be swept or shoveled

on the ground. If there is danger from cats, we should select for our feeding station a space well out in the open ; for if there are shrubs or other tall plants about, the cats will be able to creep up within leaping distance before the birds are aware of their presence.

This much we can do without any appiances, and at no expense beyond the cost ci the food.

The following are some of the best foods and the birds which have been known to eat them :

Suet. Screech owl, hairy woodpecker, downy woodpecker, red-bellied woodpecker, flicker. blue jay, crow, Clark's nutcracker, starling, tree sparrow, junco, rose breasted grosbeak, myrtle warbler, brown creeper, white-breasted nat

[graphic]

BLUE JAIS TAKING THEIR FOOD FROM THE WELL-TRAMPLED SNOW

IN THE AUTHOR'S GARDEN

away, but personally I much prefer to trample it down. It is not easy, even with a snowshovel, to clear thoroughly a generous space where there is long grass or weeds; besides, cleared spaces are apt to become wet or muddy and are usually unsightly. The trampling process is quicker, much quicker, if we have snow-shoes; it makes no unsightly patches, and, moreover, the well-trodden snow forms the most pleasing background against which to see our feathered guests.

It is best to put out a day's supply of fresh food each morning ; the birds learn to connect our appearance with the coming of good things for them, and gradually lose their fear of us. Moreover, by putting out comparatively small quantities of food we avoid the danger of unnecessary waste when snow-storms come and cover up whatever is

hatch, red-breasted nuthatch, chickadee, Hed sonian chickadee, hermit thrush.

Fat pork. Hairy woodpecker, downy wocipecker, blue jay, crow, white-breasted nuthatch, tufted titmouse, chickadee.

Raw meat. Screech owl, hairy woodpecker, downy woodpecker, blue jay, white-breastel nuthatch, chickadee.

Hemp seed. Pine grosbeak, purple finc. redpoll, goldfinch, pine siskin, vesper sparrow white-crowned sparrow, white-throated sparrow junco, song sparrow, white-breasted nuthatch. chickadee.

Viliet seed. Purple finch, red poll, goldfinch pine siskin, vesper sparrow, white-throatesparrow, tree sparrow, chipping sparrow, junc song sparrow, fox sparrow.

Cracked corn. Shore lark, blue jay,crow, SICH bunting, lapland longspur, tree sparrow, junci. cardinal grosbeak, white-breasted nuthatch.

Bread crumbs. Blue jay, crow, tree sparroa,

[graphic][graphic][merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small]

white-crowned sparrow, junco, cardinal gros- hatch, tufted titmouse, chickadee. Of these beak, mocking-bird, brown creeper, chickadee. the writer has had five come to him for

Broken nuts. Blue jay, white-crowned spar- food. One severe winter when the pine row, junco, cardinal grosbeak, white-breasted

grosbeaks came down from the north in nuthatch, red-breasted nuthatch, tufted titmouse,

great numbers, we fed hundreds of them in chickadee. Dog biscuit crumbs. Blue jay, snow bunting,

the gardens of Meriden, and not only the tree sparrow, junco, white-breasted nuthatch,

writer and Mrs. Baynes, but several other chickadee.

bird lovers, fed them as they sat on hand or Sunflower seeds. Blue jay, purple finch, gold- shoulder. They were so tame that one could finch, white-breasted nuthatch, chickadee. sit down in the middle of a flock and they

Chaff. Quail, shore !ark, Lapland longspur, would come into one's lap to feed. They snow bunting, tree sparrow.

would alight upon the heads of children Oats. Quail, ruffed grouse, yellow-headed watching them, and sometimes they allowed blackbird, snow bunting, chickadee.

Mrs. Baynes to pick them up one in each IV hole corn. Blue jay, crow, white-breasted

hand. They seemed to prefer hemp seed to nuthatch, chickadee. Canary seed. Goldfinch, vesper sparrow,

any other food we offered. junco, song sparrow.

I have already spoken of the crossbills Doughnut crumbs. Blue jay, crow, white

which one winter came to us in Meriden. breasted nuthatch, chickadee.

A few—six or eight—had been coming most Il'heat. Quail, ruffed grouse.

of the summer to the garden path. Two Broken squash seed. White-breasted nut- or three were American and the rest white batch, chickadee.

winged crossbills. They crept about, quiet Salt, salt water, and mud impregnated with as mice, eating something, but just what it salt. White-winged crossbill, American crossbill.

was I could not tell until they had been here The author is very well aware that the for some time. Then one day, after watch above lists are not complete, either with ing them at work for several minutes, I took regard to the kinds of food which the winter a magnifying-glass and went down on my birds will eat or with regard to the kinds of knees to see what there might be there to birds which will eat the foods which are men- attract them. I found that they had been tioned. These lists can be made complete working on a patch of clay, the surface of only as a result of the careful experiments of which had been carved in every direction many observers working for a considerable with their sharp bills. As there were no period over a wide territory. At present chips,” I knew that these must have been they are as complete as can be made from eaten, so I tasted the clay to see why they records compiled by Gilbert H. Trafton, by had eaten it. It was very salty, the result the author himself, and by other members of of scattering salt on the path to kill the the Meriden Bird Club. They will enable weeds. A few days later my friend Fredthe reader to make a fair start, and he can eric H. Kennard came to see me, and, obthen experiment for himself as much as time serving the crossbills, ran into the house for and inclination will permit.:

some salt, of which he had often observed To those who will have a little patience their fondness. The flock continued to grow some of the most delightful experiences will until midwinter, when it numbered about a come from having birds so fearless that they hundred and twenty-five. We went out to will alight on the hand or shoulder or permit play with them for a while almost every day, one to pick them up. To those who have and by and by they seemed to look for our had no experience in feeding wild birds, and coming. We would sit on the well-trampled who are inclined to doubt that such experi- snow we had prepared for their feeding ences will ever come to them, I will say that ground, and from the trees about us the it is simply a matter of being very quiet and would come down in a musical shower ti gentle with your feathered guests, of being alight upon our heads and shoulders and in patient with them, and of using a little thought feed from our hands. It was such fun tha: and ingenuity. At least eleven species of our sometimes, even when the thermometer regis winter birds have been known to feed from tered from ten to fifteen degrees below zero, the hand. They are: Canada jay, Oregon we would sit there banding them, photo jay, evening grosbeak, pine grosbeak, graphing them, or often simply watching white-winged crossbill, redpoll, pine siskin, them until we were almost too numb white-breasted nuthatch, red-breasted nut- get up

A NEGRO CITY IN NEW

NEW YORK

BY E. F. DYCKOFF

It was

I

N one district in New York City a Negro this section ten or twelve years ago.

population equal in numbers to the Payton's theory that living conditions equal

inhabitants of Dallas, Texas, or Spring- to those available for the white man were field, Massachusetts, lives, works, and pur- what the Negro needed to give him the sues its ideals almost as a separate entity realization of white progress and white standfrom the great surrounding metropolis. Here ards. Negro merchants ply their trade ; Negro pro- Payton first bought three tenements. At fessional men follow their various vocations; that time a wealthy syndicate of whites their children are educated; the poor, sick, owned a near-by tract, knɔwn as Olympic and orphan of the race are cared for ; Field, where athletic meets had been held churches, newspapers, and banks Aourish

for several years.

The syndicate intended heedless of those, outside this Negro commu- cutting the tract into building lots, and, thinknity, who resent its presence in a white city. ing to improve their selling chances, bought The progress which the Negroes have made the tenements controlled by Payton and in their own district is indeed little understood evicted the Negroes. But Payton and anby those who, fearing the encroachment of a other Negro, J. C. Thomas, thereupon bought Negro slum, have done their best to thwart three other tenements on the same block and the growth and the progress of New York evicted the whites. The result of this skirmish Negroes in obtaining better housing and liv- was merely an exchange of tenants. After ing conditions and opportunities for racial a series of shrewd business dealings in which advancement for the responsible colored peo the syndicate was worsted, the Negroes were ple of New York City. That this prejudice left in possession of the nucleus of their manifested by their white neighbors is largely future community, and Payton's dream of unwarranted both on moral and economic progress among his people had begun to be grounds may be seen from a rehearsal of the realized. The Negro section proper now facts.

extends for ten blocks between Seventh and If one stands at the corner of One Hundred Park Avenues, with a generous fringe of and Thirty-fifth Street and Fifth Avenue, in colored tenants reaching out in all directions four directions can be seen rows of apart- from the community center-evidence of ments or flat houses all inhabited by Negroes. quiet growth and expansion. In this comThis is virtually the center of the community. munity of tenements and apartments are The houses are in good repair ; windows, about fifteen hundred private houses of very entrances, halls, sidewalks, and streets are good grade. One prominent member of the clean, and the houses comfortable and settlement recently paid fifty thousand dollars respectable inside to a degree not often for one of these. The most prosperous of found in a workingman's locality. The the Negroes, however, do not all live in ground floor of the buildings in every case is private houses, by any means, since the occupied by a store or business office. Here apartment-houses, as in similar white districts and there one sees the name of some Nation- in New York City, offer equal advantages ally known firm whose agent, always a Negro, for good living has opened a branch business among the Examples of Negroes who have attained people of his own race. From the juncture success in this community may be found of One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Street and in Mr. George W. Harris, a Negro who Fifth Avenue can be seen the business signs worked his way through Harvard Uniof Negroes and Negro firms whose holdings versity and two years in the Harvard Law and interests reach an aggregate of four mill- School. Mr. Harris is editor of “ The ion dollars.

News,” a paper whose entire staff of twelve Philip A. Payton, a Negro and a wealthy men are aii colored. Among these twelve real estate operator, may be rightly termed are Fenton Johnson, a writer of verse the father of this Negro community, since it and a recent graduate of the University of was he who, despite violent opposition, first Chicago; the sporting editor, Leslie Pollard, installed his people in tenement property in who as a Dartmouth student was rated as a

men

[graphic]

J. ROSAMOND JOHNSON, DIRECTOR OF THE MUSIC SCHOOL SETTLEMENT

Mr. Johnson is a member of the New England Conservatory lege of Physicians and Surgeons, Long Island they manage for individual owners some Medical College, and the Flower Hospital seventy-five to eighty separate parcels of real School are all represented. One West Indian estate, and collect over thirty-five thousand who is resident in the community was a dollars a month in rent. St. Philip's Church, student at Oxford.

built, by the way, from the plans of a Negro In the legal fraternity there are fifteen architect, was erected a few years ago at a lawyers from Harvard, Yale, Syracuse, Colum- cost in land and building of $255,000. It bia, the New York Law School, and North- carries a mortgage now of only twenty-nine western University. One of these men is a thousand dollars. In addition to this the deputy Assistant District Attorney for New church owns a block of ten apartment-houses York County, and one is Assistant Corpora- valued at $620,000. These carried a morttion Counsel for the city of New York. gage of $393,000 in April, 1911, when they

There are eight dentists from Howard and were acquired by the church; this has since New York Dental Colleges, two architects been reduced to $311,000. From this and from Cornell University, four registered other property owned by the church is derived

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